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Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet 2019 University of Western Ontario

Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet

Western Research Forum

Background:

In chronic HIV patients, the viral populations are genetically diverse due to mutations introduced by the viral reverse transcriptase during HIV replication. However, more than 80% new infections result from single transmission founder (TF) viruses; therefore, targeting the TFs is key to control AIDS worldwide.

Gp120 is a glycosylated envelope protein required for HIV infection, propagation, and transmission. Glycans on gp120 influence HIV infectivity through their interactions with lectins, the carbohydrate-binding immune proteins in the host mucosa. To transmit sexually, viruses must overcome the lectin traps to access more target T cells.

Hypothesis:

TF viruses are less likely to ...


Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang

Kurt Piepenbrink

Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a severe global disease burden, and a vaccine can substantially reduce its incidence. Due to its extremely high sequence variability, HCV can readily escape the immune response; thus, an effective vaccine must target conserved, functionally important epitopes. Using the structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody in complex with a conserved linear epitope from the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (residues 412 to 423; epitope I), we performed structure-based design of immunogens to induce antibody responses to this epitope. This resulted in epitope-based immunogens based on a cyclic defensin protein, as ...


Trim5alpha Restricts Flavivirus Replication By Targeting The Viral Protease For Proteasomal Degradation, Abhilash I. Chiramel, Nicholas R. Meyerson, Kristin L. McNally, Rebecca M. Broeckel, Vanessa R. Montoya, Omayra Mendez-Solis, Shelly J. Robertson, Gail L. Sturdevant, Kirk J. Lubick, Vinod Nair, Brian H. Youseff, Robin M. Ireland, Catharine M. Bosio, Kyusik Kim, Jeremy Luban, Vanessa M. Hirsch, R. Travis Taylor, Fadila Bouamr, Sara L. Sawyer, Sonja M. Best 2019 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Trim5alpha Restricts Flavivirus Replication By Targeting The Viral Protease For Proteasomal Degradation, Abhilash I. Chiramel, Nicholas R. Meyerson, Kristin L. Mcnally, Rebecca M. Broeckel, Vanessa R. Montoya, Omayra Mendez-Solis, Shelly J. Robertson, Gail L. Sturdevant, Kirk J. Lubick, Vinod Nair, Brian H. Youseff, Robin M. Ireland, Catharine M. Bosio, Kyusik Kim, Jeremy Luban, Vanessa M. Hirsch, R. Travis Taylor, Fadila Bouamr, Sara L. Sawyer, Sonja M. Best

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Tripartite motif-containing protein 5alpha (TRIM5alpha) is a cellular antiviral restriction factor that prevents early events in retrovirus replication. The activity of TRIM5alpha is thought to be limited to retroviruses as a result of highly specific interactions with capsid lattices. In contrast to this current understanding, we show that both human and rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha suppress replication of specific flaviviruses. Multiple viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis complex are sensitive to TRIM5alpha-dependent restriction, but mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever, dengue, and Zika viruses, are resistant. TRIM5alpha suppresses replication by binding to the viral protease NS2B/3 to promote its K48-linked ubiquitination and ...


Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor 2019 Missouri State University

Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor

MSU Graduate Theses

Uncoating is a poorly understood yet required step of HIV-1 replication that is defined as the disassembly of the viral capsid structure. The goal of this project is to characterize uncoating in C20 microglial cells. These cells are a natural target of HIV-1 that are infected to establish latent viral reservoirs and HIV-associated neurological disorders. A stable C20 cell line that expresses TRIM-CypA was established to study the kinetics of uncoating with the CsA washout assay. The expression of TRIM-CypA was confirmed by western blot and the functionality of the protein was confirmed by a viral infectivity assay. Using this ...


Cryptic Viral Infections In Benthic Biofilm Communities, Alexandra Payne 2019 William & Mary

Cryptic Viral Infections In Benthic Biofilm Communities, Alexandra Payne

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the most ubiquitous biological entities on earth, viruses have important impacts on aquatic microbial ecology and have been studied at length in the global ocean. However, the role of bacteriophage in lotic ecosystems, particularly in benthic biofilms, have been largely under studied. Streams and rivers play crucial roles in global carbon cycling, with over 2 x 1015 g C turned over each year, and benthic biofilms appear to be hotspots of microbial activities like organic carbon transformations. Given this importance of lotic ecosystems and the known impacts of viruses in other aquatic systems, investigating the ecology of viruses ...


Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Open Access Articles

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Lassa virus is an arenavirus causing a disseminated systemic primary viral infection. This virus causes Lassa fever which is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people each year. There is a possibility for the Lassa virus to be introduced into the US and used as a biological weapon with the potential to harm a large-scale population. Because of increasing international travel, a sizeable burden from the disease, and its potential use for biological warfare, it is necessary to develop sensitive diagnostic assays to accurately detect virus infections and mitigate ...


Properties Of A Genetically Unique Mycobacteriophage, Amanda K. Staples 2019 Western Kentucky University

Properties Of A Genetically Unique Mycobacteriophage, Amanda K. Staples

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bacteriophage MooMoo is a temperate phage that was isolated and propagated on Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smeg). It typically produces turbid plaques, however spontaneous clear plaque mutants can be readily isolated. Both turbid (MooMoo-T) and clear plaque (MooMoo-C) formers can establish stable lysogens, but the parental turbid plaque forming phage has a higher lysogenic frequency. The phage repressor protein typically plays the central role in regulating the lysis/lysogeny decision. Therefore, we expected that the mutation responsible for the clear plaque phenotype would be located in the repressor gene. Remarkably, whole genome sequencing detected a single base pair mutation in the ...


A Human Papillomavirus-Independent Cervical Cancer Animal Model Reveals Unconventional Mechanisms Of Cervical Carcinogenesis, Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Peter C. Angeletti, Guohua Hua, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Paul F. Lambert, Bo R. Rueda, John S. Davis, Cheng Wang 2019 Massachusetts General Hospital & University of Nebraska Medical Center & Huazhong Agricultural University

A Human Papillomavirus-Independent Cervical Cancer Animal Model Reveals Unconventional Mechanisms Of Cervical Carcinogenesis, Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Peter C. Angeletti, Guohua Hua, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Paul F. Lambert, Bo R. Rueda, John S. Davis, Cheng Wang

Virology Papers

HPV infections are common in healthy women and only rarely cause cervical cancer, suggesting that individual genetic susceptibility may play a critical role in the establishment of persistent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer. Here, we provide convincing in vitro and in vivo evidence showing that differential expression and activation of YAP1 oncogene determine individual susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis. We found that hyperactivation of YAP1 in mouse cervical epithelium was sufficient to induce invasive cervical cancer. Cervical epithelial cell-specific HPV16 E6/E7 and YAP1 double-knockin mouse model demonstrated that high-risk HPV synergized with hyperactivated YAP1 ...


Host Lipids In Positive-Strand Rna Virus Genome Replication, Zhenlu Zhang, Guijuan He, Natalie A. Filipowicz, Glenn Randall, George A. Belov, Benjamin G. Kopek, Xiaofeng Wang 2019 Shandong Agricultural University / Virginia Tech

Host Lipids In Positive-Strand Rna Virus Genome Replication, Zhenlu Zhang, Guijuan He, Natalie A. Filipowicz, Glenn Randall, George A. Belov, Benjamin G. Kopek, Xiaofeng Wang

Faculty Publications

Membrane association is a hallmark of the genome replication of positive-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses]. All well-studied (+)RNA viruses remodel host membranes and lipid metabolism through orchestrated virus-host interactions to create a suitable microenvironment to survive and thrive in host cells. Recent research has shown that host lipids, as major components of cellular membranes, play key roles in the replication of multiple (+)RNA viruses. This review focuses on how (+)RNA viruses manipulate host lipid synthesis and metabolism to facilitate their genomic RNA replication, and how interference with the cellular lipid metabolism affects viral replication.


Viral Infection Or Ifn-Alpha Alters Mitotic Spindle Orientation By Modulating Pericentrin Levels, William M. McDougall, Jill Perreira, Hui-Fang Hung, Anastassiia Vertii, E. Xiaofei, Wendy Zimmerman, Timothy F. Kowalik, Stephen J. Doxsey, Abraham L. Brass 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Viral Infection Or Ifn-Alpha Alters Mitotic Spindle Orientation By Modulating Pericentrin Levels, William M. Mcdougall, Jill Perreira, Hui-Fang Hung, Anastassiia Vertii, E. Xiaofei, Wendy Zimmerman, Timothy F. Kowalik, Stephen J. Doxsey, Abraham L. Brass

Open Access Articles

Congenital microcephaly occurs in utero during Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The single-gene disorder, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), also leads to microcephaly and is concomitant with a decrease in the centrosomal protein, pericentrin (PCNT). This protein is a known contributor of mitotic spindle misorientation and ultimately, microcephaly. Similar to MOPDII, either viral infection or interferon (IFN)-alpha exposure reduced PCNT levels at the mitotic spindle poles. We unexpectedly found that infection of cells with any one of a diverse set of viruses, such as ZIKV, dengue virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza A virus, or hepatitis B virus, or treatment of ...


A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 9 Domain (Adam9) Is A Major Susceptibility Factor In The Early Stages Of Encephalomyocarditis Virus Infection, Lindsey E. Bazzone, Michael King, Christopher R. MacKay, Pyae Phyo Kyawe, Paul Meraner, Daniel Lindstrom, Joselyn Rojas-Quintero, Caroline A. Owen, Jennifer P. Wang, Abraham L. Brass, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Robert W. Finberg 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 9 Domain (Adam9) Is A Major Susceptibility Factor In The Early Stages Of Encephalomyocarditis Virus Infection, Lindsey E. Bazzone, Michael King, Christopher R. Mackay, Pyae Phyo Kyawe, Paul Meraner, Daniel Lindstrom, Joselyn Rojas-Quintero, Caroline A. Owen, Jennifer P. Wang, Abraham L. Brass, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Robert W. Finberg

Open Access Articles

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a picornavirus that produces lytic infections in murine and human cells. Employing a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen to find host factors required for EMCV infection, we identified a role for ADAM9 in EMCV infection. CRISPR-mediated deletion of ADAM9 in multiple human cell lines rendered the cells highly resistant to EMCV infection and cell death. Primary fibroblasts from ADAM9 KO mice were also strongly resistant to EMCV infection and cell death. In contrast, ADAM9 KO and WT cells were equally susceptible to infection with other viruses, including the picornavirus Coxsackie virus B. ADAM9 KO cells failed to ...


No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez

Open Access Articles

Macrophage (mac)-tropic human immnunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immnunodeficiency virus (SIV) in brain are associated with neurological disease. Mac-tropic HIV-1 evolves enhanced CD4 interactions that enable macrophage infection via CD4, which is in low abundance. In contrast, mac-tropic SIV is associated with CD4-independent infection via direct CCR5 binding. Recently, mac-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) from macaque brain was also reported to infect cells via CCR5 without CD4. Since SHIV envelope proteins (Envs) are derived from HIV-1, we tested more than 100 HIV-1 clade B Envs for infection of CD4-negative, CCR5(+) Cf2Th/CCR5 cells. However, no infection was ...


Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 Blocks Fusion Of Sensitive But Not Resistant Viruses By Partitioning Into Virus-Carrying Endosomes, Krishna C. Suddala, Christine C. Lee, Paul Meraner, Mariana Marin, Ruben M. Markosyan, Tanay M. Desai, Fredric S. Cohen, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan 2019 Emory University

Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 Blocks Fusion Of Sensitive But Not Resistant Viruses By Partitioning Into Virus-Carrying Endosomes, Krishna C. Suddala, Christine C. Lee, Paul Meraner, Mariana Marin, Ruben M. Markosyan, Tanay M. Desai, Fredric S. Cohen, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan

Open Access Articles

Late endosome-resident interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits fusion of diverse viruses, including Influenza A virus (IAV), by a poorly understood mechanism. Despite the broad antiviral activity of IFITM3, viruses like Lassa virus (LASV), are fully resistant to its inhibitory effects. It is currently unclear whether resistance arises from a highly efficient fusion machinery that is capable of overcoming IFITM3 restriction or the ability to enter from cellular sites devoid of this factor. Here, we constructed and validated a functional IFITM3 tagged with EGFP or other fluorescent proteins. This breakthrough allowed live cell imaging of virus co-trafficking and fusion with ...


Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The capsids of double-stranded DNA viruses protect the viral genome from the harsh extracellular environment, while maintaining stability against the high internal pressure of packaged DNA. To elucidate how capsids maintain stability in an extreme environment, we used cryoelectron microscopy to determine the capsid structure of the thermostable phage P74-26. We find the P74-26 capsid exhibits an overall architecture that is very similar to those of other tailed bacteriophages, allowing us to directly compare structures to derive the structural basis for enhanced stability. Our structure reveals lasso-like interactions that appear to function like catch bonds. This architecture allows the capsid ...


Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang 2019 University of Kentucky

Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV) is the type species of the genus nucleorhabdovirus which is typified by its nucleotropic characters of the members. The virus accomplishes its replication and morphogenesis in the nuclei of infected cells. Two strains, Constricta strain (CYDV) and Sanguinolenta strain (SYDV) have been described at the level of vector-specificity. CYDV is vectored by Agallia constricta and SYDV is transmitted by Aceratagllia sanguinolenta. The full-length genome of CYDV was sequenced. The 12,792 nt antisense genome encodes seven open reading frames in the order of, nucleocapsid protein (N), unknown protein (X), phosphoprotein (P), movement protein (Y), matrix ...


Development And Evaluation Of Nonradioactive Methods For Monitoring T Lymphocyte Response To Equine Arteritis Virus (Eav) In Horses, Annet Kyomuhangi 2019 University of Kentucky

Development And Evaluation Of Nonradioactive Methods For Monitoring T Lymphocyte Response To Equine Arteritis Virus (Eav) In Horses, Annet Kyomuhangi

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Target cell lysis is the hallmark of immune effector responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), natural killer (NK) cells, and monocytes. The most commonly used assay to measure target cell lysis is the 51Cr release assay and is considered the ‘gold standard’. However, this assay has many disadvantages that limit its use by most laboratories. Thus, several alternative assays have been developed. Some of these alternative assays are more sensitive, easy to perform and do not use radioactive elements.

In this study, four of these assays were evaluated for their ability to detect antigen- specific CTL responses in equine blood ...


Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling 2019 Tulane National Primate Research Center

Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling

Virology Papers

Understanding HIV latent reservoirs in tissues is essential for the development of new strategies targeting these sites for eradication. Here, we assessed the size of latent reservoirs and the source of residual viruses in multiple lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected and fully suppressed rhesus macaques of Chinese-origin (cRMs). Eight cRMs were infected with SIVmac251 and treated with tenofovir and emtricitabine daily for 24 weeks initiated 4 weeks post-infection. Four of the eight animals reached sustained full viral suppression with undetectable viremia. The levels of cell-associated SIV DNA varied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and multiple lymphoid tissues, but with higher ...


Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Nearly all cervical cancers are causally associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The burden of HPV-associated dysplasias in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by HIV. To investigate the role of the bacterial microbiome in cervical dysplasia, cytobrush samples were collected directly from cervical lesions of 144 Tanzanian women. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and deep sequenced. Alpha diversity metrics (Chao1, PD whole tree, and operational taxonomic unit [OTU] estimates) displayed significantly higher bacterial richness in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.01) than in HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, there was higher bacterial richness in patients with high-grade ...


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