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Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phylum with no representatives in pure culture, is found in various anaerobic environments worldwide. “Caldatribacterium”, a lineage within Atribacteria that is predicted to be a strictly anaerobic sugar fermenter based on cultivation-independent genomic analyses, is currently being maintained in lab enrichment cultures with fucose as its sole growth substrate. Metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing indicated that the fucose culture was a co-culture of “Caldatribacterium” and an uncultivated member of the genus Thermodesulfobacterium. Due to failed attempts to isolate “Caldatribacterium” by dilution-to-extinction and plating, it was hypothesized that “Caldatribacterium” is dependent in some way on the ...


Tungsten Is Essential For Long-Term Maintenance Of Members Of Candidate Archaeal Genus Aigarchaeota Group 4, Joshua Robert Reyes Dimapilis 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

Tungsten Is Essential For Long-Term Maintenance Of Members Of Candidate Archaeal Genus Aigarchaeota Group 4, Joshua Robert Reyes Dimapilis

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Aigarchaeota, a deeply branching archaeal lineage with no cultivated representatives, is found in geothermal and hydrothermal systems worldwide and consists of at least 9 genus-level groups, each predicted to have diverse metabolic capabilities. This candidate archaeal phylum is part of the TACK superphylum, members of which possess eukaryotic-signature proteins, thus suggesting that they may represent evolutionary steps along the way to the genesis of the first eukaryotic cells. Cultivating members of Aigarchaeota would elucidate how eukaryotes arose in evolutionary history and provide biotechnological applications. Aigarchaeota Group 4 (AigG4), one genus in Aigarchaeota, was previously found to be abundant in corn ...


Using Single-Cell Sorting, Fish And 13c-Labeling To Cultivate And Assess Carbon Substrate Utilization Of ‘Aigarchaeota’ And Other Novel Thermophiles, Damon Kurtis Mosier 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Using Single-Cell Sorting, Fish And 13c-Labeling To Cultivate And Assess Carbon Substrate Utilization Of ‘Aigarchaeota’ And Other Novel Thermophiles, Damon Kurtis Mosier

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

‘Aigarchaeota’, a deeply branching lineage in the domain Archaea with no cultivated representatives, includes both thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms that reside in terrestrial and marine geothermal environments. The ‘Aigarchaeota’ consists of at least nine proposed genus-level groups that have been confirmed via 16S rRNA sequencing, with ‘Aigarchaeota’ Group 1 (AigG1) being the focus of this study. Based on cultivation-independent genomic data available from several AigG1 members in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, and Yellowstone National Park, 22 different types of growth media were designed and tested for their ability to support growth of AigG1. One of these cultures, G1-10, was ...


Are Microclimate Conditions In El Malpais National Monument Caves In New Mexico, Usa Suitable For Pseudogymnoascus Growth?, Terry J. Torres-Cruz, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Nicole A. Caimi, Ogochukwu Nwabologu, Edward W. Strach, Kaitlyn J.H. Read, Jesse M. Young, Debbie C. Buecher, Diana E. Northup 2019 Western Illinois University

Are Microclimate Conditions In El Malpais National Monument Caves In New Mexico, Usa Suitable For Pseudogymnoascus Growth?, Terry J. Torres-Cruz, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Nicole A. Caimi, Ogochukwu Nwabologu, Edward W. Strach, Kaitlyn J.H. Read, Jesse M. Young, Debbie C. Buecher, Diana E. Northup

International Journal of Speleology

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a bat disease caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which thrives in cold and very humid environments where bats frequently hibernate. Conidia of Pseudogymnoascus species are often documented on bats prior to the onset of WNS, but characterization of high-risk areas defined by microclimate cave conditions have been lacking. Investigating the occurrence of this fungal genus and appropriate environmental conditions to support P. destructans in southwestern U.S. caves is key to understanding the sites most likely to be impacted by WNS. Microclimate conditions in ten caves at El Malpais (ELMA) National Monument in New ...


Cd21 And Cd24 Co-Expression: A Translational Model Between Mouse And Human, Abigail Benitez 2019 Selected Works

Cd21 And Cd24 Co-Expression: A Translational Model Between Mouse And Human, Abigail Benitez

Abigail Benitez, PhD

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis are B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases that afflict millions of people worldwide. B cell-targeted therapies for these diseases result in variable clinical outcomes. Thus, a need exists to better understand the dynamics of human B cell production and function. The mouse model has provided a foundation for understanding the mechanisms involved in human B cell development and autoimmune disease. However, differences in mouse and human B cells are not fully understood. Our work shows that the co-expression of CD21 and CD24, determined by 7-color flow cytometry, can be used to demarcate developmental subsets of B ...


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker 2019 Southern Methodist University

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...


Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


Excellence By Simplicity: Life And Contributions Of Professor Ramesh Maheshwari (1940-2019), Keyur Adhvaryu 2019 St. George’s University School of Medicine

Excellence By Simplicity: Life And Contributions Of Professor Ramesh Maheshwari (1940-2019), Keyur Adhvaryu

Fungal Genetics Reports

Professor Ramesh Maheshwari passed in Bangalore on 30 March 2019. His work generated fundamental understanding in diverse areas of fungal biology including the germination and infection of plants by rust fungi, the life-cycle of Neurospora in its natural habitat; fungal senescence and heterokaryosis, and the production of microconidia in fungi. He was a member of many professional societies including the American Society of Plant Physiologists, Society of Microbiologists of India, and the Indian Phytopathological Society, and he served on the Editorial Board for Journal of Genetics. He nurtured scientific curiosity in his students and colleagues.


Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet 2019 University of Western Ontario

Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet

Western Research Forum

Background:

In chronic HIV patients, the viral populations are genetically diverse due to mutations introduced by the viral reverse transcriptase during HIV replication. However, more than 80% new infections result from single transmission founder (TF) viruses; therefore, targeting the TFs is key to control AIDS worldwide.

Gp120 is a glycosylated envelope protein required for HIV infection, propagation, and transmission. Glycans on gp120 influence HIV infectivity through their interactions with lectins, the carbohydrate-binding immune proteins in the host mucosa. To transmit sexually, viruses must overcome the lectin traps to access more target T cells.

Hypothesis:

TF viruses are less likely to ...


Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis In Methanogens, Cuiping Zhao 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis In Methanogens, Cuiping Zhao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Methanogens live in a syntrophic consortium with bacteria, taking advantage of the metabolic abilities of their syntrophic partners to overcome energetic barriers and break down compounds that they cannot digest by themselves. Interspecies electron transfer, which is a major type of microbial communication in syntrophic processes, improves methanogenesis and anaerobic oxidization of methane (AOM) processes involved in syntrophic consortia. These processes have a significant impact on the global carbon cycle. Most of the essential enzymes involved in methanogenesis are iron-sulfur proteins. Iron-sulfur clusters are one of the oldest and most versatile cofactors present in all domains of life. To date ...


High-Resolution Cryo-Em Structures Of Outbreak Strain Human Norovirus Shells Reveal Size Variations, James Jung, Timothy Grant, Dennis R. Thomas, Chris W. Diehnelt, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Leemor Joshua-Tor 2019 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

High-Resolution Cryo-Em Structures Of Outbreak Strain Human Norovirus Shells Reveal Size Variations, James Jung, Timothy Grant, Dennis R. Thomas, Chris W. Diehnelt, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Leemor Joshua-Tor

Open Access Articles

Noroviruses are a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Although GII.4 strains have been responsible for most norovirus outbreaks, the assembled virus shell structures have been available in detail for only a single strain (GI.1). We present high-resolution (2.6- to 4.1-A) cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of GII.4, GII.2, GI.7, and GI.1 human norovirus outbreak strain virus-like particles (VLPs). Although norovirus VLPs have been thought to exist in a single-sized assembly, our structures reveal polymorphism between and within genogroups, with small, medium, and large particle sizes observed. Using asymmetric reconstruction, we were able ...


Msphere Of Influence: The View From The Microbiologists Of The Future, Aaron Mitchell, Ira Blader, Patricia Bradford, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, W. Paul Duprex, Craig D. Ellermeier, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Michael J. Imperiale, Katherine McMahon, Marcela F. Pasetti, Susannah Tringe 2019 Carnegie Mellon University

Msphere Of Influence: The View From The Microbiologists Of The Future, Aaron Mitchell, Ira Blader, Patricia Bradford, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, W. Paul Duprex, Craig D. Ellermeier, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Michael J. Imperiale, Katherine Mcmahon, Marcela F. Pasetti, Susannah Tringe

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine With Overexpressed Mutant Fhbp Elicits Higher Protective Antibody Responses In Infant Rhesus Macaques Than A Licensed Serogroup B Vaccine, Peter T. Beernink, Vianca Vianzon, Lisa A. Lewis, Gregory R. Moe, Dan M. Granoff 2019 University of California, San Francisco

A Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine With Overexpressed Mutant Fhbp Elicits Higher Protective Antibody Responses In Infant Rhesus Macaques Than A Licensed Serogroup B Vaccine, Peter T. Beernink, Vianca Vianzon, Lisa A. Lewis, Gregory R. Moe, Dan M. Granoff

Open Access Articles

MenB-4C (Bexsero; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) is a licensed meningococcal vaccine for capsular B strains. The vaccine contains detergent-extracted outer membrane vesicles (dOMV) and three recombinant proteins, of which one is factor H binding protein (FHbp). In previous studies, overexpression of FHbp in native OMV (NOMV) with genetically attenuated endotoxin (LpxL1) and/or by the use of mutant FHbp antigens with low factor H (FH) binding increased serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) responses. In this study, we immunized 13 infant macaques with 2 doses of NOMV with overexpressed mutant (R41S) FHbp with low binding to macaque FH (NOMV-FHbp). Control macaques received MenB-4C (n ...


The Fatty Acid Oleate Is Required For Innate Immune Activation And Pathogen Defense In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Sarah M. Anderson, Hilary K. Cheesman, Nicholas D. Peterson, Elisabeth B. Salisbury, Alexander A. Soukas, Read Pukkila-Worley 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Fatty Acid Oleate Is Required For Innate Immune Activation And Pathogen Defense In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Sarah M. Anderson, Hilary K. Cheesman, Nicholas D. Peterson, Elisabeth B. Salisbury, Alexander A. Soukas, Read Pukkila-Worley

Open Access Articles

Fatty acids affect a number of physiological processes, in addition to forming the building blocks of membranes and body fat stores. In this study, we uncover a role for the monounsaturated fatty acid oleate in the innate immune response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From an RNAi screen for regulators of innate immune defense genes, we identified the two stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturases that synthesize oleate in C. elegans. We show that the synthesis of oleate is necessary for the pathogen-mediated induction of immune defense genes. Accordingly, C. elegans deficient in oleate production are hypersusceptible to infection with diverse human pathogens ...


Antimicrobial Susceptibility Against Metronidazole And Carbapenem In Clinical Anaerobic Isolates From Pakistan, Kauser Jabeen, Yusra Shafquat, Joveria Farooqi, Kiran Mehmood, Seema Irfan, Rumina Hasan, Afia Zafar 2019 Aga Khan University

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Against Metronidazole And Carbapenem In Clinical Anaerobic Isolates From Pakistan, Kauser Jabeen, Yusra Shafquat, Joveria Farooqi, Kiran Mehmood, Seema Irfan, Rumina Hasan, Afia Zafar

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Globally metronidazole and carbapenem resistance in anaerobic organisms is increasing necessitating continuous surveillance to guide selection of empirical treatment. In this study we have determined metronidazole resistance in anaerobes using MIC Evaluator strips (M.I.C.E strips). Carbapenem resistance was evaluated only in metronidazole resistant isolates.
Material and methods: The study was conducted at the Aga Khan University (AKU) Hospital laboratory, Karachi, Pakistan (2014–2017). Metronidazole and imipenem resistance was evaluated using M.I.C.E strips and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were interpreted using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. Clinical details including demographics, prolonged hospital stay ...


A Novel Phox/Cd38/Mcoln1/Tfeb Axis Important For Macrophage Activation During Bacterial Phagocytosis, Mehran Najibi, Joseph A. Moreau, Havisha H. Honwad, Javier E. Irazoqui 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Novel Phox/Cd38/Mcoln1/Tfeb Axis Important For Macrophage Activation During Bacterial Phagocytosis, Mehran Najibi, Joseph A. Moreau, Havisha H. Honwad, Javier E. Irazoqui

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Macrophages are a key and heterogenous class of phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, which act as sentinels in peripheral tissues and are mobilized during infection. Macrophage activation in the presence of bacterial cells and molecules entails specific and complex programs of gene expression. How such triggers elicit the gene expression programs is incompletely understood. We previously discovered that transcription factor TFEB is a key contributor to macrophage activation during bacterial phagocytosis. However, the mechanism linking phagocytosis of bacterial cells to TFEB activation remained unknown. In this article, we describe a previously unknown pathway that links phagocytosis with the ...


Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang

Kurt Piepenbrink

Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a severe global disease burden, and a vaccine can substantially reduce its incidence. Due to its extremely high sequence variability, HCV can readily escape the immune response; thus, an effective vaccine must target conserved, functionally important epitopes. Using the structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody in complex with a conserved linear epitope from the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (residues 412 to 423; epitope I), we performed structure-based design of immunogens to induce antibody responses to this epitope. This resulted in epitope-based immunogens based on a cyclic defensin protein, as ...


Hawk On Wire: Ecopoems By Scott T. Starbuck, Vivian M. Hansen 2019 University of Calgary

Hawk On Wire: Ecopoems By Scott T. Starbuck, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Scott T. Starbuck’s Hawk on Wire: Ecopoems


Trim5alpha Restricts Flavivirus Replication By Targeting The Viral Protease For Proteasomal Degradation, Abhilash I. Chiramel, Nicholas R. Meyerson, Kristin L. McNally, Rebecca M. Broeckel, Vanessa R. Montoya, Omayra Mendez-Solis, Shelly J. Robertson, Gail L. Sturdevant, Kirk J. Lubick, Vinod Nair, Brian H. Youseff, Robin M. Ireland, Catharine M. Bosio, Kyusik Kim, Jeremy Luban, Vanessa M. Hirsch, R. Travis Taylor, Fadila Bouamr, Sara L. Sawyer, Sonja M. Best 2019 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Trim5alpha Restricts Flavivirus Replication By Targeting The Viral Protease For Proteasomal Degradation, Abhilash I. Chiramel, Nicholas R. Meyerson, Kristin L. Mcnally, Rebecca M. Broeckel, Vanessa R. Montoya, Omayra Mendez-Solis, Shelly J. Robertson, Gail L. Sturdevant, Kirk J. Lubick, Vinod Nair, Brian H. Youseff, Robin M. Ireland, Catharine M. Bosio, Kyusik Kim, Jeremy Luban, Vanessa M. Hirsch, R. Travis Taylor, Fadila Bouamr, Sara L. Sawyer, Sonja M. Best

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Tripartite motif-containing protein 5alpha (TRIM5alpha) is a cellular antiviral restriction factor that prevents early events in retrovirus replication. The activity of TRIM5alpha is thought to be limited to retroviruses as a result of highly specific interactions with capsid lattices. In contrast to this current understanding, we show that both human and rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha suppress replication of specific flaviviruses. Multiple viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis complex are sensitive to TRIM5alpha-dependent restriction, but mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever, dengue, and Zika viruses, are resistant. TRIM5alpha suppresses replication by binding to the viral protease NS2B/3 to promote its K48-linked ubiquitination and ...


Potent Enhancement Of Hiv-1 Replication By Nef In The Absence Of Serinc3 And Serinc5, Yuanfei Wu, Balaji Olety, Eric R. Weiss, Elena Popova, Hikaru Yamanaka, Heinrich G. Gottlinger 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Potent Enhancement Of Hiv-1 Replication By Nef In The Absence Of Serinc3 And Serinc5, Yuanfei Wu, Balaji Olety, Eric R. Weiss, Elena Popova, Hikaru Yamanaka, Heinrich G. Gottlinger

Open Access Articles

It has recently emerged that HIV-1 Nef counteracts the antiviral host proteins SERINC3 and SERINC5. In particular, SERINC5 inhibits the infectivity of progeny virions when incorporated. SERINC3 and SERINC5 are also counteracted by the unrelated murine leukemia virus glycosylated Gag (glycoGag) protein, which possesses a potent Nef-like activity on HIV-1 infectivity. We now report that a minimal glycoGag termed glycoMA can fully substitute for Nef in promoting HIV-1 replication in Jurkat T lymphoid cells, indicating that Nef enhances replication in these cells mainly by counteracting SERINCs. In contrast, the SERINC antagonist glycoMA was unable to substitute for Nef in MOLT-3 ...


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