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Tal Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (Tale-Nt) 2.0: Tools For Tal Effector Design And Target Prediction, Erin L. Doyle, Nicholas J. Booher, Daniel S. Standage, Daniel F. Voytas, Volker P. Brendel, John K. VanDyk, Adam J. Bogdanove 2019 Iowa State University

Tal Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (Tale-Nt) 2.0: Tools For Tal Effector Design And Target Prediction, Erin L. Doyle, Nicholas J. Booher, Daniel S. Standage, Daniel F. Voytas, Volker P. Brendel, John K. Vandyk, Adam J. Bogdanove

Nicholas J. Booher

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are repeat-containing proteins used by plant pathogenic bacteria to manipulate host gene expression. Repeats are polymorphic and individually specify single nucleotides in the DNA target, with some degeneracy. A TAL effector-nucleotide binding code that links repeat type to specified nucleotide enables prediction of genomic binding sites for TAL effectors and customization of TAL effectors for use in DNA targeting, in particular as custom transcription factors for engineered gene regulation and as site-specific nucleases for genome editing. We have developed a suite of web-based tools called TAL Effector-Nucleotide Targeter 2.0 (TALE-NT 2.0;https://boglab.plp ...


Comparison Of Microbial Communities In The Sediments And Water Columns Of Frozen Cryoconite Holes In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Pacifica Sommers, John Lawrence Darcy, Dorota L. Porazinska, Eli M.S. Gendron, Andrew G. Fountain, Felix Zamora, Kim Vincent, Kaelin M. Cawley, Adam J. Solon, Lara Vimercati, Jenna Ryder, Steven K. Schmidt 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

Comparison Of Microbial Communities In The Sediments And Water Columns Of Frozen Cryoconite Holes In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Pacifica Sommers, John Lawrence Darcy, Dorota L. Porazinska, Eli M.S. Gendron, Andrew G. Fountain, Felix Zamora, Kim Vincent, Kaelin M. Cawley, Adam J. Solon, Lara Vimercati, Jenna Ryder, Steven K. Schmidt

Andrew G. Fountain

Although cryoconite holes, sediment-filled melt holes on glacier surfaces, appear small and homogenous, their microbial inhabitants may be spatially partitioned. This partitioning could be particularly important for maintaining biodiversity in holes that remain isolated for many years, such as in Antarctica. We hypothesized that cryoconite holes with greater species richness and biomass should exhibit greater partitioning between the sediments and water, promoting greater biodiversity through spatial niche partitioning. We tested this hypothesis by sampling frozen cryoconite holes along a gradient of biomass and biodiversity in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, where ice-lidded cryoconite holes are a ubiquitous feature of glaciers. We ...


Simulating Bacterial Growth, Competition, And Resistance With Agent-Based Models And Laboratory Experiments, Anne E. Yust, Davida S. Smyth 2019 The New School

Simulating Bacterial Growth, Competition, And Resistance With Agent-Based Models And Laboratory Experiments, Anne E. Yust, Davida S. Smyth

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center PostDoctoral Association 2019 The Texas Medical Center Library

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii, Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii, Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus gattii R265 is a hyper-virulent fungal strain responsible for the major outbreak of cryptococcosis in Vancouver Island of British Columbia in 1999. It differs significantly from C. neoformans in its natural environment, its preferred site in the mammalian host, and in the nature and mode of pathogenesis. Our previous studies in C. neoformans have shown that the presence of chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, in the cell wall attenuates inflammatory responses in the host, while its absence induces robust immune responses, which in turn facilitate clearance of the fungus and induces a protective response. The results of the ...


Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phylum with no representatives in pure culture, is found in various anaerobic environments worldwide. “Caldatribacterium”, a lineage within Atribacteria that is predicted to be a strictly anaerobic sugar fermenter based on cultivation-independent genomic analyses, is currently being maintained in lab enrichment cultures with fucose as its sole growth substrate. Metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing indicated that the fucose culture was a co-culture of “Caldatribacterium” and an uncultivated member of the genus Thermodesulfobacterium. Due to failed attempts to isolate “Caldatribacterium” by dilution-to-extinction and plating, it was hypothesized that “Caldatribacterium” is dependent in some way on the ...


Tungsten Is Essential For Long-Term Maintenance Of Members Of Candidate Archaeal Genus Aigarchaeota Group 4, Joshua Robert Reyes Dimapilis 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

Tungsten Is Essential For Long-Term Maintenance Of Members Of Candidate Archaeal Genus Aigarchaeota Group 4, Joshua Robert Reyes Dimapilis

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Aigarchaeota, a deeply branching archaeal lineage with no cultivated representatives, is found in geothermal and hydrothermal systems worldwide and consists of at least 9 genus-level groups, each predicted to have diverse metabolic capabilities. This candidate archaeal phylum is part of the TACK superphylum, members of which possess eukaryotic-signature proteins, thus suggesting that they may represent evolutionary steps along the way to the genesis of the first eukaryotic cells. Cultivating members of Aigarchaeota would elucidate how eukaryotes arose in evolutionary history and provide biotechnological applications. Aigarchaeota Group 4 (AigG4), one genus in Aigarchaeota, was previously found to be abundant in corn ...


Using Single-Cell Sorting, Fish And 13c-Labeling To Cultivate And Assess Carbon Substrate Utilization Of ‘Aigarchaeota’ And Other Novel Thermophiles, Damon Kurtis Mosier 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Using Single-Cell Sorting, Fish And 13c-Labeling To Cultivate And Assess Carbon Substrate Utilization Of ‘Aigarchaeota’ And Other Novel Thermophiles, Damon Kurtis Mosier

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

‘Aigarchaeota’, a deeply branching lineage in the domain Archaea with no cultivated representatives, includes both thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms that reside in terrestrial and marine geothermal environments. The ‘Aigarchaeota’ consists of at least nine proposed genus-level groups that have been confirmed via 16S rRNA sequencing, with ‘Aigarchaeota’ Group 1 (AigG1) being the focus of this study. Based on cultivation-independent genomic data available from several AigG1 members in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, and Yellowstone National Park, 22 different types of growth media were designed and tested for their ability to support growth of AigG1. One of these cultures, G1-10, was ...


Intrinsic Challenges In Ancient Microbiome Reconstruction Using 16s Rrna Gene Amplification, Kirsten Ziesemer, Allison Mann, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Bernd W. Brandt, Egija Zaura, Andrea Waters-Rist, Menno Hoogland, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Mark Aldenderfer, Camilla Speller, Jessica Hendy, Darlene A. Weston, Sandy J. MacDonald, Gavin H. Thomas, Matthew J. Collins, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Corinne Hofman, Christina Warinner 2019 Leiden University

Intrinsic Challenges In Ancient Microbiome Reconstruction Using 16s Rrna Gene Amplification, Kirsten Ziesemer, Allison Mann, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Bernd W. Brandt, Egija Zaura, Andrea Waters-Rist, Menno Hoogland, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Mark Aldenderfer, Camilla Speller, Jessica Hendy, Darlene A. Weston, Sandy J. Macdonald, Gavin H. Thomas, Matthew J. Collins, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Corinne Hofman, Christina Warinner

Andrew Ozga

To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli341–534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon ...


Differential Preservation Of Endogenous Human And Microbial Dna In Dental Calculus And Dentin, Allison E. Mann, Susanna Sabin, Kirsten Ziesemer, Ashild J. Vagene, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Courtney A. Hofman, James A. Fellows Yates, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Bruno Frohlich, Mark Aldenderfer, Menno Hoogland, Christopher Read, George R. Milner, Anne C. Stone, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Johannes Krause, Corinne Hofman, Kirsten I. Bos, Christina Warinner 2019 Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History; University of Oklahoma

Differential Preservation Of Endogenous Human And Microbial Dna In Dental Calculus And Dentin, Allison E. Mann, Susanna Sabin, Kirsten Ziesemer, Ashild J. Vagene, Hannes Schroeder, Andrew T. Ozga, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Courtney A. Hofman, James A. Fellows Yates, Domingo C. Salazar-Garcia, Bruno Frohlich, Mark Aldenderfer, Menno Hoogland, Christopher Read, George R. Milner, Anne C. Stone, Cecil M. Lewis Jr., Johannes Krause, Corinne Hofman, Kirsten I. Bos, Christina Warinner

Andrew Ozga

Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is prevalent in archaeological skeletal collections and is a rich source of oral microbiome and host-derived ancient biomolecules. Recently, it has been proposed that dental calculus may provide a more robust environment for DNA preservation than other skeletal remains, but this has not been systematically tested. In this study, shotgun-sequenced data from paired dental calculus and dentin samples from 48 globally distributed individuals are compared using a metagenomic approach. Overall, we find DNA from dental calculus is consistently more abundant and less contaminated than DNA from dentin. The majority of DNA in dental calculus is ...


The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus neoformans can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in patients with AIDS or other immune-compromising conditions. Current antifungals are suboptimal to treat this disease, therefore, novel targets and new therapies are needed. Previously, we have shown that chitosan is a critical component of the cryptococcal cell wall, is required for survival in the mammalian host, and that chitosan deficiency results in rapid clearance from the mammalian host. We had also identified several specific proteins that were required for chitosan biosynthesis, and we hypothesize that screening for compounds that inhibit chitosan biosynthesis would identify additional genes/proteins that influence chitosan biosynthesis.


Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault 2019 University of Maine

Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida yeasts are common commensals that can cause mucosal disease and life-threatening systemic infections. While many of the components required for defense against Candida albicans infection are well established, questions remain about how various host cells at mucosal sites assess threats and coordinate defenses to prevent normally commensal organisms from becoming pathogenic. Using two Candida species, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, which differ in their abilities to damage epithelial tissues, we used traditional methods (pathogen CFU, host survival, and host cytokine expression) combined with high-resolution intravital imaging of transparent zebrafish larvae to illuminate host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level in ...


Are Microclimate Conditions In El Malpais National Monument Caves In New Mexico, Usa Suitable For Pseudogymnoascus Growth?, Terry J. Torres-Cruz, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Nicole A. Caimi, Ogochukwu Nwabologu, Edward W. Strach, Kaitlyn J.H. Read, Jesse M. Young, Debbie C. Buecher, Diana E. Northup 2019 Western Illinois University

Are Microclimate Conditions In El Malpais National Monument Caves In New Mexico, Usa Suitable For Pseudogymnoascus Growth?, Terry J. Torres-Cruz, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Nicole A. Caimi, Ogochukwu Nwabologu, Edward W. Strach, Kaitlyn J.H. Read, Jesse M. Young, Debbie C. Buecher, Diana E. Northup

International Journal of Speleology

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a bat disease caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which thrives in cold and very humid environments where bats frequently hibernate. Conidia of Pseudogymnoascus species are often documented on bats prior to the onset of WNS, but characterization of high-risk areas defined by microclimate cave conditions have been lacking. Investigating the occurrence of this fungal genus and appropriate environmental conditions to support P. destructans in southwestern U.S. caves is key to understanding the sites most likely to be impacted by WNS. Microclimate conditions in ten caves at El Malpais (ELMA) National Monument in New ...


Rig-I-Like Receptors Direct Inflammatory Macrophage Polarization Against West Nile Virus Infection., Amy E. L. Stone, Richard Green, Courtney Wilkins, Emily A. Hemann, Michael Gale Jr. 2019 Touro University Nevada

Rig-I-Like Receptors Direct Inflammatory Macrophage Polarization Against West Nile Virus Infection., Amy E. L. Stone, Richard Green, Courtney Wilkins, Emily A. Hemann, Michael Gale Jr.

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUN) Publications and Research

RIG-I-Like Receptors (RLRs) RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2, are vital pathogen recognition receptors in the defense against RNA viruses. West Nile Virus (WNV) infections continue to grow in the US. Here, we use a systems biology approach to define the contributions of each RLR in the innate immune response to WNV. Genome-wide RNAseq and bioinformatics analyses of macrophages from mice lacking either RLR reveal that the RLRs drive distinct immune gene activation and response polarization to mediate an M1/inflammatory signature while suppressing the M2/wound healing phenotype. While LGP2 functions to modulate inflammatory signaling, RIG-I and MDA5 together are essential ...


16s Rrna Analysis And Toxin Gene Presence In Escherichia Coli Isolated From Beach Water And Sand At A Public Beach (Erie County, Ny), Jennifer D. Jackson 2019 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

16s Rrna Analysis And Toxin Gene Presence In Escherichia Coli Isolated From Beach Water And Sand At A Public Beach (Erie County, Ny), Jennifer D. Jackson

Biology Theses

Every year, thousands of people utilize beaches for recreation, but most are unaware of Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination and the possibility of acquiring an infection. In this study, 173 strains of E. coli were isolated from sand and adjacent waters from a public beach in Erie County, NY and analyzed for genetic relatedness based on sequence differences in the variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Some of the variable regions (V1 and V6) proved useful in constructing phylogenetic trees but the discriminatory power of these regions was inadequate to resolve intraspecies differences. Therefore, whether extant populations of E ...


Cd21 And Cd24 Co-Expression: A Translational Model Between Mouse And Human, Abigail Benitez 2019 Selected Works

Cd21 And Cd24 Co-Expression: A Translational Model Between Mouse And Human, Abigail Benitez

Abigail Benitez, PhD

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis are B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases that afflict millions of people worldwide. B cell-targeted therapies for these diseases result in variable clinical outcomes. Thus, a need exists to better understand the dynamics of human B cell production and function. The mouse model has provided a foundation for understanding the mechanisms involved in human B cell development and autoimmune disease. However, differences in mouse and human B cells are not fully understood. Our work shows that the co-expression of CD21 and CD24, determined by 7-color flow cytometry, can be used to demarcate developmental subsets of B ...


Common Variants In The Glycerol Kinase Gene Reduce Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy, Michelle M. Bellerose, Seung-Hun Baek, Chuan-Chin Huang, Caitlin E. Moss, Eun-Ik Koh, Megan K. Proulx, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Jong Seok Lee, Seokyong Eum, Sung Jae Shin, Sang-Nae Cho, Megan Murray, Christopher M. Sassetti 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Common Variants In The Glycerol Kinase Gene Reduce Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy, Michelle M. Bellerose, Seung-Hun Baek, Chuan-Chin Huang, Caitlin E. Moss, Eun-Ik Koh, Megan K. Proulx, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Jong Seok Lee, Seokyong Eum, Sung Jae Shin, Sang-Nae Cho, Megan Murray, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Despite the administration of multiple drugs that are highly effective in vitro, tuberculosis (TB) treatment requires prolonged drug administration and is confounded by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. To understand the mechanisms that limit antibiotic efficacy, we performed a comprehensive genetic study to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes that alter the rate of bacterial clearance in drug-treated mice. Several functionally distinct bacterial genes were found to alter bacterial clearance, and prominent among these was the glpK gene that encodes the glycerol-3-kinase enzyme that is necessary for glycerol catabolism. Growth on glycerol generally increased the sensitivity of M. tuberculosis to antibiotics in ...


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker 2019 Southern Methodist University

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...


Teaching In A Competitive Science-Focused High School, Crystal Randall 2019 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Teaching In A Competitive Science-Focused High School, Crystal Randall

Faculty Publications & Research

• What is IMSA?
What students do we serve, our role in the school system
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Responsibilities, course load, students, teaching philosophies, resources
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Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


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