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Cryptic Viral Infections In Benthic Biofilm Communities, Alexandra Payne 2019 College of William and Mary

Cryptic Viral Infections In Benthic Biofilm Communities, Alexandra Payne

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the most ubiquitous biological entities on earth, viruses have important impacts on aquatic microbial ecology and have been studied at length in the global ocean. However, the role of bacteriophage in lotic ecosystems, particularly in benthic biofilms, have been largely under studied. Streams and rivers play crucial roles in global carbon cycling, with over 2 x 1015 g C turned over each year, and benthic biofilms appear to be hotspots of microbial activities like organic carbon transformations. Given this importance of lotic ecosystems and the known impacts of viruses in other aquatic systems, investigating the ecology of viruses ...


Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr. 2019 Chapman University

Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr.

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Chia (Salvia Hispanica) cross breeds were planted in the summer of 2018 with the intent of selective breeding for agricultural benefit. Preexisting pathogens in the soil caused 40-50% fatality of adult plants. This was surprising due to the precursory knowledge that chia has antibiotic and antifungal oils (Elshafie et. al. 2018); chia was only recently documented to be susceptible to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum). The primary pathogen responsible was identified as Macrophomina phaseolina (aka charcoal rot); a widespread soilborne pathogen which has multiple commercial hosts (Su et. al. 2001).

M. phaesolina on wheat seed vector where used as inoculums (Brandari ...


Characterization Of Microtubule Organizing Centers In The Genus Protostelium, Including Evolutionary Implications, Ethan Taylor Ozment 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Microtubule Organizing Centers In The Genus Protostelium, Including Evolutionary Implications, Ethan Taylor Ozment

Theses and Dissertations

Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) are cellular regions of microtubule nucleation. The best known MTOCs are those associated with the centrosome, but several non-centrosomal MTOCs are known in eukaryotes, especially in land plants. MTOCs are poorly characterized across the breadth of amoebozoan diversity, but are well-known in certain amoebozoan lineages, including the genus of protosteloid slime molds Protostelium. The structure of the MTOC is known for two non-ciliated species, P. nocturnum and P. mycophaga, as well as P. aurantium, which can reversibly become ciliated under appropriate conditions. P. nocturnum and P. mycophaga have acentriolar centrosomal MTOCs while P. aurantium has a ...


The Contribution Of Foliar Fungi To Agricultural Soil Microbiomes In An Organic Cropping System., Derek R. Newberger 2019 University of San Francisco

The Contribution Of Foliar Fungi To Agricultural Soil Microbiomes In An Organic Cropping System., Derek R. Newberger

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

With finite arable land available to support a growing human population, sustainable agricultural techniques are increasingly needed to provide long-term food security. Traditionally, the focus of using cover crops as a technique in organic agriculture has been on the improved nutrient and physical properties of soil that result from their use. However, recent technological developments in sequencing have enabled a new window into the benefits of plant microbiomes in agriculture that extend beyond these traditionally touted effects. This project will investigate one relatively under-described effect of using cover cropping systems – the transfer of microbes from plants to soil. Specifically, I ...


Searching For Megaviruses In Iceland, Delanie Baker 2019 Ohio Wesleyan University

Searching For Megaviruses In Iceland, Delanie Baker

Student Symposium

The proposed Megavirales order comprises members of the previously known nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs). Virus families in the Megavirales order include Poxviridae, Ascoviridae, and the recently explored families of megaviruses infecting free living amoeba such as Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, and Pandoraviridae. Megaviruses have been isolated from water and soil samples from Chile, France, India, and the United States. We chose to study the occurrence of megaviruses in Iceland because of the diverse habitats all within one island. No research has been carried out on the presence of megaviruses in Iceland. Samples of water and soil were collected from lava fields ...


The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker 2019 Carroll College

The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Roundup is a very common herbicide in the United States, but has been linked to many detrimental health effects and was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic’ by the World Health Organization in 1994. Not much research has been done to elucidate the possible effects on non-cancer gene pathways.The goal of this project was to research the influence that exposure to Roundup has on the growth of Tetrahymena thermophila and the expression of the cytochrome p450 gene. It was hypothesized that Roundup exposure would change the expression of cytochrome p450 gene and would decrease the growth rate of Tetrahymena thermophila. Background ...


Uptake And Persistence Of Bacterial Magnetite Magnetosomes In A Mammalian Cell Line: Implications For Medical And Biotechnological Applications., Jefferson Cypriano, Jacques Werckmann, Gabriele Vargas, Adrana Lopes dos Santos, Karen T. Silva, Pedro Leao, Fernando P. Almeida, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Marcos Farina, Ulysses Lins, Fernanda Abreu 2019 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Uptake And Persistence Of Bacterial Magnetite Magnetosomes In A Mammalian Cell Line: Implications For Medical And Biotechnological Applications., Jefferson Cypriano, Jacques Werckmann, Gabriele Vargas, Adrana Lopes Dos Santos, Karen T. Silva, Pedro Leao, Fernando P. Almeida, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Marcos Farina, Ulysses Lins, Fernanda Abreu

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize intracellular magnetic nanocrystals surrounded by a lipid bilayer called magnetosomes. Due to their unique characteristics, magnetite magnetosomes are promising tools in Biomedicine. However, the uptake, persistence, and accumulation of magnetosomes within mammalian cells have not been well studied. Here, the endocytic pathway of magnetite magnetosomes and their effects on human cervix epithelial (HeLa) cells were studied by electron microscopy and high spatial resolution nano-analysis techniques. Transmission electron microscopy of HeLa cells after incubation with purified magnetosomes showed the presence of magnetic nanoparticles inside or outside endosomes within the cell, which suggests different modes of internalization, and that ...


The Full Genome Sequence Of An Antarctic Microbe Constructed Using A Rapid, Portable Sequencer And A Hybrid Assembly, Bruce Wyatt Boles 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Full Genome Sequence Of An Antarctic Microbe Constructed Using A Rapid, Portable Sequencer And A Hybrid Assembly, Bruce Wyatt Boles

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Microbial genomes contain combinations of nucleotides that code for genes which subsequently determines the function of the cell. This information provides significant insight into the unique niche of microbes from extreme environments. Here we use two sequencing technologies, the Oxford Nanopore MinION with accompanying software and Illumina HiSeq, to generate a hybrid genome for a Shewanella strain isolated from an Antarctic glacier. Bioinformatic programs, Albacore and SPAdes, allowed us to decrease the time of genome assembly while also obtaining a large quantity of information related to the Shewanella sp. Our combined approach yielded a high quality genome assembly 5.3 ...


What’S For Dinner? Different Carbon Compounds Influence Host Metabolism In A Model Roseobacter-Roseophage System, Kaylee Rae Jacobs 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

What’S For Dinner? Different Carbon Compounds Influence Host Metabolism In A Model Roseobacter-Roseophage System, Kaylee Rae Jacobs

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Viruses that infect bacteria (temperate phages) engage in complex interactions with their hosts. These phages can have two life cycles: lytic and lysogenic. For the latter, the phage can integrate its genome into that of its host and harmlessly replicate alongside with it. Conversely, upon induction, these integrated viruses can excise from their host genome and initiate the lytic cycle. A current paradigm is that phage induction is in response to host cell stress. However, in the absence of stressors, a low level of induction in a population occurs. This poorly understood phenomenon is referred to as spontaneous prophage induction ...


Characterization Of The Expression Of Female Sexual Development-1 (Fsd-1) In The Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Katherine Cotten, Margaux Hales, Elizabeth Hutchison 2019 SUNY Geneseo

Characterization Of The Expression Of Female Sexual Development-1 (Fsd-1) In The Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Katherine Cotten, Margaux Hales, Elizabeth Hutchison

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

Neurospora crassa is a filamentous fungus that can undergo either asexual or sexual reproduction. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms that control reproduction in N. crassa, as compared to what is known about sexual reproduction of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A key regulator of the sexual cycle in yeast is the transcription factor NDT80 of which N. crassa has a homolog called fsd-1. There are three different variants of the fsd-1 gene which differ by the position of the transcriptional start codon and their 5’ untranslated regions. qRT-PCR data has shown that the second transcript is most highly expressed. However ...


Microbe Hunters: Searching For Anammox Bacteria In The Tennessee Aquarium, Claire Elbon 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microbe Hunters: Searching For Anammox Bacteria In The Tennessee Aquarium, Claire Elbon

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Ammonium and nitrite are toxic metabolic waste products generated by aquatic macroorganisms. They are of particular concern in closed systems, such as commercial aquaria. Typically, biological filtration systems are employed to regulate levels of toxic N species as they are more cost-efficient compared to water removal and replacement. Microbial communities that reside in these systems play vital roles in transformation of toxic N species. Commonly, nitrite and ammonium are converted into nitrate via nitrification. However, even nitrate is toxic at higher concentrations. Bacteria belonging to the phylum Planctomycetes can transform ammonium and nitrite to N2 via anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox ...


Ultramicrobacteria Genome Database Project, Abdullah A. Salim, Tien Tran, Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Ultramicrobacteria Genome Database Project, Abdullah A. Salim, Tien Tran, Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Ultramicrobacteria (UMB) are a largely uncultured, globally abundant, and metabolically active group of bacteria. UMB have cell diameters ≤0.3μm, cell volumes ≤0.1 μm3, and small streamlined genomes. Recent findings indicate that UMB aid in bioremediation and nutrient cycling, but future investigations and comprehension of current findings are skewed by highly variable nomenclature and a lack of databases for functional, genomic, geochemical, or spatial data specific to candidate UMB. We aim to develop a user-friendly open-access database of various UMB candidates linked to an open-access online map where researchers can gather genomic, spatial, and geochemical data. Our comprehensive review ...


Microbial Abundance And The Pattern Of Escherichia Coli Antibiotic Sensitivity And Resistance In Deer Creek And The Potential Impact Of A Veterinarian Hospital’S Input, Sarah Boxer, tim gsell 2019 Governors State University

Microbial Abundance And The Pattern Of Escherichia Coli Antibiotic Sensitivity And Resistance In Deer Creek And The Potential Impact Of A Veterinarian Hospital’S Input, Sarah Boxer, Tim Gsell

GSU Research Day

The gram-negative bacteria, E. coli, is an indicator of fecal input for both point and non-point source origin. The veterinarian hospital located on Deer Creek may contribute to high antibiotic levels, which are known to select for resistant strains of bacteria living in impacted waters. The water running north of the veterinarian hospital was considered potentially antibiotic influenced as it was downstream of the site. The origin of the stream and sites upstream from the hospital were considered influent water. Sediments were also collected from these sites to determine if more long term resident E. coli were present with elevated ...


Lipoarabinomannan From Mycobacterium Smegmatis Stimulates An Inflammatory Response In Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Aysha Zaman 2019 University of Lynchburg

Lipoarabinomannan From Mycobacterium Smegmatis Stimulates An Inflammatory Response In Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Aysha Zaman

Student Scholar Showcase

Macrophages are a key leukocyte in defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The precise mechanism by which M. tuberculosis evades host macrophage defenses remains unknown, so understanding how macrophages interact with cell wall components of mycobacteria is critical. Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a glycolipid Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) ligand found on the cell wall of mycobacteria, and is thought to contribute to the cell wall structural integrity. When LAM binds to TLR on host leukocytes, this activates cellular responses and phagocytosis by host macrophages. Nitric oxide production can be used as a measure of inflammatory response and can be evaluated via nitrite response ...


Co-Occurrence Of Manganese Oxidase Genes Indicates Lateral Transfer Between Classes Of Proteobacteria, Jacob Olichney 2019 University of Lynchburg

Co-Occurrence Of Manganese Oxidase Genes Indicates Lateral Transfer Between Classes Of Proteobacteria, Jacob Olichney

Student Scholar Showcase

Pseudomonas putida GB-1 is a model organism for the study of manganese oxidation in bacteria, however, the frequency of co-localization of multiple known and suspected manganese oxidizing proteins, as well as their occurrence between species, is unknown. Eight different genes isolated from known manganese oxidizing bacteria (MnxG, MopA, McoA, PputGB1_2552, PputGB1_2553, MoxA, MofA, and Bacillus MnxG) were tested individually using BioPython and BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) on multiple genomic databases. BLAST searches had an expect value cutoff of 1e-50, limiting gene homologs to those with high sequence similarity. The abundance of homologous genes across classes of proteobacteria point ...


Construction Of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus For Oncolyitc Therapy, Marlene L. Campos Guerrero 2019 Kansas State University

Construction Of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus For Oncolyitc Therapy, Marlene L. Campos Guerrero

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Homologous recombination is a mechanism conducted to exchange nucleotides between two similar sequences, which allows researchers to knock out and add genetic sequences of their interest in vaccinia virus (VACV). In this study, a Western Reserve VACV strain with inserted genes encoding Red Florescence Protein (RFP) and Green Florescence Protein (GFP), will be targeted and replaced with the Thymidine Kinase gene, J2R as well as C11 gene, respectively. This will set the foundation for continual removal of genes as well as additions to make a virus that will more effectively target cancer cells without affecting healthy cells. To conduct this ...


Does Quorum Sensing Regulate The Conjugation Of The Two Co-Resident Megaplasmids Of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens 15955, Christopher Carter 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Does Quorum Sensing Regulate The Conjugation Of The Two Co-Resident Megaplasmids Of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens 15955, Christopher Carter

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

While the effects of Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be easily observed and have been studied closely, the mechanisms for their virulence habits have not. Several studies have suggested the mechanisms for plasmid transfer and conjugation, particularly concerning plasmid Ti (pTi), the TraR (TraR1) regulator, and the quorum sensing (QS) system associated with it. Very little is known, however, about the second plasmid (pAt) present within the bacteria nor its regulatory QS systems. To further understand these mechanics of plasmid conjugation, we have devised a series of experiments in order to find connections between the conjugation of both pTi and pAt and ...


Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Lassa virus is an arenavirus causing a disseminated systemic primary viral infection. This virus causes Lassa fever which is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people each year. There is a possibility for the Lassa virus to be introduced into the US and used as a biological weapon with the potential to harm a large-scale population. Because of increasing international travel, a sizeable burden from the disease, and its potential use for biological warfare, it is necessary to develop sensitive diagnostic assays to accurately detect virus infections and mitigate ...


Agrobacterial Diversity And Competitive Interactions Within An Infected Sunflower, Veronica Mateo 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Agrobacterial Diversity And Competitive Interactions Within An Infected Sunflower, Veronica Mateo

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Agrobacterial Diversity and Competitive Interactions Within an Infected Sunflower

Veronica E. Mateo, Kansas State University

Faculty Advisor/Mentor: Thomas Platt, Ph.D., tgplatt@ksu.edu

Co-Author(s): Emireth Monarrez, Seward County Community College; Priscila Guzman, Kansas State University; Ashlee Herken, Kansas State University; Teresa Shippy, Kansas State University

Bacterial communities are highly diverse with each being distinct in composition. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a common soilborne plant pathogen. Some A. tumefaciens strains can cause crown gall disease, in which infected plants develop a tumor. This bacterium disrupts the host plant by genetically transforming plant cells thereby manipulating the plant’s physiology ...


Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...


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