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Convergent And Alternative Designs For Vertebrate Suspension Feeding, S. Laurie Sanderson 2019 William and Mary

Convergent And Alternative Designs For Vertebrate Suspension Feeding, S. Laurie Sanderson

S. Laurie Sanderson

In this authoritative three-volume reference work, leading researchers bring together current work to provide a comprehensive analysis of the comparative morphology, development, evolution, and functional biology of the skull.


Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, KA Goldsmith, S Lau, et al, EH Shadwick, et al 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal and ocean acidification has the potential to cause significant environmental and societal impacts. Monitoring carbonate chemistry parameters over spatial and temporal scales is challenging, especially with limited resources. A lack of monitoring data can lead to a limited understanding of real-world conditions. Without such data, robust experimental and model design is challenging, and the identification and understanding of episodic acidification events is nearly impossible. We present considerations for resource managers, academia, and industry professionals who are currently developing acidification monitoring programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. We highlight the following considerations for deliberation: 1) leverage existing infrastructure to include multiple ...


Taking The Metabolic Pulse Of The World's Coral Reefs, Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J. Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R. Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E. Corredor, Rob B. Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D. Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I. Kline, David A. Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly McMahon, Melissa Melendez, Heather N. Page, Isaac R. Santos, Kai G. Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto 2019 University of California - San Diego

Taking The Metabolic Pulse Of The World's Coral Reefs, Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J. Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R. Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E. Corredor, Rob B. Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D. Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I. Kline, David A. Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly Mcmahon, Melissa Melendez, Heather N. Page, Isaac R. Santos, Kai G. Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto

Tyler Cyronak

Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift reefs to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 coral reef locations across the globe. In light of these results, we consider the suitability of using these two metrics developed from total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC ...


Temperature-Induced Viral Resistance In Emiliania Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), B. Jacob Kendrick, Giacomo R. DiTullio, Tyler Cyronak, James M. Fulton, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, Kay D. Bidle 2019 College of Charleston

Temperature-Induced Viral Resistance In Emiliania Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), B. Jacob Kendrick, Giacomo R. Ditullio, Tyler Cyronak, James M. Fulton, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, Kay D. Bidle

Tyler Cyronak

Annual Emiliania huxleyi blooms (along with other coccolithophorid species) play important roles in the global carbon and sulfur cycles. E. huxleyi blooms are routinely terminated by large, host-specific dsDNA viruses, (Emiliania huxleyi Viruses; EhVs), making these host-virus interactions a driving force behind their potential impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Given projected increases in sea surface temperature due to climate change, it is imperative to understand the effects of temperature on E. huxleyi’s susceptibility to viral infection and its production of climatically active dimethylated sulfur species (DSS). Here we demonstrate that a 3°C increase in temperature induces EhV-resistant phenotypes ...


Nitrous Oxide And Methane Dynamics In A Coral Reef Lagoon Driven By Pore Water Exchange: Insights From Automated High‐Frequency Observations, Chiara O'Reilly, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Ashly McMahon, Damien T. Maher 2019 Southern Cross University - Coffs Harbour, Australia

Nitrous Oxide And Methane Dynamics In A Coral Reef Lagoon Driven By Pore Water Exchange: Insights From Automated High‐Frequency Observations, Chiara O'Reilly, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Ashly Mcmahon, Damien T. Maher

Tyler Cyronak

Automated cavity ring down spectroscopy was used to make continuous measurements of dissolved methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide in a coral reef lagoon for 2 weeks (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef). Radon (222Rn) was used to trace the influence of tidally driven pore water exchange on greenhouse gas dynamics. Clear tidal variation was observed for CH4, which correlated to 222Rn in lagoon waters. N2O correlated to 222Rn during the day only, which appears to be a response to coupled nitrification‐denitrification in oxic sediments, fueled by nitrate derived from bird guano. The lagoon was a ...


Permeable Coral Reef Sediment Dissolution Driven By Elevated Pco2 And Pore Water Advection, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Permeable Coral Reef Sediment Dissolution Driven By Elevated Pco2 And Pore Water Advection, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to drive the transition of coral reef ecosystems from net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitating to net dissolving within the next century. Although permeable sediments represent the largest reservoir of CaCO3 in coral reefs, the dissolution of shallow CaCO3 sands under future pCO2 levels has not been measured under natural conditions. In situ, advective chamber incubations under elevated pCO2 (~800 µatm) shifted the sediments from net precipitating to net dissolving. Pore water advection more than doubled dissolution rates (1.10 g CaCO3 m−2 d−1) when compared to diffusive ...


Hysteresis Between Coral Reef Calcification And The Seawater Aragonite Saturation State, Ashly McMahon, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Hysteresis Between Coral Reef Calcification And The Seawater Aragonite Saturation State, Ashly Mcmahon, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Some predictions of how ocean acidification (OA) will affect coral reefs assume a linear functional relationship between the ambient seawater aragonite saturation state (Ωa) and net ecosystem calcification (NEC). We quantified NEC in a healthy coral reef lagoon in the Great Barrier Reef during different times of the day. Our observations revealed a diel hysteresis pattern in the NEC versus Ωa relationship, with peak NEC rates occurring before the Ωa peak and relatively steady nighttime NEC in spite of variable Ωa. Net ecosystem production had stronger correlations with NEC than light, temperature, nutrients, pH, and Ω ...


Groundwater And Porewater As Major Sources Of Alkalinity To A Fringing Coral Reef Lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands), Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Groundwater And Porewater As Major Sources Of Alkalinity To A Fringing Coral Reef Lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands), Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging ...


Expanding Aquatic Observations Through Recreation, Robert J. W. Brewin, Kieran Hyder, Andreas J. Andersson, Oliver Billson, Philip J. Bresnahan, Thomas G. Brewin, Tyler Cyronak, Giorgio Dall'Olmo, Lee de Mora, George Graham, Thomas Jackson, Dionysios E. Raitsos 2019 Plymouth Marine Laboratory - United Kingdom

Expanding Aquatic Observations Through Recreation, Robert J. W. Brewin, Kieran Hyder, Andreas J. Andersson, Oliver Billson, Philip J. Bresnahan, Thomas G. Brewin, Tyler Cyronak, Giorgio Dall'olmo, Lee De Mora, George Graham, Thomas Jackson, Dionysios E. Raitsos

Tyler Cyronak

Accurate observations of the Earth system are required to understand how our planet is changing and to help manage its resources. The aquatic environment—including lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, coastal and open oceans—is a fundamental component of the Earth system controlling key physical, biological, and chemical processes that allow life to flourish. Yet, this environment is critically undersampled in both time and space. New and cost-effective sampling solutions are urgently needed. Here, we highlight the potential to improve aquatic sampling by tapping into recreation. We draw attention to the vast number of participants that engage in aquatic recreational activities ...


Drivers Of Pco2 Variability In Two Contrasting Coral Reef Lagoons: The Influence Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Damien T. Maher, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Drivers Of Pco2 Variability In Two Contrasting Coral Reef Lagoons: The Influence Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Damien T. Maher, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

The impact of groundwater on pCO2 variability was assessed in two coral reef lagoons with distinct drivers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, 222Rn‐derived SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the water column was influenced by the high pCO2 (5501 µatm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through the ...


Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Physical uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is the dominant driver of ocean acidification (OA) in the open ocean. Due to expected decreases in calcification and increased dissolution of CaCO3 framework, coral reefs are thought to be highly susceptible to OA. However, biogeochemical processes can influence the pCO2 and pH of coastal ecosystems on diel and seasonal time scales, potentially modifying the long‐term effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. By compiling data from the literature and removing the effects of short‐term variability, we show that the average pCO2 of coral reefs throughout the globe has increased ...


Coral Reef Carbonate Chemistry Variability At Different Functional Scales, Yuichiro Takeshita, Tyler Cyronak, Todd R. Martz, Theodor Kindeberg, Andreas J. Andersson 2019 Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Coral Reef Carbonate Chemistry Variability At Different Functional Scales, Yuichiro Takeshita, Tyler Cyronak, Todd R. Martz, Theodor Kindeberg, Andreas J. Andersson

Tyler Cyronak

There is a growing recognition for the need to understand how seawater carbonate chemistry over coral reef environments will change in a high-CO2 world to better assess the impacts of ocean acidification on these valuable ecosystems. Coral reefs modify overlying water column chemistry through biogeochemical processes such as net community organic carbon production (NCP) and calcification (NCC). However, the relative importance and influence of these processes on seawater carbonate chemistry vary across multiple functional scales (defined here as space, time, and benthic community composition), and have not been fully constrained. Here, we use Bermuda as a case study to ...


Comparing Chemistry And Census-Based Estimates Of Net Ecosystem Calcification On A Rim Reef In Bermuda, Travis A. Courtney, Andreas J. Andersson, Nicholas R. Bates, Andrew R. Collins, Tyler Cyronak, Samantha J. de Putron, Bradley D. Eyre, Rebecca Garley, Eric J. Hochberg, Rodney Johnson, Sylvia Musielewicz, Tim J. Noyes, Christopher L. Sabine, Adrienne J. Sutton, Jessy Toncin, Aline Tribollet 2019 University of California - San Diego

Comparing Chemistry And Census-Based Estimates Of Net Ecosystem Calcification On A Rim Reef In Bermuda, Travis A. Courtney, Andreas J. Andersson, Nicholas R. Bates, Andrew R. Collins, Tyler Cyronak, Samantha J. De Putron, Bradley D. Eyre, Rebecca Garley, Eric J. Hochberg, Rodney Johnson, Sylvia Musielewicz, Tim J. Noyes, Christopher L. Sabine, Adrienne J. Sutton, Jessy Toncin, Aline Tribollet

Tyler Cyronak

Coral reef net ecosystem calcification (NEC) has decreased for many Caribbean reefs over recent decades primarily due to changes in benthic community composition. Chemistry-based approaches to calculate NEC utilize the drawdown of seawater total alkalinity (TA) combined with residence time to calculate an instantaneous measurement of NEC. Census-based approaches combine annual growth rates with benthic cover and reef structural complexity to estimate NEC occurring over annual timescales. Here, NEC was calculated for Hog Reef in Bermuda using both chemistry and census-based NEC techniques to compare the mass-balance generated by the two methods and identify the dominant biocalcifiers at Hog Reef ...


Evolving And Sustaining Ocean Best Practices And Standards For The Next Decade, Frank Muller-Karger 2019 University of South Florida

Evolving And Sustaining Ocean Best Practices And Standards For The Next Decade, Frank Muller-Karger

Frank E. Muller-Karger

The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet’s ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies for structuring observing systems, sensor deployment and usage, and the generation of data and information products, to ethical and governance aspects when executing ocean observing. To meet the urgent, planet-wide challenges we ...


Antagonistic Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Rising Sea Surface Temperature On The Dissolution Of Coral Reef Carbonate Sediments, Daniel Trnovsky, Laura Stoltenberg, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre 2019 Southern Cross University - Lismore, Australia

Antagonistic Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Rising Sea Surface Temperature On The Dissolution Of Coral Reef Carbonate Sediments, Daniel Trnovsky, Laura Stoltenberg, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Increasing atmospheric CO2 is raising sea surface temperature (SST) and increasing seawater CO2 concentrations, resulting in a lower oceanic pH (ocean acidification; OA), which is expected to reduce the accretion of coral reef ecosystems. Although sediments comprise most of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) within coral reefs, no in situ studies have looked at the combined effects of increased SST and OA on the dissolution of coral reef CaCO3 sediments. In situ benthic chamber incubations were used to measure dissolution rates in permeable CaCO3 sands under future OA and SST scenarios in a coral reef lagoon ...


Evaluating Climatic Response To External Radiative Forcing During The Late Miocene To Early Pliocene: New Perspectives From Eastern Equatorial Pacific (Iodp U1338) And North Atlantic (Odp 982) Locations, Anna J. Drury, Cédric M. John, Amelia E. Shevenell 2019 Imperial College

Evaluating Climatic Response To External Radiative Forcing During The Late Miocene To Early Pliocene: New Perspectives From Eastern Equatorial Pacific (Iodp U1338) And North Atlantic (Odp 982) Locations, Anna J. Drury, Cédric M. John, Amelia E. Shevenell

Amelia Shevenell

Orbital‐scale climate variability during the latest Miocene‐early Pliocene is poorly understood due to a lack of high‐resolution records spanning 8.0–3.5 Ma, which resolve all orbital cycles. Assessing this variability improves understanding of how Earth's system sensitivity to insolation evolves and provides insight into the factors driving the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and the Late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift (LMCIS). New high‐resolution benthic foraminiferal Cibicidoides mundulus δ18O and δ13C records from equatorial Pacific International Ocean Drilling Program Site U1338 are correlated to North Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 982 ...


Bacterial And Archaeal Specific-Predation In The North Atlantic Basin, LM Seyler, S Tuorto, LR McGuinness, DL Gong, LJ Kerkof 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Bacterial And Archaeal Specific-Predation In The North Atlantic Basin, Lm Seyler, S Tuorto, Lr Mcguinness, Dl Gong, Lj Kerkof

VIMS Articles

Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track prokaryotic and eukaryotic carbon uptake along a meridional transect (Long. 52°W) in the North Atlantic to assess if 13C-resource partitioning between bacteria and archaea and 13C-labeled eukaryotic predators could be detected. One-liter SIP microcosms were amended with 13C-acetate or 13C-urea and incubated for 48 h. Our data indicated archaea often outcompeted bacteria for 13C-urea while both archaea and bacteria could incorporate 13C-acetate. This 13C label could also be tracked into eukaryotic microbes. The largest number of 13C-labeled eukaryotic OTUs, and the greatest percentage ...


Characterization Of The Microbiome And Bioluminescent Symbionts Across Life Stages Of Ceratioid Anglerfishes Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Lindsay L. Freed, Cole Easson, Lydia Baker, D. Fenolio, Tracey Sutton, Yasmin Khan, Patricia Blackwelder, Tory Hendry, Jose Lopez 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Characterization Of The Microbiome And Bioluminescent Symbionts Across Life Stages Of Ceratioid Anglerfishes Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Lindsay L. Freed, Cole Easson, Lydia Baker, D. Fenolio, Tracey Sutton, Yasmin Khan, Patricia Blackwelder, Tory Hendry, Jose Lopez

Biology Faculty Articles

The interdependence of diverse organisms through symbiosis reaches even the deepest parts of the oceans. As part of the DEEPEND project (deependconsortium.org) research on deep Gulf of Mexico biodiversity, we profiled the bacterial communities (‘microbiomes’) and luminous symbionts of 36 specimens of adult and larval deep-sea anglerfishes of the suborder Ceratioidei using 16S rDNA. Transmission Electron Microscopy was used to characterize the location of symbionts in adult light organs (esca). Whole larval microbiomes, and adult skin and gut microbiomes, were dominated by bacteria in the genera Moritella and Pseudoalteromonas genera. 16S rDNA sequencing results from adult fishes corroborate the ...


Seascapes As A New Vernacular For Pelagic Ocean Monitoring, Management And Conservation, Maria T. Kavanaugh, Matthew J. Oliver, Francisco P. Chavez, Ricardo M. Letelier, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Scott C. Doney 2019 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Seascapes As A New Vernacular For Pelagic Ocean Monitoring, Management And Conservation, Maria T. Kavanaugh, Matthew J. Oliver, Francisco P. Chavez, Ricardo M. Letelier, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Scott C. Doney

Frank E. Muller-Karger

For terrestrial and marine benthic ecologists, landscape ecology provides a framework to address issues of complexity, patchiness, and scale—providing theory and context for ecosystem based management in a changing climate. Marine pelagic ecosystems are likewise changing in response to warming, changing chemistry, and resource exploitation. However, unlike spatial landscapes that migrate slowly with time, pelagic seascapes are embedded in a turbulent, advective ocean. Adaptations from landscape ecology to marine pelagic ecosystem management must consider the nature and scale of biophysical interactions associated with organisms ranging from microbes to whales, a hierarchical organization shaped by physical processes, and our limited ...


Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring Of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products From Noaa Coral Reef Watch, Gang Liu, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, María Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Erick F. Geiger, William J. Skirving, Timothy F. R. Burgess, Alan E. Strong, Andy Harris, Eileen Maturi, Alexander Ignatov, John Sapper, Jianke Li, Susan Lynds 2019 U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring Of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products From Noaa Coral Reef Watch, Gang Liu, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, María Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Erick F. Geiger, William J. Skirving, Timothy F. R. Burgess, Alan E. Strong, Andy Harris, Eileen Maturi, Alexander Ignatov, John Sapper, Jianke Li, Susan Lynds

Frank E. Muller-Karger

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program has developed a daily global 5-km product suite based on satellite observations to monitor thermal stress on coral reefs. These products fulfill requests from coral reef managers and researchers for higher resolution products by taking advantage of new satellites, sensors and algorithms. Improvements of the 5-km products over CRW’s heritage global 50-km products are derived from: (1) the higher resolution and greater data density of NOAA’s next-generation operational daily global 5-km geo-polar blended sea surface temperature (SST) analysis; and (2) implementation of a new ...


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