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Sampling Methods For Acropora Corals, Other Benthic Coral Reef Organisms, And Marine Debris In The Florida Keys: Field Protocol Manual For 2011-2012 Assessments, Steven Miller, Leanne M. Rutten, Mark Chiappone 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Sampling Methods For Acropora Corals, Other Benthic Coral Reef Organisms, And Marine Debris In The Florida Keys: Field Protocol Manual For 2011-2012 Assessments, Steven Miller, Leanne M. Rutten, Mark Chiappone

Steven Miller

The 2011-2012 sampling of Acropora corals, other coral reef benthic invertebrates, and marine debris in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) is being undertaken as a spatially intensive effort to provide updated population distribution and abundance information. The particular focus of surveys in the Florida Keys, as well as in the U.S. Caribbean (Puerto Rico and the U.S.V.I.), concerns the habitat distribution, colony density, size, condition, and population abundance of Acropora corals. Surveys in the Florida Keys also include assessments of urchins, mollusks, anemones, corallimorpharians, and marine debris. These additional assessments are relatively fast and ...


The Growth Response Of Two Diatom Species To Atmospheric Dust From The Last Glacial Maximum, Tim M. Conway, Linn J. Hoffmann, Eike Breitbarth, Robert F. Strzepek, Eric W. Wolff 2019 University of South Florida

The Growth Response Of Two Diatom Species To Atmospheric Dust From The Last Glacial Maximum, Tim M. Conway, Linn J. Hoffmann, Eike Breitbarth, Robert F. Strzepek, Eric W. Wolff

Tim M Conway

Relief of iron (Fe) limitation in the surface Southern Ocean has been suggested as one driver of the regular glacial-interglacial cycles in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The proposed cause is enhanced deposition of Fe-bearing atmospheric dust to the oceans during glacial intervals, with consequent effects on export production and the carbon cycle. However, understanding the role of enhanced atmospheric Fe supply in biogeochemical cycles is limited by knowledge of the fluxes and 'bioavailability' of atmospheric Fe during glacial intervals. Here, we assess the effect of Fe fertilization by dust, dry-extracted from the Last Glacial Maximum portion of the EPICA Dome ...


Quantifying Trace Element And Isotope Fluxes At The Ocean-Sediment Boundary: A Review., William B. Homoky, Thomas Weber, William M. Berelson, Tim M. Conway, Gideon M. Henderson, Marco van Hulten, Catherine Jeandel, Silke Severmann, Alessandro Tagliabue 2019 University of Oxford

Quantifying Trace Element And Isotope Fluxes At The Ocean-Sediment Boundary: A Review., William B. Homoky, Thomas Weber, William M. Berelson, Tim M. Conway, Gideon M. Henderson, Marco Van Hulten, Catherine Jeandel, Silke Severmann, Alessandro Tagliabue

Tim M Conway

Quantifying fluxes of trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) at the ocean's sediment-water boundary is a pre-eminent challenge to understand their role in the present, past and future ocean. There are multiple processes that drive the uptake and release of TEIs, and properties that determine their rates are unevenly distributed (e.g. sediment composition, redox conditions and (bio)physical dynamics). These factors complicate our efforts to find, measure and extrapolate TEI fluxes across ocean basins. GEOTRACES observations are unveiling the oceanic distributions of many TEIs for the first time. These data evidence the influence of the sediment-water boundary on ...


Dissolved Iron And Iron Isotopes In The Southeastern Pacific Ocean, Jessica N. Fitzsimmons, Tim M. Conway, Jong-Mi Lee, Richard Kayser, Kristen M. Thyng, Seth G. John, Edward A. Boyle 2019 Texas A&M University

Dissolved Iron And Iron Isotopes In The Southeastern Pacific Ocean, Jessica N. Fitzsimmons, Tim M. Conway, Jong-Mi Lee, Richard Kayser, Kristen M. Thyng, Seth G. John, Edward A. Boyle

Tim M Conway

The Southeast Pacific Ocean is a severely understudied yet dynamic region for trace metals such as iron, since it experiences steep redox and productivity gradients in upper waters and strong hydrothermal iron inputs to deep waters. In this study, we report the dissolved iron (dFe) distribution from seven stations and Fe isotope ratios (δ56Fe) from three of these stations across a near‐zonal transect from 20 to 27°S. We found elevated dFe concentrations associated with the oxygen‐deficient zone (ODZ), with light δ56Fe implicating porewater fluxes of reduced Fe. However, temporal dFe variability and rapid ...


Effect Of Environmental History On The Physiology And Acute Stress Response Of The Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica), Jill Ashey 2019 College of William and Mary

Effect Of Environmental History On The Physiology And Acute Stress Response Of The Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica), Jill Ashey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Oysters are a critical part of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem, so it is important to understand how they might respond to increasingly variable and potentially stressful environmental conditions. This study aimed to investigate the links between environmental history and oyster physiology in order to understand how oysters might perform in future conditions. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine how environmental history might influence oyster physiology, (2) evaluate how environmental history might influence physiological stress responses, (3) assess the relative importance of distal and proximal environmental history on oyster physiology, and (4) determine the relative importance of distal ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2018, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 23-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


The Effects Of Ultraviolet Light Exposure On The Activity Of Catalase In The Coelomocytes Of Sea Urchins Lytechinus Variegatus And Arbacia Punctulata, Kandis Arlinghaus 2019 Bellarmine University

The Effects Of Ultraviolet Light Exposure On The Activity Of Catalase In The Coelomocytes Of Sea Urchins Lytechinus Variegatus And Arbacia Punctulata, Kandis Arlinghaus

Undergraduate Theses

Many sea urchins play important ecological roles in their environments, and it is important to study the impacts of environmental stressors on their physiology. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure has significant negative impacts on marine organisms including an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative damage by ROS at the cellular level can cause lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and even cell death that may result in inflammation or disease. To prevent this cellular damage, organisms generate enzymes, such as catalase, that breakdown ROS into harmless substances. Elevated catalase activities under UVB, a range of UVR from 280–315 nm, exposure have ...


Indirect Legacy Effects Of An Extreme Climatic Event On A Marine Megafaunal Community, Robert Nowicki, Michael Heithaus, Jordan Thompson, Derek Burkholder, Kirk Gastrich, Aaron Wirsing 2019 Florida International University; Mote Marine Laboratory

Indirect Legacy Effects Of An Extreme Climatic Event On A Marine Megafaunal Community, Robert Nowicki, Michael Heithaus, Jordan Thompson, Derek Burkholder, Kirk Gastrich, Aaron Wirsing

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

While extreme climatic events (ECEs) are predicted to become more frequent, reliably predicting their impacts on consumers remains challenging, particularly for large consumers in marine environments. Many studies that do evaluate ECE effects focus primarily on direct effects, though indirect effects can be equally or more important. Here, we investigate the indirect impacts of the 2011 “Ningaloo Niño” marine heatwave ECE on a diverse megafaunal community in Shark Bay, Western Australia. We use an 18‐year community‐level data set before (1998–2010) and after (2012–2015) the heatwave to assess the effects of seagrass loss on the abundance of ...


The Ellis Island Effect: Invasive Species In The Mid-Atlantic, Paul A.X. Bologna 2019 Montclair State University

The Ellis Island Effect: Invasive Species In The Mid-Atlantic, Paul A.X. Bologna

Sustainability Seminar Series

Global invasions of marine species often follow human migration pathways and primary commerce routes. Exploration, immigration, and commerce to the United States has created hot spots for invasive species to become established. In particular, Ellis Island served as a primary spot for European immigrants over the last century. During the last 3 years, we have documented for the first time four non-native hydrozoans in New Jersey using molecular techniques.

Gonionemusvertens, Moerisiainkermanica, and Bougainvilliatriestinahave origins potentially linked to the Mediterranean indicating a potential group invasion from that region. Aequoreaaustralisis a Pacific hydrozoan whose origin pathway is yet unknown, but has now ...


Body Shape Changes Across Habitat Transitions In Lizardfishes (Aulopiformes), Alex J. Maile, Matthew P. Davis 2019 St Cloud State University

Body Shape Changes Across Habitat Transitions In Lizardfishes (Aulopiformes), Alex J. Maile, Matthew P. Davis

Huskies Showcase

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Abstract

The lizardfishes and their allies (Aulopiformes, ~282 species) are investigated from a geometric morphometric approach to study the evolution of body shape changes across habitat transitions in this lineage of fishes. No previous studies have quantitatively examined changes in body shape across lizardfishes and their allies. Over 400 lizardfish specimens were digitized that included representatives from every family of these fishes. We identify that there are distinct patterns of body-shape change across the lizardfish radiation. Body shape trends of cigar-shapes are dominant in inshore and deep-sea benthic habitats while ...


High-Resolution Habitat And Bathymetry Maps For 65,000 Sq. Km Of Earth’S Remotest Coral Reefs, Samuel J. Purkis, Arthur C. R. Gleason, Charlotte R. Purkis, Alexandra C. Dempsey, Philip Renaud, Mohamed Faisal, Steven Saul, Jeremy M. Kerr 2019 University of Miami

High-Resolution Habitat And Bathymetry Maps For 65,000 Sq. Km Of Earth’S Remotest Coral Reefs, Samuel J. Purkis, Arthur C. R. Gleason, Charlotte R. Purkis, Alexandra C. Dempsey, Philip Renaud, Mohamed Faisal, Steven Saul, Jeremy M. Kerr

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

With compelling evidence that half the world’s coral reefs have been lost over the last four decades, there is urgent motivation to understand where reefs are located and their health. Without such basic baseline information, it is challenging to mount a response to the reef crisis on the global scale at which it is occurring. To combat this lack of baseline data, the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation embarked on a 10-yr survey of a broad selection of Earth’s remotest reef sites—the Global Reef Expedition. This paper focuses on one output of this expedition, which is ...


The Association Between Stomach Fullness And Vertical Migration Behavior In Deep-Pelagic Crustaceans And Fishes In The Gulf Of Mexico, With Notes On Microplastic Ingestion, Ryan P. Bos 2019 Nova Southeastern University

The Association Between Stomach Fullness And Vertical Migration Behavior In Deep-Pelagic Crustaceans And Fishes In The Gulf Of Mexico, With Notes On Microplastic Ingestion, Ryan P. Bos

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents: 1) the first statistically rigorous support for the longstanding hypothesis that state of satiation modifies diel vertical migration patterns of deep-sea micronektonic crustaceans and fishes; and, 2) the first assessment of microplastic ingestion by deep-pelagic micronekton in the Gulf of Mexico and Straits of Florida. Deep-sea pelagic crustaceans and fishes significantly contribute to abundance and biomass of pelagic ecosystems, are frequently consumed by commercially valuable fishery species, and serve to transport both nutrients and pollutants between shallow and deep waters. The results presented herein will be valuable for assessing risk associated with potential biomagnification of plastic through ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2018 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. McGrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2018 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-first year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2018, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 1) and the Chickahominy River (year 4; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring ...


Assessing Deep-Pelagic Shrimp Biomass To 3000 M In The Atlantic Ocean And Ramifications Of Upscaled Global Biomass, Alexander Vereshchaka, Anastasia Lunina, Tracey Sutton 2019 Russian Academy of Sciences - Moscow

Assessing Deep-Pelagic Shrimp Biomass To 3000 M In The Atlantic Ocean And Ramifications Of Upscaled Global Biomass, Alexander Vereshchaka, Anastasia Lunina, Tracey Sutton

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

We assess the biomass of deep-pelagic shrimps in the Atlantic Ocean using data collected between 40°N and 40°S. Forty-eight stations were sampled in discrete-depth fashion, including epi- (0–200 m), meso- (200–800/1000 m), upper bathy- (800/1000–1500 m), and lower bathypelagic (1500–3000 m) strata. We compared samples collected from the same area on the same night using obliquely towed trawls and large vertically towed nets and found that shrimp catches from the latter were significantly higher. This suggests that vertical nets are more efficient for biomass assessments, and we report these values here. We ...


Using Zebrafish As A Model To Evaluate Anxiety, Lori McGrew 2019 Belmont University

Using Zebrafish As A Model To Evaluate Anxiety, Lori Mcgrew

enLightening Talks

My laboratory uses zebrafish as a model organism and focuses on assessment of anxiety in the fish. Zebrafish are easily maintained and have the ability to absorb substances through their gills, eliminating any stress induced by the traditional method of injections. Zebrafish, as vertebrates, have complexity that is useful for behavioral models. Their social structure and conditioned behaviors are being carefully characterized. Relevant to these studies, the Danios’ behavior in a novel dive tank has been demonstrated to correspond to their anxiety. (Anxious fish spend more time near the bottom of the tank while control fish spend more time near ...


Density Of Hemigrapsus Sanguineus And Carcinus Maenas In Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Valerie Huston, Teresa Martel, Zimzim Mohamed 2019 University of Southern Maine

Density Of Hemigrapsus Sanguineus And Carcinus Maenas In Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Valerie Huston, Teresa Martel, Zimzim Mohamed

Thinking Matters Symposium

Our focus for this project is to determine how the population densities of Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Asian shore crab and Carcinus maenas, European green crabs have shifted over a brief period of time. We are comparing data collected on September 17, 2018, to data collected on October 22, 2018. The location where the two sets of data were collected from is Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine. The GPS coordinance was 43°.33.55N70°.13.40N. We discuss what affects the influences of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, high intertidal versus low intertidal, and percent ascophyllum cover affect have on the ...


Quantifying Atlantic Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus) Larval Abundance Throughout Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Hannah Haskell, Britney Evangelista, Alex Loftis 2019 University of Southern Maine

Quantifying Atlantic Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus) Larval Abundance Throughout Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Hannah Haskell, Britney Evangelista, Alex Loftis

Thinking Matters Symposium

As markets for the Atlantic Sea scallop are growing, the need for sustainable and reliable harvesting methods such as aquaculture is more imperative than ever. Due to the difficulty of maintaining sea scallop hatcheries, scallop farmers typically collect larvae from the ocean and raise them until a marketable size on lease sites. In order to efficiently collect scallop larvae, being able to predict when the larvae are most abundant in the water column is crucial. The goal of our research was to learn when scallop larvae are most abundant in the water column and to determine if there is a ...


Impacts Of Harmful Algal Blooms On Dissolved Organic Carbon In The Lower York River Estuary, Joshua Sacks, Mark J. Brush, Iris C. Anderson 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Impacts Of Harmful Algal Blooms On Dissolved Organic Carbon In The Lower York River Estuary, Joshua Sacks, Mark J. Brush, Iris C. Anderson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Estuaries are important sites of carbon cycling; however, the impact of increasingly prevalent harmful algal blooms (HABs) on cycling in these systems remains unclear. To examine the impact of two bloom species, Alexandrium monilatum and Margalefidinium polykrikoides on the quantity and composition of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) pools and rates of benthic and pelagic microbial respiration in the lower York River Estuary, VA, a series field samplings and laboratory incubations were performed. The two HAB species greatly increased the size of the DOC and CDOM pools and altered the character of the CDOM ...


A Stage-Structured Oyster Population Model For Reef Restoration, Rachel Wilson 2019 College of William and Mary

A Stage-Structured Oyster Population Model For Reef Restoration, Rachel Wilson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Oysters have experienced drastic declines in their population because of environmental factors and harvesting pressures, making them a focal species for restoration efforts [1, 22]. Oyster shell has become a limited resource and alternative substrates are not as suitable for larval recruitment and shell accumulation [1, 2, 7]. For this reason, restoration efforts are restricted, despite the attempts in the private and public sector. To increase the effectiveness of restoration, the dynamics of oyster reef systems must be further analyzed and understood. This thesis proposes a stage-structured ordinary differential equation model to investigate the dynamics of deterministic and stochastic oyster ...


Evaluating Alternate Management Strategies For Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Nathaniel Wallace Jermain 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Evaluating Alternate Management Strategies For Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Nathaniel Wallace Jermain

Master's Theses

Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) receive considerable fishing pressure as the most popular saltwater target species in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. The potential for alternate management strategies, including stock enhancement and reducing discard mortality, to support the sustainability of the stocks and the desires of stakeholders is unknown. The purpose of this study was to provide an objective evaluation of the efficacy of alternate management strategies for Spotted Seatrout in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. I used a management strategy evaluation (MSE) to measure the performance of 18 alternate management scenarios relative to control scenarios. Scenarios with a high hatchery input ...


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