Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Laboratory and Basic Science Research Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

839 Full-Text Articles 1,667 Authors 227,800 Downloads 137 Institutions

All Articles in Laboratory and Basic Science Research

Faceted Search

839 full-text articles. Page 7 of 33.

A Brief Guide To Striped Bass Ecology & Management In Chesapeake Bay, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Susanna Musick 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Brief Guide To Striped Bass Ecology & Management In Chesapeake Bay, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Susanna Musick

Reports

Chesapeake Bay striped bass support important recreational fisheries along the US Atlantic coast; in the late 1970s, the population of striped bass collapsed as a result of overfishing and poor water quality in rivers used for spawning and rear-ing of young. Informed by stock assessments, strict management regulations were enacted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s; these highly effective regulations resulted in the recovery of the population in 1995. A key to the successful recov-ery of the Atlantic coast striped bass was the wide range of ages of spawning females and the associated differences in spawning behavior among ages. Age ...


Molecular Diagnostics Update For The Emerging (If Not Already Widespread) Sexually Transmitted Infection Agent Mycoplasma Genitalium: Just About Ready For Prime Time, Munson Erik 2017 Marquette University

Molecular Diagnostics Update For The Emerging (If Not Already Widespread) Sexually Transmitted Infection Agent Mycoplasma Genitalium: Just About Ready For Prime Time, Munson Erik

Clinical Lab Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Mycoplasma genitalium is an important and emerging agent of sexually transmitted infection in females and males, carrying the potential for postinfection genital tract sequelae. Past efforts to identify this organism on a routine basis, which were problematic due to the fastidious nature of the bacterium and its antigenic intricacies, have recently become supplemented by molecular diagnostics. A number of these assays are available commercially. This minireview describes the format and performance indices of a number of M. genitalium DNA- and RNA-based amplification assays; many of these assays have contributed to an improved clinical and epidemiologic understanding of this organism.


Characterization Of Different Molecular Markers For Identification Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistani Population, Faizan Muttiullah, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-i- Abbas, Sabiha Shamim 2017 Institute of Natural and Management Sciences (INAM), Rawalpindi

Characterization Of Different Molecular Markers For Identification Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistani Population, Faizan Muttiullah, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Sabiha Shamim

Journal of Bioresource Management

Typhoid is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi that is usually diagnosed by using serologic and immuno-chromatographic techniques in developing counties including Pakistan, which is thought to be an unreliable diagnostic method. For accurate diagnosis we used molecular techniques to amplify 204 bp StyR-36 and 498 bp flagellin gene for the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. This study was done on 58 individuals diagnosed positive of typhoid via serologic tests and 50 healthy individuals as a control group. Success rate of amplification for flagellin gene was 77.58% while that for StyR-36 gene was 68.97% showing that flagellin ...


Experimental In-Vivo Models Used In Fat Grafting Research For Volume Augmentation In Soft Tissue Reconstruction, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, Raghu Appasani, Kylee Sullivan, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Janice F. Lalikos 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Experimental In-Vivo Models Used In Fat Grafting Research For Volume Augmentation In Soft Tissue Reconstruction, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, Raghu Appasani, Kylee Sullivan, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Janice F. Lalikos

Open Access Articles

As the popularity of fat grafting research increases, animal models are being used as the source of pre-clinical experimental information for discovery and to enhance techniques. To date, animal models used in this research have not been compared to provide a standardized model. We analyzed publications from 1968-2015 to compare published accounts of animal models in fat grafting research. Data collected included: species used, graft characteristics (donor tissue, recipient area, amount injected, injection technique), time of sacrifice and quantification methods. Mice were most commonly used (56% of studies), with the "athymic nude" strain utilized most frequently (44%). Autologous fat was ...


Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray

Anatomy Articles

Craniosynostosis is a bone developmental disease where premature ossification of the cranial sutures occurs leading to fused sutures. While biomechanical forces have been implicated in craniosynostosis, evidence of the effect of microenvironmental stiffness changes in the osteogenic commitment of cells from the sutures is lacking. Our aim was to identify the differential genetic expression and osteogenic capability between cells from patent and fused sutures of children with craniosynostosis and whether these differences are driven by changes in the stiffness of the microenvironment. Cells from both sutures demonstrated enhanced mineralisation with increasing substrate stiffness showing that stiffness is a stimulus capable ...


Evaluation Of Xpert Mtb/Rif Testing For Rapid Diagnosis Of Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis In Children By Xpert Mtb/Rif Testing Of Stool Samples In A Low Resource Setting, Zahra Hasan, Sadia Shakoor, Fehmina Arif, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Marium Haider, Akber Kanji, Rumina Hasan 2017 Aga Khan University

Evaluation Of Xpert Mtb/Rif Testing For Rapid Diagnosis Of Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis In Children By Xpert Mtb/Rif Testing Of Stool Samples In A Low Resource Setting, Zahra Hasan, Sadia Shakoor, Fehmina Arif, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Marium Haider, Akber Kanji, Rumina Hasan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Objective: Children with tuberculosis (TB) remain underdiagnosed due to difculty in testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. We evaluated the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for respiratory and stool testing in children for pulmonary TB through a cross-sectional study at tertiary care facilities in Karachi, Pakistan. Fifty children aged 0–15 years screened by a modifed Kenneth-Jones (KJ) score were included. Mycobacterial culture of respiratory samples was the microbiological standard against stool Xpert TB results. All positive TB cases were compared against a treatment response standard (TRS).
Results: Twelve study subjects were diagnosed by Xpert TB and nine by MTB culture ...


Point Of Care Diagnosis Of Multiple Schistosome Parasites: Species-Specific Dna Detection In Urine By Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp), Nilanjan Lodh, Kei Mikita, Kwabena M. Bosompem, William K. Anyan, Joseph K. Quartey, Joseph Otchere, Clive J. Shiff 2017 Marquette University

Point Of Care Diagnosis Of Multiple Schistosome Parasites: Species-Specific Dna Detection In Urine By Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp), Nilanjan Lodh, Kei Mikita, Kwabena M. Bosompem, William K. Anyan, Joseph K. Quartey, Joseph Otchere, Clive J. Shiff

Clinical Lab Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Schistosomes are easily transmitted and high chance of repeat infection, so if control strategies based on targeted mass drug administration (MDA) are to succeed it is essential to have a test that is sensitive, accurate and simple to use. It is known and regularly demonstrated that praziquantel does not always eliminate an infection so in spite of the successes of control programs a residual of the reservoir survives to re-infect snails. The issue of diagnostic sensitivity becomes more critical in the assessment of program effectiveness. While serology, such as antigen capture tests might improve sensitivity, it has been shown that ...


Considering Aspects Of The 3rs Principles Within Experimental Animal Biology, Lynne U. Sneddon, Lewis G. Halsey, Nic R. Bury 2017 University of Liverpool

Considering Aspects Of The 3rs Principles Within Experimental Animal Biology, Lynne U. Sneddon, Lewis G. Halsey, Nic R. Bury

Biomedical Research and Alternative Methods Collection

The 3Rs – Replacement, Reduction and Refinement – are embedded into the legislation and guidelines governing the ethics of animal use in experiments. Here, we consider the advantages of adopting key aspects of the 3Rs into experimental biology, represented mainly by the fields of animal behaviour, neurobiology, physiology, toxicology and biomechanics. Replacing protected animals with less sentient forms or species, cells, tissues or computer modelling approaches has been broadly successful. However, many studies investigate specific models that exhibit a particular adaptation, or a species that is a target for conservation, such that their replacement is inappropriate. Regardless of the species used, refining ...


Results Of A Local Combination Therapy Antibiogram For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolates: Is Double Worth The Trouble?, Matthew Song, Thomas J. Dilworth, Erik Munson, Jim Davis, Ramy Elshaboury 2017 Norton Healthcare

Results Of A Local Combination Therapy Antibiogram For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolates: Is Double Worth The Trouble?, Matthew Song, Thomas J. Dilworth, Erik Munson, Jim Davis, Ramy Elshaboury

Clinical Lab Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose:

To determine the frequency at which fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides demonstrate in vitro activity against non-urinary, non-skin/skin structure Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates exhibiting decreased susceptibilities to one or more β-lactam agents.

Methods:

β-lactam-non-susceptible P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from blood, bone, lower respiratory tract, pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, or peritoneal fluid cultures between October 2010 and October 2014 were reviewed from four community hospitals within a single health-system. Only the first isolate per patient was included for analysis. The likelihood that each isolate was susceptible to a non-β-lactam antimicrobial was then determined and summarized within a combination antibiogram.

Results:

In total ...


Intracellular Signalling Crosstalk In The Differentiation Of F9 Cells Into Extraembryonic Endoderm, Tina Nicole Cuthbert 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Intracellular Signalling Crosstalk In The Differentiation Of F9 Cells Into Extraembryonic Endoderm, Tina Nicole Cuthbert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mouse F9 cells differentiate into primitive extraembryonic endoderm (PrE) with retinoic acid (RA) treatment, resulting in up-regulation of Gata6, which when translated directly activates Wnt6. Canonical Wnt signalling is required for PrE differentiation, and this, like most developmental processes, requires input from one or more additional pathways, including hedgehog (Hh). The Hh pathway is regulated by GATA6, and crosstalks positively/negatively with Wnt signalling. Ihh up-regulation in F9 cells accompanies PrE induction, but a role for GATA6 or Hh pathway activation in obligatory Wnt/ß-catenin signalling is not known. To address this, I show that RA induces Ihh and altered ...


Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Triple-negative (TNBC) and inflammatory (IBC) breast cancer are the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, accounting for 20% and 10% of cancer-related deaths, respectively. Among IBC cases, 30% are additionally classified with TNBC molecular pathology, a diagnosis that significantly worsens patient’s prognosis. The current lack of TNBC and IBC molecular understanding prevents the development of effective therapeutic strategies. To identify effective treatments, we explored aberrant apoptosis pathways and cell membrane fluidity as novel therapeutic targets.

We first identified an effective therapeutic strategy against TNBC and IBC by pro-apoptotic protein NOXA-mediated inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1 following inhibition of ...


The Effect Of Hemodynamic Force On The Maturation Of Blood Vessels During Embryogenesis, Rachel Lee Padget 2017 Missouri State University

The Effect Of Hemodynamic Force On The Maturation Of Blood Vessels During Embryogenesis, Rachel Lee Padget

MSU Graduate Theses

Throughout embryonic development, blood vessels are derived from endothelial cells by way of vasculogenesis. During angiogenesis, vessels remodel to form a hierarchy of large-diameter arteries that branch into small-diameter capillaries. In this maturation, vessels respond to unidentified signaling events to become surrounded with an outer layer of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs). This results in arteries that have a thick vSMC layer, veins that have a thin vSMC layer, and capillaries that have a very thin or absent vSMC layer. What remains to be determined is the cause of the thicker layer of vSMCs around proximal arteries. Previous studies have ...


Characterizing Reactive Glutamines In Fibrinogen And Elucidating Factor Xiii Substrate Specificity., Kelly Njine Mouapi 2017 University of Louisville

Characterizing Reactive Glutamines In Fibrinogen And Elucidating Factor Xiii Substrate Specificity., Kelly Njine Mouapi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fibrinogen is the most abundant protein involved in blood coagulation and has been associated with many pathological implications in cardiovascular disease. At the final stages of blood clot formation, the transglutaminase Factor XIIIa introduces γ-glutamyl-ε-lysinyl covalent bonds between reactive glutamines and lysines in fibrin, which results in a tighter clot network that is resistant to fibrinolysis. Factor XIIIa crosslinks specific reactive glutamines on fibrinogen, selecting more reactive glutamines in the αC region of fibrinogen than any other chain. Although crosslinking pairs in the αC region have been identified, little is known about the extent of crosslinking and the role played ...


The Role Of The Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition (Emt) In Lung Cancer Progression, David H. Peng 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The Role Of The Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition (Emt) In Lung Cancer Progression, David H. Peng

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths due to conventional therapy resistance and metastatic disease, therefore understanding the mechanisms governing these biological functions is vital for improving patient survival. Approximately 30% of patients with the adenocarcinoma histologic subset of lung cancer possess an activating KRAS mutation, characterized by a lack of response to chemotherapies with a poor overall 5-year survival rate. Despite the mutational frequency, KRAS remains a challenge to pharmacologically inhibit and current drugs undergoing clinical trials that target specific downstream effector proteins of KRAS, such as MEK inhibitors, have failed to produce significant clinical benefits. Previous ...


Advances In Neuroscience Imply That Harmful Experiments In Dogs Are Unethical, Jarrod Bailey, Shiranee Pereira 2017 Cruelty Free International

Advances In Neuroscience Imply That Harmful Experiments In Dogs Are Unethical, Jarrod Bailey, Shiranee Pereira

Professional Science Research Ethics Collection

Functional MRI (fMRI) of fully awake and unrestrained dog 'volunteers' has been proven an effective tool to understand the neural circuitry and functioning of the canine brain. Although every dog owner would vouch that dogs are perceptive, cognitive, intuitive and capable of positive emotions/empathy, as indeed substantiated by ethological studies for some time, neurological investigations now corroborate this. These studies show that there exists a striking similarity between dogs and humans in the functioning of the caudate nucleus (associated with pleasure and emotion), and dogs experience positive emotions, empathic-like responses and demonstrate human bonding which, some scientists claim, may ...


Shu’S Living Shoreline Project Selected For Funding By Federal Coastal Resilience Grant Program, Jennifer H. Mattei 2017 Sacred Heart University

Shu’S Living Shoreline Project Selected For Funding By Federal Coastal Resilience Grant Program, Jennifer H. Mattei

Jennifer Mattei

Jennifer Mattei, restoration ecologist and biology professor at SHU, will lead a team of researchers to monitor the Stratford Point Living Shoreline site with sensors and terrestrial LiDar technologies. The multi-state project was selected for funding to monitor, evaluate and provide recommendations for the design and placement of living shorelines or nature-based infrastructure as part of a $1 million 2017 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Resilience Grant. The grant will be awarded to the Northeast Regional Ocean Council (NROC) and New England Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Agencies in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut with partners ...


The Effect Of Target-Specific Biomolecules In Breast Cancer, Mohannad Garoub 2017 Florida International University

The Effect Of Target-Specific Biomolecules In Breast Cancer, Mohannad Garoub

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the United States and the World, therefore, early effective prevention, diagnosis, and therapy is needed. Estrogens play a major role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Elevated lifetime exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Estrogens through influencing mitochondria contribute to estrogen induced breast carcinogenesis; however, the exact mitochondrial mechanisms underlying the estrogen carcinogenic effect in breast tissue are not clearly understood. For this dissertation, the mitotoxic and cytotoxic effects of triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP) and Origanum majorana organic extract (OME) as well as ...


Characterization Of An 18f-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Probe For Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Of The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, Ahmed Abbas 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization Of An 18f-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Probe For Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Of The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, Ahmed Abbas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cardiovascular disease affects 1.6 million Canadians, of whom one-third have heart failure (HF). HF is diagnosed by imaging investigations and detection of circulating biomarkers. Most of the current imaging strategies study morphologic and gross functional changes, but fall short of imaging molecular abnormalities associated with HF. Biomarkers offer molecular targets; however, clinical biomarkers circulate systemically and are not cardiac-specific. Thus, there is critical need for a biomarker that is endogenous to myocardial tissues. The growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), which binds the hormone ghrelin, is expressed by cardiomyocytes and is elevated in HF patients. This study characterized the ...


The Effect Of Insulin Treatment And Exercise Modality On Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size In Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats, John Z. Nickels 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Insulin Treatment And Exercise Modality On Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size In Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats, John Z. Nickels

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Severe Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is known to have several negative effects on skeletal muscle mass, a condition known as diabetic myopathy. One of these effects is the atrophy of the glycolytic muscle fibers. However, the role of intensity of insulin treatment and exercise modality in attenuating this loss in fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) specifically has yet to be determined. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of differing intensity of insulin therapy and exercise modality on the CSA of plantaris muscle fibers, identified by myosin heavy chain (MHC) of STZ-induced T1DM rats ...


Effects Of Food Consumption On Cell Proliferation In The Brain Of Python Regius, Stacy Star Habroun 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effects Of Food Consumption On Cell Proliferation In The Brain Of Python Regius, Stacy Star Habroun

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Neurogenesis is an important and vastly under-explored area in reptiles. While the ability to generate new brain cells in the adult mammalian brain is limited, reptiles are able to regenerate large populations of neuronal cells. Pythons exhibit a characteristic specific dynamic action (SDA) response after food intake with an increase in metabolic rate that facilitates processing the meal. Associated with this change in SDA, pythons (Python spp.) also exhibit impressive plasticity in their digestive and cardiovascular physiology due to the sheer magnitude of the increase in organ growth that occurs after a meal to speed digestion, absorption, and assimilation of ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress