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Novel Mechanisms Of Antigen Processing That Enhance Bcg Vaccine Efficacy, Christopher R. Singh 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Novel Mechanisms Of Antigen Processing That Enhance Bcg Vaccine Efficacy, Christopher R. Singh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is the most lethal single infectious agent afflicting man today causing 2 million deaths per year. The World Health Organization recommends a vaccine as the best option to prevent this disease. The current vaccine, BCG, has a variable efficacy and does not protect adults. It is known that BCG vaccine becomes sequestered in special phagosome compartments of macrophages that do not fuse with lysosomes. Since lysosome fusion is necessary for peptide production and T cell priming leading to protective TH1 immunity, we hypothesized that vaccine efficacy is reduced and occurs perhaps ...


Impact Of Exercise On Brain Responses To Visual Food Cues: An Fmri Study, Nero Erezi Evero 2011 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Impact Of Exercise On Brain Responses To Visual Food Cues: An Fmri Study, Nero Erezi Evero

Master's Theses and Project Reports

On the basis of a strong body of data, the Institute of Medicine currently recommends at least 60 minutes of exercise per day to prevent body weight gain overtime. Previous studies have shown that there is no compensatory increase in food intake with this dose of exercise. Ultimately, the brain decides whether to alter food intake. Surprisingly, no published studies have assessed the impact of exercise on brain activation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an appetite questionnaire, we investigated the effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on brain responses to visual food cues and subjective appetite ...


Hands-On Labs (Hol): Using Technology And Web-Based Resources To Transform A Traditional Lab-Based Biology Course Into A Distance Learning (Dl) Hybrid Course, Across Schools At Pace University., Erica Kipp, Kabba Colley 2011 Pace University

Hands-On Labs (Hol): Using Technology And Web-Based Resources To Transform A Traditional Lab-Based Biology Course Into A Distance Learning (Dl) Hybrid Course, Across Schools At Pace University., Erica Kipp, Kabba Colley

Cornerstone 3 Reports : Interdisciplinary Informatics

No abstract provided.


Cuttlefish Learning Efficiency In A Food Retrieval Task, Jasmine Schonwald 2011 Roger Williams University

Cuttlefish Learning Efficiency In A Food Retrieval Task, Jasmine Schonwald

Biology Theses

Class Cephalopoda is thought to contain the most intelligent invertebrates thus far discovered. It has been found that cuttlefish have the capacity for learning (Boal et al. 2000, Darmillaq et al. 2003, Darmillaq et al 2006, Graindorge et al., 2006; Karson, Boal and Hanlon, 2003). It has also been shown that cuttlefish can navigate in sophisticated ways, such as within a maze (Graindorge, et al., 2006; Karson, Boal and Hanlon, 2003). The goal of this experiment is to determine the correlation between learning and navigation in cuttlefish. Cuttlefish were placed in an oval tank divided into 24 quadrants with 8 ...


Stromal Derived Growth Factor Alpha (Sdf-1Α) Induces The Differentiation Of Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells (Bmcs) Into Pericytes By Regulating Platelet Derived Growth Factor B (Pdgf-B) Transcription, Randala Hamdan 2011 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Stromal Derived Growth Factor Alpha (Sdf-1Α) Induces The Differentiation Of Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells (Bmcs) Into Pericytes By Regulating Platelet Derived Growth Factor B (Pdgf-B) Transcription, Randala Hamdan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

We previously demonstrated that bone marrow cells (BMCs) migrate to TC71 and A4573 Ewing’s sarcoma tumors where they can differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes and, participate in the tumor vascular development. This process of neo-vascularization, known as vasculogenesis, is essential for Ewing’s sarcoma growth with the soluble vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF165, being the chemotactic factor for BMC migration to the tumor site. Inhibiting VEGF165 in TC71 tumors (TC/siVEGF7-1) inhibited BMC infiltration to the tumor site and tumor growth. Introducing the stromal-derived growth factor (SDF-1α) into the TC/siVEGF7-1 tumors partially ...


Investigation Of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (Bhv-1) Encoded Infected Cell Protein 0 (Bicp0), Natasha N. Gaudreault 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigation Of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (Bhv-1) Encoded Infected Cell Protein 0 (Bicp0), Natasha N. Gaudreault

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) is a significant pathogen of cattle. Following acute infection, BHV-1 establishes a latent infection that persists for the life of the infected host. Stress induced factors cause the virus to reactivate from latency, resulting in virus transmission and transient immune suppression. BHV-1 encoded bICP0 is expressed early and constitutively throughout productive infection. bICP0 is critical for efficient viral replication, virulence, and reactivation in cattle because it stimulates viral transcription and interferes with innate immune responses. bICP0 potentially interacts with a variety of proteins to activate viral gene expression and inhibit innate antiviral defenses. bICP0 localizes to ...


Design And Synthesis Of Metabolically Stabilized Lipid Probes For The Investigation Of Protein–Lipid Binding Interactions, Ashdeep Kaur Rajpal 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Design And Synthesis Of Metabolically Stabilized Lipid Probes For The Investigation Of Protein–Lipid Binding Interactions, Ashdeep Kaur Rajpal

Masters Theses

Protein–lipid binding interactions play crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes, making it very important to study these interactions at the molecular level. However, investigation of these interactions is complicated by several issues, including the inherent complexity of membranes as well as the diverse mechanisms by which proteins interact with the membrane surfaces. As a result, many of these interactions remain poorly characterized. Synthetic probes are useful tools employed for studying protein–lipid binding interactions. This thesis will detail the design and synthesis of metabolically stabilized analogues of various signaling lipids, which mimic the natural species and are ...


Post-Exercise Hypotension In Brief Exercise, Jeremiah G. Bush 2011 Western Kentucky University

Post-Exercise Hypotension In Brief Exercise, Jeremiah G. Bush

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether a single 10 minute bout of exercise, performed at multiple intervals throughout the day to equal 30 minutes, can effectively elicit post-exercise hypotension (PEH). Secondly, it is important to explore whether a light (40% VO2R) or moderate (70% VO2R) intensity is required to elicit PEH within 10 minutes. Subjects (N=11) completed a VO2max test utilizing the Bruce Treadmill protocol. Each subject returned within 3 – 5 days to complete two separate exercising trials. A counter balanced system was employed so that each subject did not perform the same intensity rotation (Counter ...


Modeling Hemorrhagic Stroke And Vasospasm In The Rodent, Sarah Katherine Jane Wendel 2011 Syracuse University

Modeling Hemorrhagic Stroke And Vasospasm In The Rodent, Sarah Katherine Jane Wendel

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

In January 2010, I started work as an undergraduate research assistant at SUNY Upstate Medical University in Dr. Mary Lou Vallano’s laboratory in the Department of Neuroscience and Physiology. My research project was part of a collaborative effort with the laboratory of Dr. Eric Deshaies, a vascular neurosurgeon at Upstate. The goal was to establish a rodent model of subarachnoid hemorrhage and delayed vasospasm, and to test possible protective strategies. We used an adult rat model, in which two injections of autologous blood were given in the cisterna magna region of the brain. Analysis was done using a combination ...


Pathophysiology And Treatment Of Septic And Traumatic Shock, Lyuba Polinkovsky 2011 Syracuse University

Pathophysiology And Treatment Of Septic And Traumatic Shock, Lyuba Polinkovsky

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Background. While various medical treatments have been proven effective in the treatment of sepsis in animal models, the only current clinically accepted treatment of human sepsis is limited to the use of activated protein C. The complex pathogenesis of human sepsis presents a challenge in precisely duplicating the process of disease development in the particular animal models which are currently employed for preclinical testing. Further research examining the pathogenesis of this deadly condition is essential for the implementation of novel therapies that target distinct disease mechanisms. The objective of this 48-hour study is to utilize a clinical model that accurately ...


Carbon And Nitrogen Stable Isotopes In Fruits And Arthropods That Are Eaten By Songbirds During Migration, Sarah E. Donlan 2011 University of Rhode Island

Carbon And Nitrogen Stable Isotopes In Fruits And Arthropods That Are Eaten By Songbirds During Migration, Sarah E. Donlan

Senior Honors Projects

The use of stable isotope analysis is becoming more common in all areas of animal ecology. In particular, natural variation in the abundance of stable isotopes makes them useful in studies of foraging ecology. For example, nitrogen stable isotopes can offer insight into trophic relationships and carbon stable isotopes tend to trace the original source of carbon in a system (e.g. - photosynthetic pathway). This natural variation is potentially useful for quantifying resource use because the isotopic composition of an animal’s diet is assimilated somewhat predictably into the animal’s tissues. In fact, the ratio of naturally-occurring isotopes in ...


Defining The Role Of Egfr Acetylation In Cellular Processes: Clinical Implications, Hui Song 2011 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Defining The Role Of Egfr Acetylation In Cellular Processes: Clinical Implications, Hui Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell membrane tyrosine kinase receptor and plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, cell cycle, and tumorigenesis. Deregulation of EGFR causes many diseases including cancers. Intensive investigation of EGFR alteration in human cancers has led to profound progress in developing drugs to target EGFR-mediated cancers. While exploring possible synergistic enhancement of therapeutic efficacy by combining EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) with other anti-cancer agents, we observed that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a deacetylase inhibitor) enhanced TKI-induced cancer cell death, which further led us to question whether SAHA-mediated sensitization to TKI was ...


Collaboration Using Open Notebook Science In Academia, Andrew Lang, Jean-Claude Bradley, Steven Koch, Cameron Neylon 2011 Drexel University

Collaboration Using Open Notebook Science In Academia, Andrew Lang, Jean-Claude Bradley, Steven Koch, Cameron Neylon

College of Science and Engineering Faculty Research and Scholarship

Technology has a profound effect on how scientists can communicate with each other. This affects how quickly science can progress and what kinds of collaboration are possible. Although the printing press and the subsequent establishment of scientifi c journals dramatically increased the ability of researchers to disseminate their results and ideas, close collaborations between geographically separated individuals had to await the availability of telecommunication technologies, particularly the development of the Internet. Today, the ubiquity of sophisticated and easy - to - use tools to exchange information is enabling the creation of a “ shared presence ” between people, regardless of their geographical location. Researchers ...


Supraspinal Fatigue Is Similar In Men And Women For A Low-Force Fatiguing Contraction, Manda L. Keller, Jaclyn Pruse, Tejin Yoon, Bonnie Schlinder-Delap, April Harkins, Sandra K. Hunter 2011 Marquette University

Supraspinal Fatigue Is Similar In Men And Women For A Low-Force Fatiguing Contraction, Manda L. Keller, Jaclyn Pruse, Tejin Yoon, Bonnie Schlinder-Delap, April Harkins, Sandra K. Hunter

Clinical Lab Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose: This study determined the contribution of supraspinal fatigue to the sex difference in neuromuscular fatigue for a low-intensity fatiguing contraction. Because women have greater motor responses to arousal than men, we also examined whether cortical and motor nerve stimulation, techniques used to quantify central fatigue, would alter the sex difference in muscle fatigue.

Methods: In study 1, cortical stimulation was elicited during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) before and after a submaximal isometric contraction at 20% MVC with the elbow flexor muscles in 29 young adults (20 ± 2.6 yr, 14 men). In study 2, 10 men and 10 women ...


Establishing An Interdepartmental Fluorescent Microscopy Facility, Marcy Kelly, David Zuzga, Nigel Yarlett 2011 Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, Pace University

Establishing An Interdepartmental Fluorescent Microscopy Facility, Marcy Kelly, David Zuzga, Nigel Yarlett

Cornerstone 3 Reports : Interdisciplinary Informatics

No abstract provided.


Hands-On Labs (Hol): Using Technology And Web-Based Resources To Transform A Traditional Lab-Based Biology Course Into A Distance Learning (Dl) Hybrid Course, Across Schools At Pace University., Erica Kipp 2011 Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, Pace University

Hands-On Labs (Hol): Using Technology And Web-Based Resources To Transform A Traditional Lab-Based Biology Course Into A Distance Learning (Dl) Hybrid Course, Across Schools At Pace University., Erica Kipp

Cornerstone 3 Reports : Interdisciplinary Informatics

No abstract provided.


In Vivo Investigations Of Polymer Conjugates As Therapeutics, Elizabeth M. Henchey 2011 University of Massachusetts Amherst

In Vivo Investigations Of Polymer Conjugates As Therapeutics, Elizabeth M. Henchey

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Polymer conjugates offer a way to introduce materials into the body that would normally be rejected or cause toxicity. Two polymers are investigated in vivo for uses in chemotherapeutic delivery, protein therapeutics, and DNA transfection. A novel polymer, polyMPC, has the ability to increase doxorubicin loading and its solubility, and is conjugated in a way to release its payload in a low pH environment. Through its conjugation, blood clearance time of doxorubicin is increased, and thus tumor exposure to the drug is increased with a single administration. It can be administered at ten times the concentration of free doxorubicin, and ...


Role Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Placental Growth Factor And Cytokines On Outer Blood Retinal Barrier Breakdown., Sangeetha Sukumaran 2011 Technological University Dublin

Role Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Placental Growth Factor And Cytokines On Outer Blood Retinal Barrier Breakdown., Sangeetha Sukumaran

Masters

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of the VEGF family of growth factors and
cytokines TNF- α and IL-1β on oBRB function. The human RPE line ARPE-19 was
employed as an in vitro model of the oBRB. Two-Dimensional gel electrophoresis was
employed to study the effect of growth factors on the RPE proteome. The barrier properties of
the oBRB were evaluated by expression of the TJ proteins occludin or Zo-1, or claudins-1, 2,
3 and 4, determined by western blotting analysis. Claudins 2, 3 and 4 were found to be
significantly up-regulated by TNF-α, while interleukin ...


Molecular Diagnosis Of Sexually-Transmitted Chlamydia Trachomatis In The United States, April Harkins, Munson Erik 2011 Marquette University

Molecular Diagnosis Of Sexually-Transmitted Chlamydia Trachomatis In The United States, April Harkins, Munson Erik

Clinical Lab Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Chlamydia, with its Chlamydia trachomatis etiology, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States and is often transmitted via asymptomatic individuals. This review summarizes traditional and molecular-based diagnostic modalities specific to C. trachomatis. Several commercially available, FDA-approved molecular methods to diagnose urogenital C. trachomatis infection include nucleic acid hybridization, signal amplification, polymerase chain reaction, strand displacement amplification, and transcription-mediated amplification. Molecular-based methods are rapid and reliable genital specimen screening measures, especially when applied to areas of high disease prevalence. However, clinical and analytical sensitivity for some commercial systems decreases dramatically when testing urine samples. In vitro ...


Neuroprotective Effects Of A Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist And Modulator In The Rodent Retina, Kazuhiro Iwamoto 2011 Western Michigan University

Neuroprotective Effects Of A Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist And Modulator In The Rodent Retina, Kazuhiro Iwamoto

Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to assess the potential neuroprotective effect of an alpha7 nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, and modulator, PNU-120596, in an in vitro model of excitotoxicity and an in vivo model of acute glaucoma. In in vitro studies, retinas obtained from Long Evans rats were cultured using various concentrations of the PNU compounds to analyze neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. After 3 days in culture, RGCs were identified using an antibody against Thy 1.1, visualized using a fluorescent dye and quantified. In culture, glutamate significantly decreased the number of RGCs. However, if either PNU compound was introduced before ...


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