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Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte

Honors Program Projects

Hexavalent chromium, or Cr(VI), is a potent oxidizer and known carcinogen, that is found at varying levels in the water sources of more than 200 million Americans. However, the exact mechanism of carcinogenicity remains unknown, and though the government currently regulates total chromium levels, they have yet to determine a permissible exposure limit for Cr(VI). Moreover, there is currently no preventative treatment for Cr(VI). Because of Cr(VI)’s strong oxidative power, we hypothesized that it causes DNA mutation and cell death via oxidation and that antioxidants could prevent this from occurring. To test this, we first ...


Applications Of Sirna For Cancer Gene Therapy, Christopher Nicholas Cultrara 2019 Seton Hall University

Applications Of Sirna For Cancer Gene Therapy, Christopher Nicholas Cultrara

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Gene therapy is a potent and versatile nano-medicine strategy in the treatment of cancer. Of the many tools currently used in this application, short-interfering RNA (siRNA) are among the most commonly employed due to their ability to silence oncogenic mRNA with high precision through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway potentially leading to cancer cell death. Our work revolves around silencing the Glucose-Regulated Proteins (GRPs) whose expressions are upregulated in cancerous tissues and are implicated in the proliferative, pro-survival, and anti-apoptotic pathways that govern tumor biology. Here we present a variety of applications to improve the potency and functionality of GRP-targeting ...


Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen 2019 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Conserved, Breed-Dependent, And Subline-Dependent Innate Immune Responses Of Fayoumi And Leghorn Chicken Embryos To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection, Megan A. Schilling, Sahar Memari, Meredith Cavanaugh, Robab Katani, Melissa S. Deist, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Susan J. Lamont, Joram J. Buza, Vivek Kapur 2019 The Pennsylvania State University

Conserved, Breed-Dependent, And Subline-Dependent Innate Immune Responses Of Fayoumi And Leghorn Chicken Embryos To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection, Megan A. Schilling, Sahar Memari, Meredith Cavanaugh, Robab Katani, Melissa S. Deist, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Susan J. Lamont, Joram J. Buza, Vivek Kapur

Susan J. Lamont

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a threat to the global poultry industry, but particularly for smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries. Previous reports suggest that some breeds of chickens are less susceptible to NDV infection, however, the mechanisms contributing to this are unknown. We here examined the comparative transcriptional responses of innate immune genes to NDV infection in inbred sublines of the Fayoumi and Leghorn breeds known to differ in their relative susceptibility to infection as well as at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatability complex (MHC) locus. The analysis identified a set of five core genes, Mx1, IRF1 ...


Computations Of Top-Down Attention By Modulating V1 Dynamics, David Berga, Xavier Otazu 2019 Computer Vision Center, Autonomous University of Barcelona

Computations Of Top-Down Attention By Modulating V1 Dynamics, David Berga, Xavier Otazu

MODVIS Workshop

The human visual system processes information defining what is visually conspicuous (saliency) to our perception, guiding eye movements towards certain objects depending on scene context and its feature characteristics. However, attention has been known to be biased by top-down influences (relevance), which define voluntary eye movements driven by goal-directed behavior and memory. We propose a unified model of the visual cortex able to predict, among other effects, top-down visual attention and saccadic eye movements. First, we simulate activations of early mechanisms of the visual system (RGC/LGN), by processing distinct image chromatic opponencies with Gabor-like filters. Second, we use a ...


Clinical Utility Of Exon Deletion/Duplication Microarray Testing - A Children’S Mercy Kansas City Two-Year Experience, Binu Porath 2019 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Clinical Utility Of Exon Deletion/Duplication Microarray Testing - A Children’S Mercy Kansas City Two-Year Experience, Binu Porath

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Topology And Dynamics Of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Meta-Analysis, Claus Kadelka 2019 Iowa State University

Topology And Dynamics Of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Meta-Analysis, Claus Kadelka

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


A Discrepancy Between The Human Reference Genome (Grch37) And Transcriptome (Refseq) Results In The Incorrect Annotation Of A Clinically-Relevant Sequence Variant In Recql4, Lisa A. Lansdon 2019 Children's Mercy Kansas City

A Discrepancy Between The Human Reference Genome (Grch37) And Transcriptome (Refseq) Results In The Incorrect Annotation Of A Clinically-Relevant Sequence Variant In Recql4, Lisa A. Lansdon

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Bridging From Intramuscular To Limb Perfusion Delivery Of Raav: Optimization In A Non-Human Primate Study, Alisha Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Qiushi Tang, Guo-Jie Ye, Dave R. Knop, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Kristen E. Coleman, Allison M. Keeler, Christian Mueller, Louis G. Chicoine, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Terence R. Flotte 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Bridging From Intramuscular To Limb Perfusion Delivery Of Raav: Optimization In A Non-Human Primate Study, Alisha Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Qiushi Tang, Guo-Jie Ye, Dave R. Knop, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Kristen E. Coleman, Allison M. Keeler, Christian Mueller, Louis G. Chicoine, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

Phase 1 and phase 2 gene therapy trials using intramuscular (IM) administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (rAAV1) for replacement of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency have shown long-term (5-year) stable transgene expression at approximately 2% to 3% of therapeutic levels, arguing for the long-term viability of this approach to gene replacement of secreted serum protein deficiencies. However, achieving these levels required 100 IM injections to deliver 135 mL of vector, and further dose escalation is limited by the scalability of direct IM injection. To further advance the dose escalation, we sought to bridge the rAAV-AAT clinical development ...


Gene Therapy For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Aav Mediated Rnai Approach For Autosomal Dominant C9orf72 Associated Als, Gabriela Toro 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gene Therapy For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Aav Mediated Rnai Approach For Autosomal Dominant C9orf72 Associated Als, Gabriela Toro

Gabriela Toro

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness and respiratory failure. In 2011, the presence of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion within chromosome 9 open reading frame 72(C9ORF72) was identified in ALS patient samples, becoming the major known genetic cause for ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Carriers of this mutation present reduced levels of C9ORF72 mRNA, RNA foci produced by the aggregating expansion and toxic dipeptides generated through repeat-associated non-ATG translation. These findings have led to multiple hypotheses on the pathogenesis of C9ORF72: 1) Haploinsufficiency, 2) RNA gain-of-function, 3) RAN Translation ...


Patterns Of Metabolite Changes Identified From Large-Scale Gene Perturbations In Arabidopsis Using A Genome-Scale Metabolic Network, Taehyong Kim, Kate Dreher, Ricardo Nilo-Poyanco, Insuk Lee, Oliver Fiehn, Bernd Markus Lange, Basil J. Nikolau, Lloyd Sumner, Ruth Welti, Eve S. Wurtele, Seung Y. Rhee 2019 Carnegie Institution for Science

Patterns Of Metabolite Changes Identified From Large-Scale Gene Perturbations In Arabidopsis Using A Genome-Scale Metabolic Network, Taehyong Kim, Kate Dreher, Ricardo Nilo-Poyanco, Insuk Lee, Oliver Fiehn, Bernd Markus Lange, Basil J. Nikolau, Lloyd Sumner, Ruth Welti, Eve S. Wurtele, Seung Y. Rhee

Eve Wurtele

Metabolomics enables quantitative evaluation of metabolic changes caused by genetic or environmental perturbations. However, little is known about how perturbing a single gene changes the metabolic system as a whole and which network and functional properties are involved in this response. To answer this question, we investigated the metabolite profiles from 136 mutants with single gene perturbations of functionally diverse Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes. Fewer than 10 metabolites were changed significantly relative to the wild type in most of the mutants, indicating that the metabolic network was robust to perturbations of single metabolic genes. These changed metabolites were closer to ...


Reverse-Genetic Analysis Of The Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes Of The Heteromeric Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase In Arabidopsis Indicates A Unidirectional Functional Redundancy, Xu Li, Hilal Ilarslan, Libuse Brachova, Hui-Rong Qian, Ling Li, Ping Che, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Basil J. Nikolau 2019 Iowa State University

Reverse-Genetic Analysis Of The Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes Of The Heteromeric Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase In Arabidopsis Indicates A Unidirectional Functional Redundancy, Xu Li, Hilal Ilarslan, Libuse Brachova, Hui-Rong Qian, Ling Li, Ping Che, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Basil J. Nikolau

Basil Nikolau

The heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase catalyzes the first and committed reaction of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. This enzyme is composed of four subunits: biotin carboxyl-carrier protein (BCCP), biotin carboxylase, α-carboxyltransferase, and β-carboxyltransferase. With the exception of BCCP, single-copy genes encode these subunits in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Reverse-genetic approaches were used to individually investigate the physiological significance of the two paralogous BCCP-coding genes, CAC1A (At5g16390, codes for BCCP1) and CAC1B (At5g15530, codes for BCCP2). Transfer DNA insertional alleles that completely eliminate the accumulation of BCCP2 have no perceptible effect on plant growth, development, and fatty acid accumulation. In ...


Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith 2019 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith

Basil Nikolau

Background: Reverse genetic strategies, such as virus-induced gene silencing, are powerful techniques to study gene function. Currently, there are few tools to study the spatial dependence of the consequences of gene silencing at the cellular level.

Results: We report the use of multimodal Raman and mass spectrometry imaging to study the cellular-level biochemical changes that occur from silencing the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene using a Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) vector in maize leaves. The multimodal imaging method allows the localized carotenoid distribution to be measured and reveals differences lost in the spatial average when analyzing a carotenoid extraction of the ...


Two Distinct Domains Contribute To The Substrate Acyl Chain Length Selectivity Of Plant Acyl-Acp Thioesterase, Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau 2019 Iowa State University

Two Distinct Domains Contribute To The Substrate Acyl Chain Length Selectivity Of Plant Acyl-Acp Thioesterase, Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau

Basil Nikolau

The substrate specificity of acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) plays an essential role in controlling the fatty acid profile produced by type II fatty acid synthases. Here we identify two groups of residues that synergistically determine different substrate specificities of two acyl-ACP TEs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvFatB1 and CvFatB2). One group (V194, V217, N223, R226, R227, and I268 in CvFatB2) is critical in determining the structure and depth of a hydrophobic cavity in the N-terminal hotdog domain that binds the substrate’s acyl moiety. The other group (255-RKLSKI-260 and 285-RKLPKL-289 in CvFatB2) defines positively charged surface patches that may facilitate binding of ...


Patterns Of Metabolite Changes Identified From Large-Scale Gene Perturbations In Arabidopsis Using A Genome-Scale Metabolic Network, Taehyong Kim, Kate Dreher, Ricardo Nilo-Poyanco, Insuk Lee, Oliver Fiehn, Bernd Markus Lange, Basil J. Nikolau, Lloyd Sumner, Ruth Welti, Eve S. Wurtele, Seung Y. Rhee 2019 Carnegie Institution for Science

Patterns Of Metabolite Changes Identified From Large-Scale Gene Perturbations In Arabidopsis Using A Genome-Scale Metabolic Network, Taehyong Kim, Kate Dreher, Ricardo Nilo-Poyanco, Insuk Lee, Oliver Fiehn, Bernd Markus Lange, Basil J. Nikolau, Lloyd Sumner, Ruth Welti, Eve S. Wurtele, Seung Y. Rhee

Basil Nikolau

Metabolomics enables quantitative evaluation of metabolic changes caused by genetic or environmental perturbations. However, little is known about how perturbing a single gene changes the metabolic system as a whole and which network and functional properties are involved in this response. To answer this question, we investigated the metabolite profiles from 136 mutants with single gene perturbations of functionally diverse Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes. Fewer than 10 metabolites were changed significantly relative to the wild type in most of the mutants, indicating that the metabolic network was robust to perturbations of single metabolic genes. These changed metabolites were closer to ...


High-Throughput Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting For Lipid Hyperaccumulating Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutants, Bo Xie, Dan Stessman, Jason H. Hart, Haili Dong, Yingjun Wang, David A. Wright, Basil J. Nikolau, Martin H. Spalding, Larry J. Halverson 2019 Iowa State University

High-Throughput Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting For Lipid Hyperaccumulating Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutants, Bo Xie, Dan Stessman, Jason H. Hart, Haili Dong, Yingjun Wang, David A. Wright, Basil J. Nikolau, Martin H. Spalding, Larry J. Halverson

Basil Nikolau

The genetically tractable microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has many advantages as a model for renewable bioproducts and/or biofuels production. However, one limitation of C. reinhardtii is its relatively low-lipid content compared with some other algal species. To overcome this limitation, we combined ethane methyl sulfonate mutagenesis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of cells stained with the lipophilic stain Nile Red to isolate lipid hyperaccumulating mutants of C. reinhardtii. By manipulating the FACS gates, we sorted mutagenized cells with extremely high Nile Red fluorescence signals that were rarely detected in nonmutagenized populations. This strategy successfully isolated several putative lipid hyperaccumulating mutants ...


The 3-Hydroxyacyl-Acp Dehydratase Component Of The Plant Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthase System, Xin Guan, Yozo Okazaki, Andrew Lithio, Ling Li, Xuefeng Zhao, Huanan Jin, Dan Nettleton, Kazuki Saito, Basil J. Nikolau 2019 Iowa State University

The 3-Hydroxyacyl-Acp Dehydratase Component Of The Plant Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthase System, Xin Guan, Yozo Okazaki, Andrew Lithio, Ling Li, Xuefeng Zhao, Huanan Jin, Dan Nettleton, Kazuki Saito, Basil J. Nikolau

Basil Nikolau

We report the characterization of the Arabidopsis 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) dehydratase (mtHD) component of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthase (mtFAS) system, encoded by AT5G60335. The mitochondrial localization and catalytic capability of mtHD were demonstrated with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenesis experiment, and by in vivo complementation and in vitro enzymatic assays. RNAi knockdown lines with reduced mtHD expression exhibit traits typically associated with mtFAS mutants, namely a miniaturized morphological appearance, reduced lipoylation of lipoylated proteins, and altered metabolomes consistent with the reduced catalytic activity of lipoylated enzymes. These alterations are reversed when mthd-rnai mutant plants are grown in ...


Epistatic Interactions Associated With Fatty Acid Concentrations Of Beef From Angus Sired Beef Cattle, Luke M. Kramer, M. A. Abdel Ghaffar, J. E. Koltes, E. R. Fritz-Waters, M. S. Mayes, A. D. Sewell, N. T. Weeks, D. J. Garrick, R. L. Fernando, L. Ma, J. M. Reecy 2019 Iowa State University

Epistatic Interactions Associated With Fatty Acid Concentrations Of Beef From Angus Sired Beef Cattle, Luke M. Kramer, M. A. Abdel Ghaffar, J. E. Koltes, E. R. Fritz-Waters, M. S. Mayes, A. D. Sewell, N. T. Weeks, D. J. Garrick, R. L. Fernando, L. Ma, J. M. Reecy

Nathan Weeks

Background: Consumers are becoming increasingly conscientious about the nutritional value of their food. Consumption of some fatty acids has been associated with human health traits such as blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate genetic variation in content of fatty acids present in meat. Previously publications reported regions of the cattle genome that are additively associated with variation in fatty acid content. This study evaluated epistatic interactions, which could account for additional genetic variation in fatty acid content.

Results: Epistatic interactions for 44 fatty acid traits in a population of Angus beef cattle were evaluated with ...


Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild 2019 Iowa State University

Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

Natural selection is likely a major factor in shaping genomic variation of the African indigenous rural chicken, driving the development of genetic footprints. Selection footprints are expected to be associated with adaptation to locally prevailing environmental stressors, which may include diverse factors as high altitude, disease resistance, poor nutrition, oxidative and heat stresses. To determine the existence of a selection footprint, 268 birds were randomly sampled from three indigenous ecotypes from East Africa (Rwanda and Uganda) and North Africa (Baladi), and two registered Egyptian breeds (Dandarawi and Fayoumi). Samples were genotyped using the chicken Affymetrix 600K Axiom® Array. A total ...


Fusarium Euwallacea: A Serious Threat To The Native And Ornamental Trees And Shrubs In Southern California, Greg Tyler, Yixing Zheng, Michael Kulinich, Hagop Atamian 2019 Chapman University

Fusarium Euwallacea: A Serious Threat To The Native And Ornamental Trees And Shrubs In Southern California, Greg Tyler, Yixing Zheng, Michael Kulinich, Hagop Atamian

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Fusarium Euwallacea is a fungus that has established symbiotic relationship with the beetle Euwallacea aff. fornicata. The beetle bores through the tree bark and into the sapwood making long tunnels inside the trees. The beetle carries the F. Euwallacea in a specialized structure on its body called mandibular mycangia and cultivates the fungus in the tunnels on which the beetle feeds to grow and reproduce. The growth of the fungus obstructs water and mineral transport in the plant xylem tissue, resulting in dieback, wilt and mortality of the host tree. Fungi are known to secrete proteins called effectors in the ...


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