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Productivity, Costs, And Best Management Practices For Major Timber Harvesting Frameworks In Maine, Harikrishnan Soman 2019 University of Maine

Productivity, Costs, And Best Management Practices For Major Timber Harvesting Frameworks In Maine, Harikrishnan Soman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Though the timber harvesting industry in Maine ranges over two centuries, the state has more forest cover than a century ago. Currently, some of the crucial challenges faced by the forest management industry in Maine and elsewhere in the northeastern US are increasing costs of forest operations, diminishing monetary returns and falling markets.

The major goal of this study was to evaluate the production economics of timber harvesting frameworks under different silvicultural prescriptions common to the region. For which, two field studies were conducted at two different locations in Maine, US. The first field study (Study I) was conducted in ...


Stand Location Variance As An Indicator Of Disturbance Regime In A Monotypic Tsuga Canadensis Forest, Cole J. Doolittle 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Stand Location Variance As An Indicator Of Disturbance Regime In A Monotypic Tsuga Canadensis Forest, Cole J. Doolittle

Honors Program Projects

Disturbance regimes, which are critical components of forest ecosystems, influence forest morphology, biodiversity, and regeneration. The heterogeneity of disturbance regimes are not well understood on small scales. In this study I analyzed tree cores from five sites within a Tsuga canadensis (Eastern hemlock) forest in northern Wisconsin to investigate disturbance regimes through mean growth release criteria. This study investigated the following questions: 1) Are disturbance regimes in T. canadensis stand level or site specific? 2) If disturbances are site specific, is site location an indicator of disturbance regime? 3) Do site characteristics such as density and tree diameter at breast ...


Mapping Wilderness Character In Adams County, Pennsylvania, Alyssa J. Kaewwilai 2019 Gettysburg College

Mapping Wilderness Character In Adams County, Pennsylvania, Alyssa J. Kaewwilai

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

The spatial trends in wilderness character in Adams County, Pennsylvania were examined to evaluate how influenced specific areas are impacted by human activity and development. Indicators of wilderness character were selected as natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, along with solitude and unconfined recreation by the Death Valley National Park staff in which a 0-4 ranking system was based upon to portray a range of most degraded to optimal land. This was executed through examination of factors such as abundance of biodiversity and human development within the given area before a Monte Carlo simulation was run to show sensitivity of change. It was ...


Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu 2019 Iowa State University

Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of ...


Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao 2019 Northern Arizona University

Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO2, and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since ...


The Effect Of Five Biomass Cropping Systems On Soil-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Across A Topographic Gradient, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Matthew J. Helmers, Randall K. Kolka 2019 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Five Biomass Cropping Systems On Soil-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Across A Topographic Gradient, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Matthew J. Helmers, Randall K. Kolka

Lisa A. Schulte Moore

Understanding the environmental impact of bioenergy crops is needed to inform bioenergy policy development. We determined the effects of five biomass cropping systems—continuous maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max)-triticale (Triticosecale ×)/soybean-maize, maize-switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), triticale/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and triticale-aspen (Populus alba × P. grandidentata)—on soil-saturated hydraulic conductivity (K S ) across a toposequence in central Iowa, USA. We compared data from the time of cropping system establishment in 2009 to 4 years post-establishment. Both our 2009 and 2013 data confirmed that cropping system impacts on K S vary by landscape position. We found that differences in cropping system ...


Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff

Undergraduate Research Conference

Do white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) prefer to eat certain types of acorns based on tannin content?

Hydrolyzable tannins consist of gallate groups connected via ester linkages to a carbohydrate (D-glucose)

The Prussian Blue method was used to determine hydrolyzable tannin content


The Transesterification Of Hickory Nuts Into Biodiesel Fuel, Hannah Trauger, Madilynn Dewell, Jahida A. Mendoza 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

The Transesterification Of Hickory Nuts Into Biodiesel Fuel, Hannah Trauger, Madilynn Dewell, Jahida A. Mendoza

Undergraduate Research Conference

• Biodiesel fuels can be produced from a fat and an alcohol via transesterification

• Hickory nuts have a high fat content (~60 % by weight)

• Can nuts from shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) be used to produce a biodiesel fuel using existing acidcatalyzed transesterification methods?


The Importance Of Geographic And Biological Variables In Predicting The Naturalization Of Non-Native Woody Plants In The Upper Midwest, Mark P. Widrlechner, Emily J. Kapler, Philip M. Dixon, Janette R. Thompson 2019 Iowa State University

The Importance Of Geographic And Biological Variables In Predicting The Naturalization Of Non-Native Woody Plants In The Upper Midwest, Mark P. Widrlechner, Emily J. Kapler, Philip M. Dixon, Janette R. Thompson

Janette R. Thompson

The selection, introduction, and cultivation of non-native woody plants beyond their native ranges can have great benefits, but also unintended consequences. Among these consequences is the tendency for some species to naturalize and become invasive pests in new environments to which they were introduced. In lieu of lengthy and costly field trials, risk-assessment models can be used to predict the likelihood of naturalization. We compared the relative performance of five established risk-assessment models on species datasets from two previously untested areas: southern Minnesota and northern Missouri. Model classification rates ranged from 64.2 to 90.5%, biologically significant errors ranged ...


Microbial Abundance And The Pattern Of Escherichia Coli Antibiotic Sensitivity And Resistance In Deer Creek And The Potential Impact Of A Veterinarian Hospital’S Input, Sarah Boxer, tim gsell 2019 Governors State University

Microbial Abundance And The Pattern Of Escherichia Coli Antibiotic Sensitivity And Resistance In Deer Creek And The Potential Impact Of A Veterinarian Hospital’S Input, Sarah Boxer, Tim Gsell

GSU Research Day

The gram-negative bacteria, E. coli, is an indicator of fecal input for both point and non-point source origin. The veterinarian hospital located on Deer Creek may contribute to high antibiotic levels, which are known to select for resistant strains of bacteria living in impacted waters. The water running north of the veterinarian hospital was considered potentially antibiotic influenced as it was downstream of the site. The origin of the stream and sites upstream from the hospital were considered influent water. Sediments were also collected from these sites to determine if more long term resident E. coli were present with elevated ...


Assessment Of Soil Particle Size Distribution Under Four Land Covers In Nachusa Grasslands Of Northern Illinois, Reni Truhtcheva Owikoti, Diana Acosta, Markeia Scruggs, Xiaoyong Chen 2019 Biology Program, CAS, Governors State University

Assessment Of Soil Particle Size Distribution Under Four Land Covers In Nachusa Grasslands Of Northern Illinois, Reni Truhtcheva Owikoti, Diana Acosta, Markeia Scruggs, Xiaoyong Chen

GSU Research Day

Soil particle composition is one of the main physical properties of soil that affects soil fertility and quality. The fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution (PSD) can be used to quantitatively evaluate the particle composition of soils. Land cover change with corresponding management practices is recognized as one important driving force affecting soil PSD alterations. The objective of this project was to determine the changes in soil PSD under four plant covers (Woodland, Wetland, Prairie, and Savannah) at the Nachusa Grasslands in North Illinois. The soil PSD was determined by their settling rates in an aqueous solution using hydrometer ...


Comparing Methods And Technologies For Assessing Vertical Size Distribution Of American Beech Leaves (Fagus Grandifolia Ehrh), Adeline Casali 2019 University of Southern Maine

Comparing Methods And Technologies For Assessing Vertical Size Distribution Of American Beech Leaves (Fagus Grandifolia Ehrh), Adeline Casali

Thinking Matters Symposium

The American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh) is a deciduous species that occurs throughout the eastern United States and Southeast Canada. This species grows 20–35 meters in height and is tolerant of a range of environmental conditions. Because beech occurs over a wide geographical and ecological range, it is ideal for comparative studies between sites or environmental conditions. Here we report on the relative size of beech leaves collected from different heights above the forest floor. We then determine if morphological trends between upper and lower canopy were consistent between live fall leaves and senesced mid-winter leaves that remain attached ...


Mapping Mountain Peatlands And Wet Meadows Using Multi-Date, Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Rodney Chimner, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez, Sarah L. Grelik, John A. Hribljan, Ana Maria Planas Clarke, Molly Polk, Erik Lilleskov, Beatriz Fuentealba 2019 Michigan Technological University

Mapping Mountain Peatlands And Wet Meadows Using Multi-Date, Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Rodney Chimner, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez, Sarah L. Grelik, John A. Hribljan, Ana Maria Planas Clarke, Molly Polk, Erik Lilleskov, Beatriz Fuentealba

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Wetlands (called bofedales in the Andes of Peru) are abundant and important components of many mountain ecosystems across the globe. They provide many benefits including water storage, high quality habitat, pasture, nutrient sinks and transformations, and carbon storage. The remote and rugged setting of mountain wetlands creates challenges for mapping, typically leading to misclassification and underestimates of wetland extent. We used multi-date, multi-sensor radar and optical imagery (Landsat TM/PALSAR/RADARSAT-1/SRTM DEM-TPI) combined with ground truthing for mapping wetlands in Huascarán National Park, Peru. We mapped bofedales into major wetland types: 1) cushion plant peatlands, 2) cushion plant wet ...


A Novel Approach To Understanding Bird Communities Using Informed Diversity Estimates At Local And Regional Scales In Northern California And Southern Oregon, Jared D. Wolfe, John D. Alexander, Jamie L. Stephens, C. John Ralph 2019 Michigan Technological University

A Novel Approach To Understanding Bird Communities Using Informed Diversity Estimates At Local And Regional Scales In Northern California And Southern Oregon, Jared D. Wolfe, John D. Alexander, Jamie L. Stephens, C. John Ralph

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Assessment and preservation of biodiversity has been a central theme of conservation biology since the discipline's inception. However, when diversity estimates are based purely on measures of presence–absence, or even abundance, they do not directly assess in what way focal habitats support the life history needs of individual species making up biological communities. Here, we move beyond naïve measures of occurrence and introduce the concept of “informed diversity” indices which scale estimates of avian species richness and community assemblage by two critical phases of their life cycle: breeding and molt. We tested the validity of the “informed diversity ...


Linking Tree Growth Rate, Damage Repair, And Susceptibility To A Genus-Specific Pest Infestation, Kayla Boyes, Kathryn G. Hietala-Henschell, Alexander P. Barton, Andrew J. Storer, Jordan M. Marshall 2019 Purdue University

Linking Tree Growth Rate, Damage Repair, And Susceptibility To A Genus-Specific Pest Infestation, Kayla Boyes, Kathryn G. Hietala-Henschell, Alexander P. Barton, Andrew J. Storer, Jordan M. Marshall

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Pest preference and subsequent susceptibility of a host individual is likely related to previous growth patterns in that host. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a pestiferous beetle introduced to North America from Asia. While all species of ash are susceptible to attack, some individual trees appear to survive infestation. We selected ash trees in southeastern Michigan, collected cores and categorized trees as high tolerance to emerald ash borer attack (high overall health, low crown dieback), low tolerance (low overall health, high crown dieback) and intermediate tolerance (in-between the other categories). We artificially wounded trees and measured wound closure ...


Improving Access To Clean Water Through Service Learning, Rachel E. Gehr, Tolu Odimayomi, Carolina Tornesi MacKinnon 2019 Purdue University

Improving Access To Clean Water Through Service Learning, Rachel E. Gehr, Tolu Odimayomi, Carolina Tornesi Mackinnon

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit: Connecting Through Listening & Scholarship

No abstract provided.


On The Shoulders Of Giants: Continuing The Legacy Of Large-Scale Ecosystem Manipulation Experiments In Puerto Rico, Tana E. Wood, Grizelle González, Whendee L. Silver, Sasha C. Reed, Molly A. Cavaleri 2019 USDA Forest Service

On The Shoulders Of Giants: Continuing The Legacy Of Large-Scale Ecosystem Manipulation Experiments In Puerto Rico, Tana E. Wood, Grizelle González, Whendee L. Silver, Sasha C. Reed, Molly A. Cavaleri

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

There is a long history of experimental research in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. These experiments have addressed questions about biotic thresholds, assessed why communities vary along natural gradients, and have explored forest responses to a range of both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic disturbances. Combined, these studies cover many of the major disturbances that affect tropical forests around the world and span a wide range of topics, including the effects of forest thinning, ionizing radiation, hurricane disturbance, nitrogen deposition, drought, and global warming. These invaluable studies have greatly enhanced our understanding of tropical forest function under different disturbance regimes ...


Using Publicly Available Genbank Data To Teach Plant Phylogeny In High School Classrooms, Madhav P. Nepal, Ethan J. Andersen 2019 South Dakota State University

Using Publicly Available Genbank Data To Teach Plant Phylogeny In High School Classrooms, Madhav P. Nepal, Ethan J. Andersen

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this teaching module, students will learn about NCBI GenBank, search for DNA/protein sequences from multiple plant species of a gene that encodes Rubisco enzyme, construct and interpret a phylogenetic tree, and discuss traits that allowed plants to adapt their life on land.


Adaptation Strategies And Approaches For Forested Watersheds, P. Danielle Shannon, Christopher Swanston, Maria Janowiak, Stephen D. Handler, Kristen M. Schmitt, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia Butler-Leopold 2019 Michigan Technological University

Adaptation Strategies And Approaches For Forested Watersheds, P. Danielle Shannon, Christopher Swanston, Maria Janowiak, Stephen D. Handler, Kristen M. Schmitt, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia Butler-Leopold

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Intentional climate adaptation planning for ecosystems has become a necessary part of the job for natural resource managers and natural resource professionals in this era of non-stationarity. One of the major challenges in adapting ecosystems to climate change is in the translation of broad adaptation concepts to specific, tangible actions. Addressing management goals and values while considering the long-term risks associated with local climate change can make forested watershed management plans more robust to uncertainty and changing conditions. We provide a menu of tiered adaptation strategies, which we developed with a focus on forests of the Midwest and Northeastern U ...


The Effects Of Matthew’S Storm Surge On Coastal Loblolly Pine And Wax Myrtle Understory Regeneration, Brynn D. Wilkinson 2019 South Carolina Governor's School for Science and Mathematics

The Effects Of Matthew’S Storm Surge On Coastal Loblolly Pine And Wax Myrtle Understory Regeneration, Brynn D. Wilkinson

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Hurricanes have detrimental effects on the environment and the economy. Not only are these effects felt immediately after the hurricane, but they last long after the winds have died down. They can affect future plant growth and mortality. In October of 2016 South Carolina was hit by Hurricane Matthew, a category 5 hurricane. Hobcaw Barony, our study site, was in the direct path of the storm. This created an opportunity to study the immediate effects on regeneration after a hurricane. Regenerations rates were measured along and around a surge line to determine regeneration and mortality rates. This data also allowed ...


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