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Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias 2019 University of Maine

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Neurotoxic Effects Of Paraoxon And Isofenphos On The Ventral Nerve Cord Of The American Cockroach, Periplaneta Americana , Thomas Jon Heppner 2019 Iowa State University

Neurotoxic Effects Of Paraoxon And Isofenphos On The Ventral Nerve Cord Of The American Cockroach, Periplaneta Americana , Thomas Jon Heppner

Thomas Jon

The phosphoramidates are a group of organophosphates whose mode of action is not as clear as other activated phosphates. To better understand the mode of action of phosphoramidates, the insecticidal activity and relative potency of paraoxon and the aryl phosphoramidate isofenphos (0-ethyl 0-(2-isopropoxycarbonyl)- phenyl isopropylphosphoramidothioate) and its metabolites, iso- fenphos oxon, des-N-isopropyl isofenphos (DNI) and des-N-iso- propyl isofenphos oxon (DNIO) were examined using the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Each chemical was dissolved in saline and applied to the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of a dissected cockroach. The electrical response of the normally quiescent giant interneurons (GIs) to each chemical ...


Geospatial Analysis Of Rickettsial Species, Amy Frank 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Geospatial Analysis Of Rickettsial Species, Amy Frank

Entomology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular, arthropod-borne bacteria with a potential to cause multiple diseases including Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Fleas, mites, and ticks serve as vectors for Rickettsia, but ticks are the primary vector of interest. RMSF and other rickettsial diseases have continued to gain importance in both human and veterinary medicine as RMSF is the most common tick-borne disease within the United States according to the Lyme and Tick-Borne Disease Research Center. A statewide citizen science project was utilized to determine the prevalence of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsia in Arkansas. This project yielded results in 64 of ...


The Interaction Of Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae Koch, With Cry Protein Production And Predation By Amblyseius Andersoni (Chant) In Cry1ac/Cry2ab Cotton And Cry1f Maize, Yan-Yan Guo, Jun-Ce Tian, Wang-Peng Shi, Xue-Hui Dong, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton 2019 Cornell University

The Interaction Of Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae Koch, With Cry Protein Production And Predation By Amblyseius Andersoni (Chant) In Cry1ac/Cry2ab Cotton And Cry1f Maize, Yan-Yan Guo, Jun-Ce Tian, Wang-Peng Shi, Xue-Hui Dong, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton

Richard L Hellmich

Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time ...


Dietary Risk Assessment Of V-Atpase A Dsrnas On Monarch Butterfly Larvae, Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Blair D. Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou 2019 South China Agricultural University

Dietary Risk Assessment Of V-Atpase A Dsrnas On Monarch Butterfly Larvae, Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Blair D. Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou

Richard L Hellmich

By suppressing the expression of genes with essential biological functions, in planta RNAi can negatively affect the development and survival of target pests. As a part of a concerted effort to assess the risks of RNAi transgenic crops on non-target organisms, we developed an in vivo toxicity assay to examine the impacts of ingested dsRNAs incurred to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), an iconic eco-indicator in North America. To create the worst case scenario, the full-length v-ATPase A cDNAs from the target pest, western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the non-target D. plexippus were respectively cloned. A 400 ...


Dynamic Role And Importance Of Surrogate Species For Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts Of Genetically Engineered Insect-Resistant Plants On Non-Target Organisms, Michael Wach, Richard L. Hellmich, Raymond Layton, Jörg Romeis, Patricia G. Gadaleta 2019 ILSI Research Foundation

Dynamic Role And Importance Of Surrogate Species For Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts Of Genetically Engineered Insect-Resistant Plants On Non-Target Organisms, Michael Wach, Richard L. Hellmich, Raymond Layton, Jörg Romeis, Patricia G. Gadaleta

Richard L Hellmich

Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to ...


Monarch Butterflies Do Not Place All Of Their Eggs In One Basket: Oviposition On Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, John M. Pleasants, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Butterflies Do Not Place All Of Their Eggs In One Basket: Oviposition On Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, John M. Pleasants, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

Over the past two decades, the population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline in overwintering numbers. Habitat restoration that includes planting milkweeds is essential to boost monarch numbers within the breeding range. Milkweeds are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies, but female oviposition preference for different milkweed species, especially those with overlapping ranges, is not well documented. We examined the relative inclination to lay eggs on nine milkweed species native to Iowa (no choice), and oviposition preference (choice) among the four most commonly occurring Iowa species (Asclepias incarnata, Asclepias syriaca, Asclepias ...


Performance Of Early Instar Monarch Butterflies (Danaus Plexippus L.) On Nine Milkweed Species Native To Iowa, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Frances K. Hunter 2019 Iowa State University

Performance Of Early Instar Monarch Butterflies (Danaus Plexippus L.) On Nine Milkweed Species Native To Iowa, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Frances K. Hunter

Richard L Hellmich

Over the past two decades, the population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline. Habitat restoration that includes milkweed plants is crucial to boost population numbers in the breeding range. Monarch butterfly larvae use milkweeds as their only host plant, but larval performance on different milkweed species is not well documented. We examined early instar survival and growth on nine milkweed species native to Iowa. These included Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed), A. hirtella (tall green milkweed), A. incarnata (swamp milkweed), A. speciosa (showy milkweed), A. sullivantii (prairie milkweed), A. syriaca (common milkweed), A. tuberosa ...


Bacterially Expressed Dsrna Causes Gene Silencing In Eab, Lynne Rieske-Kinney 2019 University of Kentucky

Bacterially Expressed Dsrna Causes Gene Silencing In Eab, Lynne Rieske-Kinney

Entomology Research Data

RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring, biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation by neutralizing target mRNA molecules. Recent advances in our understanding of the RNAi mechanism have allowed its development as an emerging tool to protect against insect pests. The major challenge for efficient pest management using RNAi as a molecular bio-pesticide in the field is development of convenient and efficient methods for production, and practical delivery of stable dsRNAs to the target insect. Our goal is to assess the potential for deploying bacterially produced RNAi as a bio-pesticide against an invasive forest pest ...


Susceptibility To Bt Proteins Is Not Required For Agrotis Ipsilon Aversion To Bt Maize, Rachel Renee Binning, Joel R. Coats, Xiaoxiao Kong, Richard L. Hellmich II 2019 DuPont Pioneer

Susceptibility To Bt Proteins Is Not Required For Agrotis Ipsilon Aversion To Bt Maize, Rachel Renee Binning, Joel R. Coats, Xiaoxiao Kong, Richard L. Hellmich Ii

Richard L Hellmich

Although Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize has been widely adopted in diverse regions around the world, relatively little is known about the susceptibility and behavioral response of certain insect pests to Bt maize in countries where this maize is not currently cultivated. These are important factors to consider as management plans are developed. These factors were investigated for Agrotis ipsilon, a global pest of maize, with Cry1F and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 maize. Agrotis ipsilon demonstrated an initial, post-ingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize. Development and mortality were also affected – survival on Cry1F maize tissue was 40% and weight gain of survivors of ...


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species During The 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard L. Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species During The 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard L. Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species During The 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species During The 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Of Monarchs And Men: Possible Influence Of Bt Corn In The Agricultural Community, Richard L. Hellmich, Marlin E. Rice, John M. Pleasants, Wai-Ki F. Lam 2019 Iowa State University

Of Monarchs And Men: Possible Influence Of Bt Corn In The Agricultural Community, Richard L. Hellmich, Marlin E. Rice, John M. Pleasants, Wai-Ki F. Lam

Richard L Hellmich

Transgenic Bt com has provided unprecedented control of European com borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, without further inputs of less environmentally-friendly insecticides (Caprio et al. 1998). Transgenic com hybrids contain a protein-producing gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that is toxic to certain insects when it is eaten by the larval stages (Koziel et al. 1993). Farmers had their first opportunity in 1996 to plant transgenic Bt com hybrids that killed European com borers. This protein prevents large amounts of leaf feeding, stalk tunneling and subsequent yield loss caused by European com borer.


On-Plant Selection And Genetic Analysis Of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Behavioral Traits: Plant Abandonment Versus Plant Establishment, Michael A. Rausch, Jeremy A. Kroemer, Aaron J. Gassmann, Richard L. Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

On-Plant Selection And Genetic Analysis Of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Behavioral Traits: Plant Abandonment Versus Plant Establishment, Michael A. Rausch, Jeremy A. Kroemer, Aaron J. Gassmann, Richard L. Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

Although some studies have investigated how insect behavior could influence resistance evolution to transgenic plants, none have determined if behavioral traits respond to selection pressure and how they may be inherited. We investigated plant establishment and abandonment traits for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalisi (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), by conducting a laboratory selection experiment and quantifying patterns of gene expression. Egg masses with emerging larvae were placed on maize plants and silking individuals were collected every 15 min during a 4-h period to generate a plant abandonment (PA) colony. Plants were dissected 24-72 h later, and larvae were collected for ...


Nontarget Effects Of Bt Corn On Pathogenic And Toxigenic Fungi, Gary P. Munkvold, Walter G. Hyde, Richard L. Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Nontarget Effects Of Bt Corn On Pathogenic And Toxigenic Fungi, Gary P. Munkvold, Walter G. Hyde, Richard L. Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

There may be nontarget effects of transgenic corn hybrids, positive and negative, on fungi that interact with the targeted pests. What are the effects of Bt corn on fungi that are associated with corn plants and their insect pests?


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski, Victoria Pocius 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski, Victoria Pocius

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established in March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants because milkweeds are now absent from most agricultural fields. This study is being conducted over multiple years to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the midwest.


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