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The Ecological Niche Of Echinococcus Multilocularis In North America: Understanding Biotic And Abiotic Determinants Of Parasite Distribution With New Records In New Mexico And Maryland, United States, Sebastian Botero-Cañola, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan, Sara E. Rácz, Parker V. Lowe, John E. Ubelaker, Scott Lyell Gardner 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Ecological Niche Of Echinococcus Multilocularis In North America: Understanding Biotic And Abiotic Determinants Of Parasite Distribution With New Records In New Mexico And Maryland, United States, Sebastian Botero-Cañola, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan, Sara E. Rácz, Parker V. Lowe, John E. Ubelaker, Scott Lyell Gardner

Scott Gardner Publications & Papers

English: Understanding the factors shaping the niche of parasites and its expression over geographical space and through time continues to be a modern scientific challenge with the results of research in this area directly influencing both theoretical and applied biology. This is especially important for proactive management of zoonotic parasites such as Echinococcus multilocularis, the etiologic agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Echinococcus multilocularis has a Holarctic distribution; with its geographic range and prevalence increasing recently in areas of the western Palearctic, while its distribution dynamics are poorly understood in the Nearctic. In this paper, we use an ecological niche modeling (ENM ...


Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers 2019 Roanoke College

Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers

Virginia Journal of Science

Snorkel observations of Percina roanoka and P. nevisense in the Roanoke River during summer months were followed by measuring current velocity, water depth, and substrate diameter at points of occupation. A total of 89 observations of P. roanoka and 81 observations of P. nevisense were compared using two-sample T-tests. Percina roanoka inhabited faster, shallower water than P. nevisense with the former found in a mean flow of 0.318 m/s and depth of 31.53 cm and the latter in a mean flow of 0.17 m/s and depth of 55.6 cm. Mean diameter of substrate at ...


Exploring The Effects Of Dam Removals On Zooplankton In Penobscot Estuary, Erin Bucci, Karen Wilson 2019 University of Southern Maine

Exploring The Effects Of Dam Removals On Zooplankton In Penobscot Estuary, Erin Bucci, Karen Wilson

Thinking Matters Symposium

Estuaries provide many ecosystem services such as buffering the negative impacts of storms, offering recreation and commercial fishing opportunities, and they serve as a critical habitat corridor for migratory fish. In New England, estuarine habitats have been dramatically altered over the last 200 years due to dam construction; migratory fish such as Atlantic salmon and alewives have suffered. Recently, there have been several dam removal projects in Maine aimed to restore these populations – the largest of these efforts being the Penobscot River Restoration Project. In 2013, two dams were removed from the Penobscot River Estuary, opening more than 2,000 ...


Quantifying Atlantic Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus) Larval Abundance Throughout Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Hannah Haskell, Britney Evangelista, Alex Loftis 2019 University of Southern Maine

Quantifying Atlantic Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus) Larval Abundance Throughout Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Hannah Haskell, Britney Evangelista, Alex Loftis

Thinking Matters Symposium

As markets for the Atlantic Sea scallop are growing, the need for sustainable and reliable harvesting methods such as aquaculture is more imperative than ever. Due to the difficulty of maintaining sea scallop hatcheries, scallop farmers typically collect larvae from the ocean and raise them until a marketable size on lease sites. In order to efficiently collect scallop larvae, being able to predict when the larvae are most abundant in the water column is crucial. The goal of our research was to learn when scallop larvae are most abundant in the water column and to determine if there is a ...


Functional Feeding Groups Of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates On Natural And Artificial Leaves In Forested Stream Habitats In The Sebago Lake Land Reserve, Sam H. Matey, Kala Freytag Wistar 2019 University of Southern Maine

Functional Feeding Groups Of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates On Natural And Artificial Leaves In Forested Stream Habitats In The Sebago Lake Land Reserve, Sam H. Matey, Kala Freytag Wistar

Thinking Matters Symposium

We investigated preferential insect colonization of natural versus artificial leaves in forested streams to determine the impact of invertebrate-substrate associations on macroinvertebrate community composition and ecosystem nutrient cycling. We created 10 onion bags filled with natural maple leaves and 10 filled with artificial maple leaves, and placed 5 of each in two forested streams, one larger and one smaller, in the Sebago Lake Land Reserve in Standish, Maine. We identified the aquatic macroinvertebrates found on these samples after approximately one month to order-level and used Maine DEP biomonitoring data and functional feeding group taxonomies to classify macroinvertebrates by functional feeding ...


Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow 2019 University of Southern Maine

Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow

Student Scholarship

Climate change and weather affect the phenology of bird migration; however, specific climatological factors associated with these observed effects have only recently been described. The relationship between local, regional, and global climate patterns and avian migration are increasingly important to understand due to the widespread, and potentially negative, implications (such as reduced fecundity) of rapid human induced climate change on bird populations. Migratory birds are under selective pressure to arrive at breeding areas at the optimal time to set up nesting territories and exploit seasonally abundant food resources, and because climate change has the potential to occur more rapidly than ...


A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera) And Revisions Of The Southern African Spider Beetle Genera Meziomorphum And Eutaphroptinus (Ptinidae: Coleoptera), Olivia M. Gearner 2019 Western Kentucky University

A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera) And Revisions Of The Southern African Spider Beetle Genera Meziomorphum And Eutaphroptinus (Ptinidae: Coleoptera), Olivia M. Gearner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Proposals for the internal relationships and classification of the bostrichoids are currently poorly supported, and almost all are based on morphology alone. This study improves upon on previous phylogenetic analyses of the group by including more taxa using the standard genes for many phylogenetic analyses. Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 28S small subunit rRNA, and 16S small subunit rRNA mitochondrial genes were sequenced or obtained from Genbank, then analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Topologies differed depending on genes used. A three gene tree and a two gene (28S and CO1) tree both supported relationships in which a basal ...


Impacts Of Harmful Algal Blooms On Dissolved Organic Carbon In The Lower York River Estuary, Joshua Sacks, Mark J. Brush, Iris C. Anderson 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Impacts Of Harmful Algal Blooms On Dissolved Organic Carbon In The Lower York River Estuary, Joshua Sacks, Mark J. Brush, Iris C. Anderson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Estuaries are important sites of carbon cycling; however, the impact of increasingly prevalent harmful algal blooms (HABs) on cycling in these systems remains unclear. To examine the impact of two bloom species, Alexandrium monilatum and Margalefidinium polykrikoides on the quantity and composition of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) pools and rates of benthic and pelagic microbial respiration in the lower York River Estuary, VA, a series field samplings and laboratory incubations were performed. The two HAB species greatly increased the size of the DOC and CDOM pools and altered the character of the CDOM ...


A Stage-Structured Oyster Population Model For Reef Restoration, Rachel Wilson 2019 College of William and Mary

A Stage-Structured Oyster Population Model For Reef Restoration, Rachel Wilson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Oysters have experienced drastic declines in their population because of environmental factors and harvesting pressures, making them a focal species for restoration efforts [1, 22]. Oyster shell has become a limited resource and alternative substrates are not as suitable for larval recruitment and shell accumulation [1, 2, 7]. For this reason, restoration efforts are restricted, despite the attempts in the private and public sector. To increase the effectiveness of restoration, the dynamics of oyster reef systems must be further analyzed and understood. This thesis proposes a stage-structured ordinary differential equation model to investigate the dynamics of deterministic and stochastic oyster ...


Investigating Diel Periodicity In Export Flux In The Gulf Of Mexico Using A Particulate Imaging System, Justin Edward Blancher 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating Diel Periodicity In Export Flux In The Gulf Of Mexico Using A Particulate Imaging System, Justin Edward Blancher

Master's Theses

To estimate the diurnal periodicity in the biological pump, a floating array with a marine snow camera system at 150 m depth was used, and particles were imaged at a 40 second interval for a 24 to 30 hour period at five sites in the Gulf of Mexico in June 2017. Each image was processed to identify and size all the particles within the frame, which was then processed to determine diameter, an estimated volume, and settling speed for each particle. Using these parameters, particle mass was estimated using algebraically rearranged calculations for settling speed. Each hour during the deployment ...


Plant Mitochondrial Genome Evolution And Structure Has Been Shaped By Double-Strand Break Repair And Recombination, Emily Wynn 2019 University of Nebrask-Lincoln

Plant Mitochondrial Genome Evolution And Structure Has Been Shaped By Double-Strand Break Repair And Recombination, Emily Wynn

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Plant mitochondrial genomes are large but contain a small number of genes. These genes have very low mutation rates, but genomes rearrange and expand at significant rates. We propose that much of the apparent complexity of plant mitochondrial genomes can be explained by the interactions of double-strand break repair, recombination, and selection. One possible explanation for the disparity between the low mutation rates of genes and the high divergence of non-genes is that synonymous mutations in genes are not truly neutral. In some species, rps14 has been duplicated in the nucleus, allowing the mitochondrial copy to become a pseudogene. By ...


Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis

Dissertations

As human populations rise, the level of man-made noise increases globally. Naval sonar and boat traffic are underwater sound sources of particular concern to marine mammal welfare. To better understand the impact of these noise increases on cetaceans, studies can explore animals’ behavioral changes in response to noise. Studies have investigated the ‘dose-response’ relationship between the received sound pressure level of sonar signals and the behavior of cetaceans in the wild, but exposure studies in controlled environments are limited. The studies in this dissertation examined bottlenose dolphin vocal modifications during various experimental noise treatments. Acoustic recordings previously obtained for bottlenose ...


Density And Mass Effect On The Development Of Phormia Regina, Brandon H. Strauss 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Density And Mass Effect On The Development Of Phormia Regina, Brandon H. Strauss

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Forensic entomology is the application of the study of arthropods to the criminal justice system. This is primarily done through the development of a post mortem interval (PMI) based the insect evidence present. A practitioner must be able to determine the age of the insect through temperature data. One factor influencing the temperature dependent development is gregarious behavior. Current literature describes a faster development rate due to an increase in feeding efficiency and temperatures produced by this aggregate. However, there is very little literature defining a minimum number needed to induce this effect and little to none on it for ...


Microsatellite Analysis Of Culex Tarsalis Populations In Montana, Kaitlin Stromberg 2019 Carroll College

Microsatellite Analysis Of Culex Tarsalis Populations In Montana, Kaitlin Stromberg

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

West Nile Virus (WNV) has been present in Montana since 2002. The primary vector of WNV in Montana is Culex tarsalis. At Carroll College, the purpose of the WNV project is to survey for the presence of the virus across the state and create a risk model in real time. The goal of this particular study was to find a microsatellite protocol that consistently works in order to create a reliable landscape genetics model for C. tarsalis populations. Three reagent sets were used in order to test which reagent conditions best amplified the three loci, followed by gel electrophoresis to ...


Guided Alligator Tours Or Raccoon Schooling (Gators), Paul List 2019 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Guided Alligator Tours Or Raccoon Schooling (Gators), Paul List

Senior Theses

In my two main internships during college, I worked closely with two very different animals: raccoons and alligators. Additionally, I gained experience in presenting educational programs during my internship at Fripp Island, where my most common program was our Gator Walk. For my thesis project, I built upon my experience in interpretive programming, drawing on my experience with alligators and raccoons to develop a unique educational program to present at Congaree National Park. This report will describe the process of developing this program as well as it’s implementation and outcomes. In addition, it includes a review of scholarly literature ...


A Qualitative Study Of The Perceived Risks Of The Impacts Of Moose-Winter Tick Interactions On Human Health, Maine Economy, And Maine Culture, Asha DiMatteo-LePape 2019 University of Maine

A Qualitative Study Of The Perceived Risks Of The Impacts Of Moose-Winter Tick Interactions On Human Health, Maine Economy, And Maine Culture, Asha Dimatteo-Lepape

Honors College

In order to answer the question of how people perceive the interactions between winter ticks and moose, and the impacts that these interactions may have on culture, economy, and recreational practices in Maine, interviews were conducted with participants from four stakeholder groups: hunters, outfitters, Wabanaki citizens, and wildlife managers. By using a case study methodology, I was able to explore moose health risk perceptions as described by participants from the four stakeholder groups, and the likely impacts on recreation behavior, livelihoods and economic viability, cultural maintenance, and wildlife management. In this study, multiple data generation techniques (i.e., semi-structured interviews ...


Cryptic Herbivorous Invertebrates Restructure The Composition Of Degraded Coral Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Florida, Usa, Angelo Jason Spadaro 2019 Old Dominion University

Cryptic Herbivorous Invertebrates Restructure The Composition Of Degraded Coral Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Florida, Usa, Angelo Jason Spadaro

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Coral reefs have been on a trajectory of decline for nearly a century due to a variety of factors that have contributed to the shift in these communities away from dominance by reef-building corals, with commensurate changes on community composition and function. Florida’s reefs are a compelling example of a degraded system that has undergone a phase shift, and thus offered an excellent model system for my study of the effects of grazing by cryptic herbivores on community composition and their potential restoration value. I had four major objectives: (1) determine the suitability of Maguimithrax spinosissimus for manipulating grazing ...


Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm 2019 Pepperdine University

Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The study of anatomy contends that “form follows function”; a disciplinary theme purporting that anatomical structures (i.e., cells, tissues, and organs) have a shape that serves its proper function. With this in mind, it is unclear why human arterial distribution off the aortic arch is asymmetrical, while the corresponding venous anatomy is symmetrical. We investigated the evolutionary, developmental, and physiological bases for the asymmetry of aortic arch branches in humans. First, we investigated the cardiovascular anatomy of ancestral species to determine if, and at what level, anatomical divergence (from aortic symmetry to asymmetry) occurs. Second, we examined the formation ...


Two New Tiger Beetle Species Of The Genus Calochroa Hope, 1838 (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) From Myanmar. 150. Contribution Towards The Knowledge Of The Cicindelidae, Jürgen Wiesner, Moe Hnin Phyu 2019 Dresdener Ring 11

Two New Tiger Beetle Species Of The Genus Calochroa Hope, 1838 (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) From Myanmar. 150. Contribution Towards The Knowledge Of The Cicindelidae, Jürgen Wiesner, Moe Hnin Phyu

Insecta Mundi

Calochroa horii Wiesner and Phyu, new species, and Calochroa fumikoae Wiesner and Phyu, new species (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) are described from Myanmar. A key to all members of the genus known to occur in Myanmar is provided.


Descriptions Of One New Genus And Seven New Species Of Rhinotragini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), James E. Wappes, Antonio Santos-Silva 2019 American Coleoptera Museum

Descriptions Of One New Genus And Seven New Species Of Rhinotragini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), James E. Wappes, Antonio Santos-Silva

Insecta Mundi

Descriptions of a new genus, Giesberticus Wappes and Santos-Silva, and seven new species in the Rhinotragini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are included: Oxylymma soniae Wappes and Santos-Silva, from Bolivia; O. surinamensis Wappes and Santos-Silva, from Suriname; O. birai Wappes and Santos-Silva, from Brazil; Paraeclipta albopilosa Wappes and Santos-Silva, from Bolivia; P. vandenberghei Wappes and Santos- Silva, from Nicaragua; Odontocera elllanocarti Wappes and Santos-Silva, from Panama; and Giesberticus longiventris Wappes and Santos-Silva, from Bolivia. In addition, the holotype of Oxylymma gibbicollis Bates, 1873 is figured for the first time, Odontocera argenteolineata Santos-Silva and Bezark, 2016 is newly recorded for Guatemala and the ...


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