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Study Of Environmental Variables And Connectivity Of Northern Mexico For Cranes: Conservation Implications, EDGAR GUSTAVO LÓPEZ-SAUT, RICARDO RODRIGUEZ ESTRELLA, FELIPE CHAVEZ-RAMIREZ 2010 Centro de Inverstigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste

Study Of Environmental Variables And Connectivity Of Northern Mexico For Cranes: Conservation Implications, Edgar Gustavo López-Saut, Ricardo Rodriguez Estrella, Felipe Chavez-Ramirez

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems for biodiversity and as a resource for humans. Humans depend on wetlands for water and food, but with expansion of urban cores, water overexploitation, and the increase of croplands, wetlands are at risk. The Chihuahuan desert is an ecoregion important for the economy and development of Mexico. Although there are many temporal wetlands that support many migratory birds, water in some desert landscapes is being overexploited due to development. This leads to the desiccation of wetlands important for migratory birds such as cranes. The cranes as a group are associated with grasslands ...


Influence Of Landscape Features Of Wetlands On Nesting Patterns Of Sandhill Cranes In Central Wisconsin, SU LIYING, ANNE E. LACY, JEB A. BARZEN 2010 International Crane Foundation

Influence Of Landscape Features Of Wetlands On Nesting Patterns Of Sandhill Cranes In Central Wisconsin, Su Liying, Anne E. Lacy, Jeb A. Barzen

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

We studied the relationship between landscape features and nesting patterns of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in central Wisconsin for 3 years. Our study covered 9,840 ha, including about 50% agricultural fields, 20% forest, and 20% wetlands. We analyzed landscape features and nesting patterns at the wetland complex level. Landscape features included size, shape, and type of cover for each wetland complex. Nesting patterns included nesting density and the spatial pattern of the nest locations in a wetland among years. Nest density varied among wetland complexes and years. Mean nest densities in wetlands surveyed were 0.037, 0 ...


Survival, Reproduction, And Movements Of Migratory Whooping Cranes During The First Seven Years Of Reintroduction, RICHARD P. URBANEK, LARA E. A. FONDOW, SARA E. ZIMORSKI 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Survival, Reproduction, And Movements Of Migratory Whooping Cranes During The First Seven Years Of Reintroduction, Richard P. Urbanek, Lara E. A. Fondow, Sara E. Zimorski

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

An effort to reintroduce a migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana) into eastern North America began in 2001. During 2001-2007, 125 juveniles were costume/isolation-reared and released: 106 were led by ultralight aircraft from Necedah National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), central Wisconsin, to Chassahowitzka NWR, central Gulf Coast of Florida, on their first autumn migration (ultralight-led or UL). The remaining 19 individuals were released directly on Necedah NWR during autumn of the hatch year (direct autumn release or DAR). Of 86 UL and 13 DAR cranes that completed their first spring migration, 72 (84%) and 5 (38%), respectively, returned unassisted ...


Nest Desertion In A Reintroduced Population Of Migratory Whooping Cranes, RICHARD P. URBANEK, SARA E. ZIMORSKI, ANNA M. FASOLI, EVA K. SZYSZKOSKI 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Nest Desertion In A Reintroduced Population Of Migratory Whooping Cranes, Richard P. Urbanek, Sara E. Zimorski, Anna M. Fasoli, Eva K. Szyszkoski

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Reintroduction of an eastern migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana) into eastern North America began in 2001. Reproduction first occurred in 2005. Through 2008, eggs were produced in 22 first nests and 2 renests. All first nests failed–50% confirmed due to desertion by the parents and the remaining nest failures also consistent with the pattern of parental desertion. Nest failures were not related to stage of incubation, and they were often synchronous. Temperatures in winter and early spring affected timing of nest failure. An environmental factor such as harassment of incubating cranes by black flies (Simulium spp.) may ...


Development Of The Whooping Crane Tracking Project Geographic Information System, MARTHA TACHA, ANDY BISHOP, JUSTIN BREI 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Development Of The Whooping Crane Tracking Project Geographic Information System, Martha Tacha, Andy Bishop, Justin Brei

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The highest losses in the Aransas-Wood Buffalo whooping crane population occur during migration. Conservation and recovery of the endangered whooping crane requires understanding of migration patterns to identify important stopover areas and potential sources of mortality or disturbance. We converted the Cooperative Whooping Crane Tracking Project database, containing more than 3 decades of data on whooping crane sightings, to a geographic information system (GIS) to allow coarse scale spatial analyses of whooping crane migration patterns in the United States portion of the Central Flyway. At this writing, the geodatabase contains point data for 1,981 confirmed whooping crane sightings through ...


Changes In Winter Whooping Crane Territories And Range 1950-2006, THOMAS V. STEHN, FELIPE PRIETO 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Changes In Winter Whooping Crane Territories And Range 1950-2006, Thomas V. Stehn, Felipe Prieto

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The whooping crane (Grus americana) winters on the Texas coast primarily in salt marsh habitat. The location of adult whooping crane winter territories during 9 winters between 1950 and 2006 was derived from aerial census data digitized onto infrared photos using GIS software. Range expansion, including changes in distribution and size of winter territories, was analyzed over a 57-year period as flock size increased by 765%. Crane pairs have opted to establish territories in or close to the traditional winter area rather than moving long distances along the coast. This distribution seems based on the preference of the male crane ...


Reproductive Health And Performance Of The Florida Flock Of Introduced Whooping Cranes, MARILYN G. SPALDING, MARTIN J. FOLK, STEPHEN A. NESBITT, RICHARD KILTIE 2010 University of Florida

Reproductive Health And Performance Of The Florida Flock Of Introduced Whooping Cranes, Marilyn G. Spalding, Martin J. Folk, Stephen A. Nesbitt, Richard Kiltie

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

We retrospectively examined the reproductive parameters of 122 breeding-age whooping cranes (Grus americana) in a reintroduced flock in central Florida from 1992 to 2007. The flock performed poorly when compared with an existing wild flock for all reproductive parameters when controlled for age. Pairs first formed in 1995, nested in 1999, and the first chick fledged in 2002. By 2007, 19 of 63 clutches produced 25 chicks, 9 of which fledged. Drought conditions were ruled out as the sole cause of failure when the drought lessened and productivity increased, but not in all years. We examined adult health, mortality, gonad ...


Winter Distribution Of Greater Sandhill Cranes Marked At Breeding Areas In California, Oregon, And Washington, GARY L. IVEY, JOSEPH D. ENGLER, MARTIN J. ST. LOUIS, MARK A. STERN, SEAN CROSS 2010 International Crane Foundation

Winter Distribution Of Greater Sandhill Cranes Marked At Breeding Areas In California, Oregon, And Washington, Gary L. Ivey, Joseph D. Engler, Martin J. St. Louis, Mark A. Stern, Sean Cross

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Large numbers of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) have been banded and color-marked at several important breeding sites in the western U.S. since the late 1960s. Crane color-marking began in the late 1960s at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in eastern Oregon. Crane marking programs were initiated at Sycan Marsh, Summer Lake Wildlife Area (both in south-central Oregon), as well as at Modoc NWR in the mid-1980s. In the mid-1990s, a marking program was initiated at Conboy Lake NWR in south-central Washington. This paper reviews winter records and distribution of marked birds from these sites within the Central ...


Whooping Crane Migrational Habitat Use Of The Platte River, Nebraska, 2001-2006, SHAY HOWLIN, CLAYTON DERBY, DALE STRICKLAND 2010 Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc.

Whooping Crane Migrational Habitat Use Of The Platte River, Nebraska, 2001-2006, Shay Howlin, Clayton Derby, Dale Strickland

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The Platte River Endangered Species Partnership monitored whooping crane (Grus americana) habitat use along the Platte River between Chapman and Lexington, Nebraska during 11 migration seasons from 2001 to 2006. Daily aerial surveys took place in the morning from 21 March to 29 April in the spring and from 9 October to 10 November in the fall. Decoy detection trials were conducted during each of the 11 survey seasons to calculate actual sample inclusion probabilities for crane groups detected during monitoring flights. The detectability model found significant differences in detectability among strata (upland or channel), contractor, and altitude of the ...


Mississippi Sandhill Crane Conservation Update 2006-2008, SCOTT G. HEREFORD, LAUREN E. BILLODEAUX 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge

Mississippi Sandhill Crane Conservation Update 2006-2008, Scott G. Hereford, Lauren E. Billodeaux

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The Mississippi sandhill crane (MSC, Grus canadensis pulla) is an endangered non-migratory subspecies found in the wild only on and near the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) in Jackson County in southeastern Mississippi (Gee and Hereford 1995). The MSC is adapted to the wet pine savannas and open pinelands of the Southeastern Outer Gulf Coastal Plain. By the 1970s, their numbers had decreased to 30-40 individuals including only 5-6 nesting pairs. The firemaintained savannas, once a dominant feature of the landscape, were converted to pine plantations and human development or had degraded to overgrown pine scrub. The MSCNWR ...


Home Range Size And Habitat Use Of Mississippi Sandhill Crane Colts, SCOTT G. HEREFORD, TRACY E. GRAZIA, JEREME N. PHILLIPS, GLENN H. OLSEN 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge

Home Range Size And Habitat Use Of Mississippi Sandhill Crane Colts, Scott G. Hereford, Tracy E. Grazia, Jereme N. Phillips, Glenn H. Olsen

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Recruitment in the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) is minimal, with the population of 110 sustained by an annual augmentation of captive-reared juveniles. Suitability of available habitat quality is likely involved in nesting success. Thousands of hectares of pine savanna were restored for crane use, but it is not clear how much was being used by crane families. We used 3-g subcutaneous transmitters to radio-tag 27 colts over 6 years from 1998 to 2002 and 2004 to determine home range and habitat use. Using a hand-held receiver, H-antenna and standard triangulation, location data were collected twice daily along ...


The Role Of Retrieval And Translocation In A Reintroduced Population Of Migratory Whooping Cranes, SARA E. ZIMORSKI, RICHARD P. URBANEK 2010 International Crane Foundation

The Role Of Retrieval And Translocation In A Reintroduced Population Of Migratory Whooping Cranes, Sara E. Zimorski, Richard P. Urbanek

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Beginning in 2001, a reintroduction project was initiated using captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) to establish a migratory flock in eastern North America. From May 2003 to August 2008, 23 of these birds were retrieved and translocated in 15 separate events. These individuals consisted of 14 cranes that had been led to Florida by ultralight aircraft on their first autumn migration (UL) and 9 cranes that had been directly released in autumn in Wisconsin (DAR). Of 104 (86 UL and 18 DAR) reintroduced individuals that eventually departed from their release location, 22% were later retrieved 1-3 times. Lake Michigan posed ...


Population Status And Geographic Distribution Of Greater Sandhill Cranes In The Mid-Continent Population, Gary L. Krapu, David A. Brandt 2010 U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Population Status And Geographic Distribution Of Greater Sandhill Cranes In The Mid-Continent Population, Gary L. Krapu, David A. Brandt

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Number and geographic distribution of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in the mid-continent population (MCP) of sandhill cranes were evaluated. G. c. tabida comprised 7 of 133 (5.3%) individuals of 3 subspecies which projects to 31,579 ± 11,661 (SE) individuals in an estimated spring MCP of 600,000 cranes. From a platform transmitting terminal (PTT)-marked sample representative of the geographic distribution of G. c. tabida, 10 of 13 (77%) settled during the breeding season in east-central Canada/Minnesota, including 4 in northwestern Minnesota, 4 in Manitoba (2 at sites near the Minnesota border), and 2 in ...


Retention, Movement, And The Biotic Response To Large Woody Debris In The Channelized Missouri River, Michael W. Archer 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Retention, Movement, And The Biotic Response To Large Woody Debris In The Channelized Missouri River, Michael W. Archer

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Large woody debris (LWD) is an important component of a healthy aquatic ecosystem. However, little is known about the dynamics of LWD in a large, channelized river such as the Missouri River. My objectives were to first, assess the abundance of LWD found along the channelized portion of the Missouri River. Second, I documented movement of LWD that entered the river. Lastly, using PRIMER software I analyzed what effect, if any, river segments, bend types, and LWD had on the community composition of the macroinvertebrate and fish that inhabit the river. Abundance of LWD was greater along bends that have ...


Carbon Dynamics In A Phragmites Australis Invaded Riparian Wetland, Steven Walters 2010 UNL

Carbon Dynamics In A Phragmites Australis Invaded Riparian Wetland, Steven Walters

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Invasive plant species are widely recognized as a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem stability. Wetland ecosystems tend to be much more susceptible to invasions because of their location on the landscape where water, nutrients, and the impacts of disturbances accumulate. Invasive plants have the ability to alter ecosystem processes and community/population dynamics. The ability of invasive plants to alter these processes can have profound economic consequences. In the United States, control of invasive wetland species alone costs approximately 155 million dollars annually. The state of Nebraska spends 2 million dollars annually controlling invasive plant species in the Platte ...


Migration Of Northern Yellowstone Elk: Implications Of Spatial Structuring, P. J. White, Kelly M. Proffitt, L. David Mech, Shaney B. Evans, Julie A. Cunningham, Kenneth L. Hamlin 2010 National Park Service

Migration Of Northern Yellowstone Elk: Implications Of Spatial Structuring, P. J. White, Kelly M. Proffitt, L. David Mech, Shaney B. Evans, Julie A. Cunningham, Kenneth L. Hamlin

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Migration can enhance survival and recruitment of mammals by increasing access to higher-quality forage or reducing predation risk, or both. We used telemetry locations collected from 140 adult female elk during 2000– 2003 and 2007–2008 to identify factors influencing the migration of northern Yellowstone elk. Elk wintered in 2 semidistinct herd segments and migrated 10–140 km to at least 12 summer areas in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and nearby areas of Montana. Spring migrations were delayed after winters with increased snow pack, with earlier migration in years with earlier vegetation green-up. Elk wintering at lower elevations outside YNP ...


What Is The Taxonomic Identity Of Minnesota Wolves?, L. David Mech 2010 USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

What Is The Taxonomic Identity Of Minnesota Wolves?, L. David Mech

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The taxonomic identity of the historical and current wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758 or Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 or their hybrids) population in Minnesota (MN) and the Great Lakes region has been, and continues to be, controversial. So too does its legal status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. This review summarizes the morphological and genetic information about that population and concludes that historically the MN population consisted of a gray wolf (C. lupus) in the west and an eastern type (Canis lupus lycaon or C. lycaon) in the east with intergrades or hybrids between the two in most ...


Proportion Of Calves And Adult Muskoxen, Ovibos Moschatus Killed By Gray Wolves, Canis Lupus, In July On Ellesmere Island, L. David Mech 2010 USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Proportion Of Calves And Adult Muskoxen, Ovibos Moschatus Killed By Gray Wolves, Canis Lupus, In July On Ellesmere Island, L. David Mech

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Generally Gray Wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) tend to focus predation on young-of-the-year ungulates during summer, and I hypothesized that wolves preying on Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus Zimmerman, 1780) in summer would follow that trend. Over 23 July periods observing wolves on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, I found that packs of 2-12 adult wolves killed seven calves, one yearling, and five adult muskoxen at distances of 2.9 to 32 km from their current dens and pups. Given a possible bias against finding calves because of their fewer remains, these results do not necessarily refute the hypothesis, but they do make ...


Prolonged Intensive Dominance Behavior Between Gray Wolves, Canis Lupus, L. David Mech, H. Dean Cluff 2010 USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Prolonged Intensive Dominance Behavior Between Gray Wolves, Canis Lupus, L. David Mech, H. Dean Cluff

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son.With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate ...


Pollen Interception By Linyphiid Spiders In A Corn Agroecosystem: Implications For Dietary Diversification And Risk-Assessment, Julie A. Peterson, Susan Romero, James D. Harwood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Pollen Interception By Linyphiid Spiders In A Corn Agroecosystem: Implications For Dietary Diversification And Risk-Assessment, Julie A. Peterson, Susan Romero, James D. Harwood

West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte

Dietary diversification, including consumption of plant tissues such as pollen, can enhance the fecundity of generalist predators, resulting in improved control of pest prey. Supplemental pollen feeding has been observed in many natural enemies, including sheet-web spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae), which represent a major component of food webs in agroecosystems. Their horizontal, ground-based webs have the potential to intercept pollen grains during anthesis of crop plants, providing the opportunity for consumption of pollen to occur. In laboratory feeding trials, Frontinella communis and Tennesseellum formicum (Araneae: Linyphiidae) readily fed on pollen grains dusted on their webs, with 82 and 92% of spiders ...


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