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Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild 2019 Iowa State University

Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

Natural selection is likely a major factor in shaping genomic variation of the African indigenous rural chicken, driving the development of genetic footprints. Selection footprints are expected to be associated with adaptation to locally prevailing environmental stressors, which may include diverse factors as high altitude, disease resistance, poor nutrition, oxidative and heat stresses. To determine the existence of a selection footprint, 268 birds were randomly sampled from three indigenous ecotypes from East Africa (Rwanda and Uganda) and North Africa (Baladi), and two registered Egyptian breeds (Dandarawi and Fayoumi). Samples were genotyped using the chicken Affymetrix 600K Axiom® Array. A total ...


Cryptic Viral Infections In Benthic Biofilm Communities, Alexandra Payne 2019 William & Mary

Cryptic Viral Infections In Benthic Biofilm Communities, Alexandra Payne

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the most ubiquitous biological entities on earth, viruses have important impacts on aquatic microbial ecology and have been studied at length in the global ocean. However, the role of bacteriophage in lotic ecosystems, particularly in benthic biofilms, have been largely under studied. Streams and rivers play crucial roles in global carbon cycling, with over 2 x 1015 g C turned over each year, and benthic biofilms appear to be hotspots of microbial activities like organic carbon transformations. Given this importance of lotic ecosystems and the known impacts of viruses in other aquatic systems, investigating the ecology of viruses ...


The Interaction Of Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae Koch, With Cry Protein Production And Predation By Amblyseius Andersoni (Chant) In Cry1ac/Cry2ab Cotton And Cry1f Maize, Yan-Yan Guo, Jun-Ce Tian, Wang-Peng Shi, Xue-Hui Dong, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton 2019 Cornell University

The Interaction Of Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae Koch, With Cry Protein Production And Predation By Amblyseius Andersoni (Chant) In Cry1ac/Cry2ab Cotton And Cry1f Maize, Yan-Yan Guo, Jun-Ce Tian, Wang-Peng Shi, Xue-Hui Dong, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton

Richard L Hellmich

Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time ...


Monarch Butterflies Do Not Place All Of Their Eggs In One Basket: Oviposition On Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, John M. Pleasants, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Butterflies Do Not Place All Of Their Eggs In One Basket: Oviposition On Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, John M. Pleasants, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

Over the past two decades, the population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline in overwintering numbers. Habitat restoration that includes planting milkweeds is essential to boost monarch numbers within the breeding range. Milkweeds are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies, but female oviposition preference for different milkweed species, especially those with overlapping ranges, is not well documented. We examined the relative inclination to lay eggs on nine milkweed species native to Iowa (no choice), and oviposition preference (choice) among the four most commonly occurring Iowa species (Asclepias incarnata, Asclepias syriaca, Asclepias ...


Performance Of Early Instar Monarch Butterflies (Danaus Plexippus L.) On Nine Milkweed Species Native To Iowa, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Frances K. Hunter 2019 Iowa State University

Performance Of Early Instar Monarch Butterflies (Danaus Plexippus L.) On Nine Milkweed Species Native To Iowa, Victoria M. Pocius, Diane M. Debinski, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Frances K. Hunter

Richard L Hellmich

Over the past two decades, the population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline. Habitat restoration that includes milkweed plants is crucial to boost population numbers in the breeding range. Monarch butterfly larvae use milkweeds as their only host plant, but larval performance on different milkweed species is not well documented. We examined early instar survival and growth on nine milkweed species native to Iowa. These included Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed), A. hirtella (tall green milkweed), A. incarnata (swamp milkweed), A. speciosa (showy milkweed), A. sullivantii (prairie milkweed), A. syriaca (common milkweed), A. tuberosa ...


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species During The 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard L. Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species During The 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard L. Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species Duringthe 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species During The 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species During The 2016 Breeding Season, Victoria Pocius, Diane Debinski, Richard Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants, because milkweeds now are absent from most agricultural fields. This is the second year of a study to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest.


On-Plant Selection And Genetic Analysis Of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Behavioral Traits: Plant Abandonment Versus Plant Establishment, Michael A. Rausch, Jeremy A. Kroemer, Aaron J. Gassmann, Richard L. Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

On-Plant Selection And Genetic Analysis Of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Behavioral Traits: Plant Abandonment Versus Plant Establishment, Michael A. Rausch, Jeremy A. Kroemer, Aaron J. Gassmann, Richard L. Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

Although some studies have investigated how insect behavior could influence resistance evolution to transgenic plants, none have determined if behavioral traits respond to selection pressure and how they may be inherited. We investigated plant establishment and abandonment traits for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalisi (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), by conducting a laboratory selection experiment and quantifying patterns of gene expression. Egg masses with emerging larvae were placed on maize plants and silking individuals were collected every 15 min during a 4-h period to generate a plant abandonment (PA) colony. Plants were dissected 24-72 h later, and larvae were collected for ...


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski, Victoria Pocius 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski, Victoria Pocius

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established in March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants because milkweeds are now absent from most agricultural fields. This study is being conducted over multiple years to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Richard L. Hellmich 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Richard L. Hellmich

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established in March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants because milkweeds are now absent from most agricultural fields. This study is being conducted over multiple years to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the midwest.


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Victoria Pocius, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Victoria Pocius, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established in March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants because milkweeds are now absent from most agricultural fields. This study was conducted over multiple years to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest. These are ...


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Victoria Pocius, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Victoria Pocius, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established in March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants because milkweeds are now absent from most agricultural fields. This study was conducted over multiple years to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest. These are ...


Early Detection And Mitigation Of Resistance To Bt Maize By Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), David A. Andow, Steven G. Pueppke, Arthur W. Schaafsma, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington, Lance J. Meinke, Paul D. Mitchell, Terrance M. Hurley, Richard L. Hellmich, R. Pat Porter 2019 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Early Detection And Mitigation Of Resistance To Bt Maize By Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), David A. Andow, Steven G. Pueppke, Arthur W. Schaafsma, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington, Lance J. Meinke, Paul D. Mitchell, Terrance M. Hurley, Richard L. Hellmich, R. Pat Porter

Richard L Hellmich

Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting and responding to this resistance has been complicated by a lack of rapid diagnostic bioassays and by regulatory triggers that hinder timely and effective management responses. These failures are of great concern to the scientific and agricultural community. Specific challenges posed by western corn rootworm resistance to Bt ...


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Victoria Pocius, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski 2019 Iowa State University

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survival On Nine Native Milkweed Species, Victoria Pocius, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski

Richard L Hellmich

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established in March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants because milkweeds are now absent from most agricultural fields. This study was conducted over multiple years to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. These data will be used as a baseline for informing monarch habitat conservation and restoration efforts across the Midwest. These are ...


Sunlight Requirements For Flowering Of Humulus Japonicus, Abby Hammermeister 2019 Carroll College

Sunlight Requirements For Flowering Of Humulus Japonicus, Abby Hammermeister

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Japanese hops (Humulus japonicus) are an invasive species that appears to be increasing in distribution and abundance over its current range in the eastern U.S. Anecdotal evidence shows that it may have the potential to spread further west, eventually threatening Montana and the Pacific Northwest. This non-native vine can take over flood plains and riparian areas which could produce lasting harm to native ecosystems. There is currently limited information on the biology and ecology of this invasive species, which makes prediction of future invasions difficult. In order to develop an understanding of the potential ecological factors that limit the ...


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