Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

16,269 Full-Text Articles 27,320 Authors 2,590,420 Downloads 279 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

16,269 full-text articles. Page 4 of 526.

Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger 2020 Susquehanna University

Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger

Senior Scholars Day

Ball pythons (Python regius), like other snakes in the Boidae family, use heat-sensitive pit organs and odor-sensitive Jacobson’s organ (vomernasal organ) to detect prey. The discrimination sensitivity and interaction of these organs to influence prey detection and choice however have been poorly tested. We performed a series of two-choice experiments to determine ball python preference for specific odors and/or biologically-relevant thermal stimuli. We tested the following pairs of stimuli: 1) rat odor vs. water, 2) anterior vs posterior odors of a rat, 3) rat (familiar) vs rabbit (unfamiliar) odor, 4) rat vs orange peel odor, 5) odor from ...


Herbicide Effects On The Feeding Behavior Of The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Briana Heinly, William Ward, Catherine Johnson, Jack Preston 2020 Susquehanna University

Herbicide Effects On The Feeding Behavior Of The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Briana Heinly, William Ward, Catherine Johnson, Jack Preston

Senior Scholars Day

Herbicides can potentially impact feeding behavior of beneficial predators in agricultural systems and subsequently compromise integrated pest management efficacy. We measured variation in feeding behaviors of an agriculturally abundant wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, when exposed to soil with field-relevant concentrations of five commonly used herbicides. Tested herbicides included atrazine, S-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, mesotrione, glyphosate, a mixture of all five herbicides, and a distilled water control. Spiders were housed individually in containers with topsoil previously sprayed with a recommended herbicide dosage or water control. Tested spiders were collected from two adjacent fields: one kept under continuous crop rotation for over twenty years ...


What Roadkills Did We Miss In A Driving Survey? A Comparison Of Driving And Walking Surveys In Baldwin County, Georgia, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead 2020 Georgia College & State University

What Roadkills Did We Miss In A Driving Survey? A Comparison Of Driving And Walking Surveys In Baldwin County, Georgia, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

Accurate estimates of vertebrate road mortalities are necessary prior to the consideration of mitigation measures by resource managers. Due to ease of implementation, driving surveys are more common than walking surveys. From February 2018 to February 2019, two survey methods, driving and walking, were used to monitor a 1.16 km section of Highway 212 in Baldwin County, Georgia. Roadkills were identified and monitored for persistence from sunrise to noon two days a week. Twenty-nine roadkills were recorded over the survey period: 48.3% mammals (14/29), 27.6% herpetofauna (8/29), and 24.1% birds (7/29). Forty-eight percent ...


Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Analysis Of Mangrove Ecosystems Using Gis, Kayla Caldwell 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Analysis Of Mangrove Ecosystems Using Gis, Kayla Caldwell

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is accelerating beyond what is natural due to excessive emissions from human activities. The sea level has been rising for many years and is currently at a rate of 3.6 mm/yr. Mangroves are known to only keep pace with a sea level rate of less than 1.2 mm/yr. Mangroves are particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels if they are not able to keep pace through vertical sediment accretion or inland migration. To test the vulnerability of the south Florida mangrove ecosystems to sea level rise, this study analyzed changes in the mangrove forest coverage ...


Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov 2020 Tongji University

Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov

Open Access Articles

Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we present the venom gland transcriptomes of two species of the genus Clavus that belong to the family Drilliidae. Venom gland transcriptomes of two specimens of Clavus canalicularis, and two specimens of Cv. davidgilmouri were analyzed, leading to ...


The Trichoptera Of Panama Xiv. New Species Of Microcaddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) From Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park, Brian J. Armitage, Steven C. Harris 2020 Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudio de la Salud

The Trichoptera Of Panama Xiv. New Species Of Microcaddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) From Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park, Brian J. Armitage, Steven C. Harris

Insecta Mundi

Abstract. In 2017, a new project was begun to assess the biodiversity of national parks and forest reserves in the Republic of Panama. Designated “Proyecto Sistema de Producción Sostenible Conservación de la Biodiversidad (PSPSCB)”, this project is managed by Panama’s Ministerio de Ambiente. The first park sampled in 2017 was Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park (OTHNP). Trichoptera (Insecta) were collected at four locations using both Malaise traps and UV light traps. The rugged terrain and lack of access in this remote park limited the sampled area. Sampling included streams in both the Caribbean and Pacific drainages. Seven new species ...


Termitodiellus Mindanaoensis, A New Species Of Rhyparini Schmidt, 1910 (Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) From The Philippines, Łukasz Minkina, Showtaro Kakizoe 2020 Nowy Targ, Poland

Termitodiellus Mindanaoensis, A New Species Of Rhyparini Schmidt, 1910 (Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) From The Philippines, Łukasz Minkina, Showtaro Kakizoe

Insecta Mundi

A new species of the genus Termitodiellus Nakane, 1961—T. mindanaoensis Minkina and Kakizoe, new species from Mindanao Island in the Philippines is described and illustrated. Photographs of the epipharynx of Termitodiellus species are provided for the first time. A short discussion of the phylogeny of Rhyparini Schmidt, 1910 is presented.


First Record Of Dactylopius Confusus (Cockerell, 1929) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Dactylopiidae) In Michoacan, Mexico, Arturo Ramírez-Cruz, Héctor González-Hernández, Christof F. Stumpf 2020 Unidad Michoacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico

First Record Of Dactylopius Confusus (Cockerell, 1929) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Dactylopiidae) In Michoacan, Mexico, Arturo Ramírez-Cruz, Héctor González-Hernández, Christof F. Stumpf

Insecta Mundi

In April 2017, several scale insect specimens in the family Dactylopiidae were collected from infested cladodes of wild Opuntia tomentosa Salm-Dyck, 1822 (Cactaceae) in the outskirts of Morelia City, Michoacan, Mexico. The specimens were identified as Dactylopius confusus (Cockerell, 1929) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Dac­tylopiidae). In this article, the presence of D. confusus in Michoacan state, Mexico, is recorded for the first time. A subsequent finding of D. confusus on Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., (1768) (Cactaceae) in October 2019 was confirmed with 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA.


A New Species Of Crioprosopus Audinet-Serville, 1834 From Costa Rica And Panama (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Trachyderini), Bryan K. Eya 2020 California Environmental Protection Agency

A New Species Of Crioprosopus Audinet-Serville, 1834 From Costa Rica And Panama (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Trachyderini), Bryan K. Eya

Insecta Mundi

Crioprosopus baldwini Eya (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Trachyderini), sp. nov., from Costa Rica and Panama, is described. An amendment to the key to species of Crioprosopus Audinet-Serville, 1834, as presented in Eya (2015), is provided along with illustrations of the key characteristics to differentiate C. baldwini from other species.


Geographic Variation In Host Selection In The Spider Wasps Entypus Unifasciatus (Say) And Tachypompilus Ferrugineus (Say) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae), Frank E. Kurczewski, Joseph W. Stoll, Rick C. West, Kelly C. Kissane, Neil Stanley Cobb 2020 Atlanta, GA

Geographic Variation In Host Selection In The Spider Wasps Entypus Unifasciatus (Say) And Tachypompilus Ferrugineus (Say) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae), Frank E. Kurczewski, Joseph W. Stoll, Rick C. West, Kelly C. Kissane, Neil Stanley Cobb

Insecta Mundi

Geography and host spider family are strongly linked in the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) Entypus unifasciatus (Say) and Tachypompilus ferrugineus (Say) (rusty spider wasp) when 2031 host spider local­ity records from the years 1918–2020 are mapped. Entypus unifasciatus lycosid host records are plentiful from 43–44° N in the U.S. to northern Mexico. Tachypompilus ferrugineus lycosid host records are numerous from southern Ontario and New England to Mexico east of the Rocky Mountains. Most E. unifasciatus and T. ferrugin­eus pisaurid host records are from the SE U.S. Trechaleid host records for E. unifasciatus and T ...


Prey Selection By Birds Of Prey, Anisha Pokharel 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Prey Selection By Birds Of Prey, Anisha Pokharel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Prey selection is key to determine predator prey interaction and understanding the complexity of food web structure. In this thesis, we used two different approaches to understanding prey selection by North American birds of prey. Using a conventional method, in Chapter 1 we compared pellet analysis and trapping data to assess patterns of prey selection of barn owls in western Nebraska. Microtus spp. comprised 55.8% of the prey items in the barn owl’s diet. The proportion of several prey types in the diet were significantly different from the expected proportion based on trapping. This pattern may indicate barn ...


Contraction Analysis Of Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra Systems: Understanding Competition Between Modified Bacteria And Plasmodium Within Mosquitoes., Nickolas Goncharenko 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Contraction Analysis Of Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra Systems: Understanding Competition Between Modified Bacteria And Plasmodium Within Mosquitoes., Nickolas Goncharenko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We propose and analyze an extension to the classic Competitive Lotka-Volterra (CLV) model. The goal is to model competition between species, with a response from the environment. This response is a function of the population of all species and can represent numerous physical phenomena including resource limitation and immune response of a host due to infection. We name this new system a Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra (FCLV) model. We mainly use the construction of contraction metrics, to determine global properties of the model. We use this result to analyze the competition between Plasmodium sp. and genetically engineered bacteria within the midgut ...


Genotyping-By-Sequencing And Ecological Niche Modeling Illuminate Phylogeography, Admixture, And Pleistocene Range Dynamics In Quaking Aspen (Populus Tremuloides), Justin C. Bagley, Neander M. Heming, Eliécer E. Gutiérrez, Upendra K. Devisetty, Karen E. Mock, Andrew J. Eckert, Steven H. Strauss 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Genotyping-By-Sequencing And Ecological Niche Modeling Illuminate Phylogeography, Admixture, And Pleistocene Range Dynamics In Quaking Aspen (Populus Tremuloides), Justin C. Bagley, Neander M. Heming, Eliécer E. Gutiérrez, Upendra K. Devisetty, Karen E. Mock, Andrew J. Eckert, Steven H. Strauss

Ecology Center Publications

Populus tremuloides is the widest‐ranging tree species in North America and an ecologically important component of mesic forest ecosystems displaced by the Pleistocene glaciations. Using phylogeographic analyses of genome‐wide SNPs (34,796 SNPs, 183 individuals) and ecological niche modeling, we inferred population structure, ploidy levels, admixture, and Pleistocene range dynamics of P. tremuloides, and tested several historical biogeographical hypotheses. We found three genetic lineages located mainly in coastal–Cascades (cluster 1), east‐slope Cascades–Sierra Nevadas–Northern Rockies (cluster 2), and U.S. Rocky Mountains through southern Canadian (cluster 3) regions of the P. tremuloides range, with tree ...


A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison

A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels

Faculty Journal Articles

Premise

The ability to sequence genome‐scale data from herbarium specimens would allow for the economical development of data sets with broad taxonomic and geographic sampling that would otherwise not be possible. Here, we evaluate the utility of a basic double‐digest restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol using DNAs from four genera extracted from both silica‐dried and herbarium tissue.

Methods

DNAs from Draba, Boechera, Solidago, and Ilex were processed with a ddRADseq protocol. The effects of DNA degradation, taxon, and specimen age were assessed.

Results

Although taxon, preservation method, and specimen age affected data recovery, large phylogenetically ...


Analyzing The Flight Patterns And Behavior Of Dragonflies Engaged In Aerial Territory Battles, Brandon Hastings, Brandon Jackson 2020 Longwood University

Analyzing The Flight Patterns And Behavior Of Dragonflies Engaged In Aerial Territory Battles, Brandon Hastings, Brandon Jackson

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

It has previously been determined that male dragonflies occupying the most suitable territory within a habitat have a higher flight-muscle ratio (FMR) than those occupying poor territories, but it is unknown how this increased FMR relates to their flight patterns. This study examined the flight patterns of dragonflies engaged in aerial territory battles to investigate differences in maneuverability between winners and losers. 3D video data of dragonflies interacting in a natural habitat was analyzed for territorial flights. Winners showed a lower maximum angular velocity compared to losers.


298— Rural Economic Growth And Disease Intervention In Ghana; The Edward Pettinella '73 Endowed Ambassadorship In Business, Lucas Sutton 2020 SUNY Geneseo

298— Rural Economic Growth And Disease Intervention In Ghana; The Edward Pettinella '73 Endowed Ambassadorship In Business, Lucas Sutton

GREAT Day

Schistosomiasis is a leading parasitic infection that debilitates many individuals in sub Saharan Africa. Because this parasitic infection involves a snail as an intermediate host, we use a native prawn species as a natural predator to decrease the population of this snail community. This study focuses on Tomefa, a primarily fishing peri-urban community located oi the outskirts of Accra, the capital city of Ghana. A survey was also given to the local community measuring economic characteristics. In the laboratory, Macrobrachium spp prawn exhibit preference of Bulinus snails over Biomphalaria snails while non-parasitic snails were consumed in higher proportion to parasitized ...


260— Patterns Of Occupancy Of Artificial Nest Sites By Native Bees, Allison Menendez 2020 SUNY Geneseo

260— Patterns Of Occupancy Of Artificial Nest Sites By Native Bees, Allison Menendez

GREAT Day

Although people tend to think of honeybees when they think about pollination, many species of native bees are actually important pollinators. Declining native bee populations can be supported in several ways, including reducing pesticide use, providing native flowers as a food source, leaving natural nest sites unaltered, or even by providing artificial nests. At SUNY Geneseo, a bee barn with eleven wooden boxes filled with natural reed cavities of varying sizes is in the Spencer J Roemer Arboretum. Female bees lay brood in these cavities, and provision food for the developing young. Some native bees are overwintering in these cavities ...


333— Effectiveness Of Batesian Mimicry In The Ant Mimicking Spider Myrmarachne Formicaria, Alanna Richman, Bea Dipzinski 2020 SUNY Geneseo

333— Effectiveness Of Batesian Mimicry In The Ant Mimicking Spider Myrmarachne Formicaria, Alanna Richman, Bea Dipzinski

GREAT Day

Myrmarachne formicaria is a non-native ant-mimicking spider that was first recorded in New York in 2006. Little is known about its natural history in its native range in Europe and Asia or in its newly colonized range in North America. Some spider species are Batesian mimics that resemble ants in order to avoid being eaten, since many potential predators will not prey on ants. To assess the effectiveness of Batesian mimicry in this species, we staged encounters with a larger salticid spider species that could be a potential predator of M. formicaria. In total, 12 predator spiders were observed with ...


136— Predation On Microbivalves By Juvenile Naticid Gastropods On San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, Eliza Merges 2020 SUNY Geneseo

136— Predation On Microbivalves By Juvenile Naticid Gastropods On San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, Eliza Merges

GREAT Day

Predator-prey interactions, where snails eat clams, evolutionarily has been a key interaction within marine molluscan communities. There is evidence of molluscan extinctions in the fossil record that are marked by changes in predation ratios. In this study, we will investigate predation of microbivalves by juvenile naticid gastropods in a shallow marine setting on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas. We propose to test predation density within different environments (facies) of a lagoonal setting. Significantly different ratios between these facies in one time period can indicate that predator-prey interactions can change over time from one environment to another. It is more ...


135— Coral-Sponge Interactions On Rocky Point Reef, San Salvador, Bahamas, Michael Harvey, Anna Meichenbaum, Brooke Stickles 2020 SUNY Geneseo

135— Coral-Sponge Interactions On Rocky Point Reef, San Salvador, Bahamas, Michael Harvey, Anna Meichenbaum, Brooke Stickles

GREAT Day

We surveyed the intensity of competition for reef space between sponges and corals at the Rocky Point patch reef adjacent to San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. Our working hypothesis was that, because of a dearth of predators, fast growing, chemically unprotected sponges more likely to be involved in competitive interactions. Results indicate that competition for reef space was widespread, but contrary to our hypothesis no sponge or coral species was disproportionately more involved in these interactions. These results contradict previous studies on Rocky Point reef and in our discussion we propose an explanation for this discrepancy.


Digital Commons powered by bepress