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Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information, 2019 Utah State University

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


Table Of Contents, 2019 Utah State University

Table Of Contents

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the table of contents.


Advertising And Orders, 2019 Utah State University

Advertising And Orders

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the advertising and orders.


Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer McLaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White 2019 Hoven High School, Hoven, South Dakota

Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White

Madhav Nepal

In this lesson, students will learn about sustainability, where farmers/agriculturists can meet the needs of food, fiber, and fuel for the growing population. Students learn about growing population, its growth rate, major food source, sustainability barrel, potential ripple effects of positive impacts as well as the food waste and its effects.


Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler 2019 University of Maine

Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of lake ecology, as it contributes to light attenuation and carbon cycling. In recent years, DOC declined in a suite of lakes in Greenland. I performed experiments to test potential mechanisms of DOC loss. The tested mechanisms did not reduce DOC concentration, but DOC composition was affected. I also paired water quality data with meteorological observations to evaluate effects of climate drivers on lake variables. The lake variables were temporally coherent and associated with patterns of mean annual precipitation.

In the northeastern U.S., recovery from acidification and climate change have contributed ...


Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver 2019 Iowa State University

Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver

Lisa A. Schulte Moore

We conducted a designed experiment to test whether having a thermal‐imaging camera available affected researchers’ nest detection rates when searching for bird nests in cropland and grassland habitat in an agricultural landscape of Iowa, USA, in 2016. With known active nests present, naïve observers searched for nests with and without a thermal imager available. We did not find a difference in detection probabilities, although only a large difference would have been detectable with our sample size. Extraneous heat signatures from reflected solar radiation and dense vegetation were key factors limiting the usefulness of thermal imagers for locating nests.


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley 2019 University of Maine

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi de Leon 2019 Yale University

Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon

Library Map Prize

Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are known for their adaptability, allowing them to inhabit a large range of forest types and driving high levels of variation in ranging and behavioral patterns. I address a series of hypotheses relating these relationships: 1) If an energy minimizing lifestyle is an adaptation to eating high quantities of leaves, then howler groups that have a high proportion of leaves in their diet will occupy smaller home ranges, have shorter daily path lengths, and spend more time resting, 2) if temperature is the primary driver of high levels of resting, then howlers will conserve energy and ...


Mesopredator Distribution, Abundance And Potential Competition With The American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus Americanus) At Fort Chaffee Joint Maneuver Training Center, Karisa Fenton 2019 Arkansas Tech University

Mesopredator Distribution, Abundance And Potential Competition With The American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus Americanus) At Fort Chaffee Joint Maneuver Training Center, Karisa Fenton

Theses and Dissertations from 2019

The American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus, hereafter ABB) was listed as an endangered species in 1989 and many hypotheses have been developed to explain their rangewide decline. I investigated the carcass competition hypothesis that implicates increased competition between vertebrate scavengers and ABBs for appropriate-sized carcasses as a cause for ABB decline. Predators of medium size that occupy an intermediate trophic level (hereafter mesopredators) are potential competitors for carcasses. I used camera trapping to assess mesopredator abundances in nine different habitats at Fort Chaffee Joint Maneuver Training Center (FCJMTC) in western Arkansas because this area supports the largest known population of ...


Mapping Wilderness Character In Adams County, Pennsylvania, Alyssa J. Kaewwilai 2019 Gettysburg College

Mapping Wilderness Character In Adams County, Pennsylvania, Alyssa J. Kaewwilai

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

The spatial trends in wilderness character in Adams County, Pennsylvania were examined to evaluate how influenced specific areas are impacted by human activity and development. Indicators of wilderness character were selected as natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, along with solitude and unconfined recreation by the Death Valley National Park staff in which a 0-4 ranking system was based upon to portray a range of most degraded to optimal land. This was executed through examination of factors such as abundance of biodiversity and human development within the given area before a Monte Carlo simulation was run to show sensitivity of change. It was ...


Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu 2019 Iowa State University

Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of ...


Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang 2019 Auburn University

Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

To accurately assess how increased global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission has affected the climate system requires a robust estimation of the preindustrial N2O emissions since only the difference between current and preindustrial emissions represents net drivers of anthropogenic climate change. However, large uncertainty exists in previous estimates of preindustrial N2O emissions from the land biosphere, while preindustrial N2O emissions on the finer scales, such as regional, biome, or sector scales, have not been well quantified yet. In this study, we applied a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of preindustrial N2O fluxes at ...


Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan 2019 Auburn University

Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite‐derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901–2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ± 0.1 Tg CH4 ...


Global Land Carbon Sink Response To Temperature And Precipitation Varies With Enso Phase, Yuanyuan Fang, Anna M. Michalak, Christopher R. Schwalm, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Joseph A. Berry, Philippe Ciais, Shilong Piao, Benjamin Poulter, Joshua B. Fisher, Robert B. Cook, Daniel Hayes, Maoyi Huang, Akihiko Ito, Atul Jain, Huimin Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jiafu Mao, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Shushi Peng, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaoying Shi, Bo Tao, Hanqin Tian, Weile Wang, Yaxing Wei, Jia Yang 2019 Carnegie Institution for Science

Global Land Carbon Sink Response To Temperature And Precipitation Varies With Enso Phase, Yuanyuan Fang, Anna M. Michalak, Christopher R. Schwalm, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Joseph A. Berry, Philippe Ciais, Shilong Piao, Benjamin Poulter, Joshua B. Fisher, Robert B. Cook, Daniel Hayes, Maoyi Huang, Akihiko Ito, Atul Jain, Huimin Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jiafu Mao, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Shushi Peng, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaoying Shi, Bo Tao, Hanqin Tian, Weile Wang, Yaxing Wei, Jia Yang

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Climate variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its consequent impacts on land carbon sink interannual variability have been used as a basis for investigating carbon cycle responses to climate variability more broadly, and to inform the sensitivity of the tropical carbon budget to climate change. Past studies have presented opposing views about whether temperature or precipitation is the primary factor driving the response of the land carbon sink to ENSO. Here, we show that the dominant driver varies with ENSO phase. Whereas tropical temperature explains sink dynamics following El Niño conditions (r TG,P = 0.59, p ...


Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao 2019 Northern Arizona University

Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO2, and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since ...


Historical Nitrogen Fertilizer Use In Agricultural Ecosystems Of The Contiguous United States During 1850–2015: Application Rate, Timing, And Fertilizer Types, Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu 2019 Iowa State University

Historical Nitrogen Fertilizer Use In Agricultural Ecosystems Of The Contiguous United States During 1850–2015: Application Rate, Timing, And Fertilizer Types, Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

A tremendous amount of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been applied to agricultural lands to promote crop production in the US since the 1850s. However, inappropriate N management practices have caused numerous ecological and environmental problems which are difficult to quantify due to the paucity of spatially explicit time-series fertilizer use maps. Understanding and assessing N fertilizer management history could provide important implications for enhancing N use efficiency and reducing N loss. In this study, we therefore developed long-term gridded maps to depict crop-specific N fertilizer use rates, application timing, and the fractions of ammonium N (NH+ 4 -N) and ...


A Dataset Of 30-Meter Annual Vegetation Phenology Indicators (1985–2015) In Urban Areas Of The Conterminous United States, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, Qiusheng Wu 2019 Iowa State University

A Dataset Of 30-Meter Annual Vegetation Phenology Indicators (1985–2015) In Urban Areas Of The Conterminous United States, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, Qiusheng Wu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Fine-resolution satellite observations show great potential for characterizing seasonal and annual dynamics of vegetation phenology in urban domains, from local to regional and global scales. However, most previous studies were conducted using coarse or moderate resolution data, which are inadequate for characterizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation phenology in urban domains. In this study, we produced an annual vegetation phenology dataset in urban ecosystems for the conterminous United States (US), using all available Landsat images on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. First, we characterized the long-term mean seasonal pattern of phenology indicators of the start of season (SOS) and ...


Global Manure Nitrogen Production And Application In Cropland During 1860–2014: A 5 Arcmin Gridded Global Dataset For Earth System Modeling, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shree R.S. Dangal, Jia Yang, Shufen Pan 2019 Auburn University

Global Manure Nitrogen Production And Application In Cropland During 1860–2014: A 5 Arcmin Gridded Global Dataset For Earth System Modeling, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shree R.S. Dangal, Jia Yang, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the important role of nitrogen input from livestock systems in terrestrial nutrient cycles and the atmospheric chemical composition, it is vital to have a robust estimation of the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation in manure nitrogen production and its application to cropland across the globe. In this study, we used the dataset from the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS) in conjunction with country-specific annual livestock populations to reconstruct the manure nitrogen production during 1860–2014. The estimated manure nitrogen production increased from 21.4TgNyr−1 in 1860 to 131.0TgNyr−1 in 2014 with a significant annual increasing trend ...


Integrating Herbivore Population Dynamics Into A Global Land Biosphere Model: Plugging Animals Into The Earth System, Shree R.S. Dangal, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jia Yang, Nicola Di Cosmo, Amy Hessl 2019 Auburn University

Integrating Herbivore Population Dynamics Into A Global Land Biosphere Model: Plugging Animals Into The Earth System, Shree R.S. Dangal, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jia Yang, Nicola Di Cosmo, Amy Hessl

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Mammalian herbivores are an essential component of grassland and savanna ecosystems, and with feedbacks to the climate system. To date, the response and feedbacks of mammalian herbivores to changes in both abiotic and biotic factors are poorly quantified and not adequately represented in the current global land surface modeling framework. In this study, we coupled herbivore population dynamics in a global land model (the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, DLEM 3.0) to simulate populations of horses, cattle, sheep, and goats, and their responses to changes in multiple environmental factors at the site level across different continents during 1980–2010. Simulated ...


Global Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer Use For Agriculture Production In The Past Half Century: Shifted Hot Spots And Nutrient Imbalance, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian 2019 Iowa State University

Global Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer Use For Agriculture Production In The Past Half Century: Shifted Hot Spots And Nutrient Imbalance, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

In addition to enhancing agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically alters global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedback to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system and land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use oversimplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long periods. In this study, we therefore develop global time series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in agricultural lands ...


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