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Sound Diversity In The Landscape: The Effects Of Land Use, Luis J. Villanueva-Rivera, Bryan C. Pijanowski 2010 Purdue University

Sound Diversity In The Landscape: The Effects Of Land Use, Luis J. Villanueva-Rivera, Bryan C. Pijanowski

GIS Day

Climate change, land use change and the introduction of exotic species are the three most important anthropogenic threats to the ecosystems and their biodiversity. In order to evaluate the impacts these threats are having, ecologists need better methods to measure, in space and time, the biodiversity in a fast and scalable way. Our group is proposing the use of the sounds produced by animals in a landscape, the biophony, as a proxy for the biodiversity. As a first step in the quantification of biophony, we collected sound recordings from seven sites in the Tippecanoe County, Indiana. These sites were located ...


Seeding Method Influences Warm-Season Grass Abundance And Distribution But Not Local Diversity In Grassland Restoration, Kathryn A. Yurkonis, Brian J. Wilsey, Kirk A. Moloney, Pauline Drobney, Diane L. Larson 2010 Iowa State University

Seeding Method Influences Warm-Season Grass Abundance And Distribution But Not Local Diversity In Grassland Restoration, Kathryn A. Yurkonis, Brian J. Wilsey, Kirk A. Moloney, Pauline Drobney, Diane L. Larson

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Ecological theory predicts that the arrangement of seedlings in newly restored communities may influence future species diversity and composition. We test the prediction that smaller distances between neighboring seeds in drill seeded grassland plantings would result in lower species diversity, greater weed abundance, and larger conspecific patch sizes than otherwise similar broadcast seeded plantings. A diverse grassland seed mix was either drill seeded, which places seeds in equally spaced rows, or broadcast seeded, which spreads seeds across the ground surface, into 24 plots in each of three sites in 2005. In summer 2007, we measured species abundance in a 1 ...


Costs And Benefits Of Variable Nest Density In Burrowing Owls: Effects On Predation, Ectoparasites, Egg Yolk Hormones, And Productivity, Justin Lamar Welty 2010 Boise State University

Costs And Benefits Of Variable Nest Density In Burrowing Owls: Effects On Predation, Ectoparasites, Egg Yolk Hormones, And Productivity, Justin Lamar Welty

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Nesting density in birds is influenced by a number of factors including food availability, predation, and breeding site availability. As a result of a species’ nesting density, individuals incur certain costs and benefits related to predation rates, parasite levels, and productivity. I evaluated hypotheses related to these costs and benefits in burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that nested within the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. I calculated territory overlap, an index of nesting density, of actual nests by creating a 200m radius buffer around each nest and measuring the percentage that a ...


Spatiotemporal Dynamics In A Lower Montane Tropical Rainforest, Robert Michael Lawton 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Spatiotemporal Dynamics In A Lower Montane Tropical Rainforest, Robert Michael Lawton

Doctoral Dissertations

Disturbance in a forest’s canopy, whether caused by treefall, limbfall, landslide, or fire determines not only the distribution of well-lit patches at any given time, but also the ways in which the forest changes over time. In this dissertation, I use a 25 year record of treefall gap formation find a novel and highly patterned process of forest disturbance and regeneration, providing a local mechanism by examining the factors that influence the likelihood of treefall. I then develop a stochastic cellular automaton for disturbance and regeneration based on the analysis of this long term data set and illustrate the ...


Evaluating Ecological Restoration In Tennessee Hardwood Bottomland Forests, Elizabeth Anne Summers 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluating Ecological Restoration In Tennessee Hardwood Bottomland Forests, Elizabeth Anne Summers

Masters Theses

Hardwood bottomland ecosystems provide critical habitat for various wildlife among numerous ecosystem services. Since the 1800s, these forested wetlands have been logged and drained for agriculture. The federal government passed a series of legislative acts that protected wetlands and provided monetary support for restoration. The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) was established in 1990 with the goal of restoring ecological function in wetlands. Although several studies have measured plant and wildlife responses to WRP restorations, no standard protocol has been developed to monitor the state of ecological restoration at sites. Index of biotic integrity (IBI) models are commonly used to evaluate ...


Bats Of The Grenadine Islands, West Indies, And Placement Of Koopman's Line, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Peter A. Larsen, Scott C. Pedersen, Roxanne J. Larsen, Justin D. Hoffman, Mark de Silva, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Bats Of The Grenadine Islands, West Indies, And Placement Of Koopman's Line, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Peter A. Larsen, Scott C. Pedersen, Roxanne J. Larsen, Justin D. Hoffman, Mark De Silva, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Almost nothing is known concerning the chiropteran fauna on the Grenadine Islands, a chain of islands between St. Vincent and Grenada located near the southern end of the Lesser Antilles. Previously, only a single species—Glossophaga longirostris—had been reported from the Grenadines. Our research, conducted on 4 occasions over the period of 1980 to 2006, provided museum vouchers and genetic specimens for the addition of 4 other species to the known fauna of these islands—Noctilio leporinus, Artibeus lituratus, Artibeus schwartzi, and Molossus molossus. The Grenadines, being situated between St. Vincent and Grenada, occupy an important zoogeographic position. None ...


Fire: Ecology & Prevention, Justin R. Frey 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Fire: Ecology & Prevention, Justin R. Frey

Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


Taxonomy, Biogeography And Pest Status Of Marmara Sp. In Northern Mexico And California Citrus Production, Paul Semet 2010 California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo

Taxonomy, Biogeography And Pest Status Of Marmara Sp. In Northern Mexico And California Citrus Production, Paul Semet

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A novel lepidopteran sex pheromone lure which was thought to be species-specific to the citrus pest Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Guillén (McElfresh et al. 2009) has attracted male moths exhibiting two distinct morphologies. The morphological features examined were the sclerotized parts that make up the male genitalia; which include the valvular lobes, costal lobes, cucullar lobes, and the aedeagus. The sclerotized parts were methodically dissected and mounted on microscope slides. Digital images captured of the slide-mounted specimens proved to be inconsistent with the illustrations provided in the original Marmara gulosa species description (Guillén et al. 2001).

The morphologies of all ...


Non-Senescence In Neoclassical Growth Theory, Harry D. Saunders 2010 Decision Processes Incorporated

Non-Senescence In Neoclassical Growth Theory, Harry D. Saunders

Harry D. Saunders

This presentation describes research showing that non-senescent genotypes can dominate senescent ones under certain evolutionary conditions.


Seasonality, Variation In Species Prevalence, And Localized Disease For Ranavirus In Cades Cove (Great Smoky Mountains National Park) Amphibians, Megan Todd-Thompson 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Seasonality, Variation In Species Prevalence, And Localized Disease For Ranavirus In Cades Cove (Great Smoky Mountains National Park) Amphibians, Megan Todd-Thompson

Masters Theses

World-wide amphibian declines sparked concern and encouraged investigation into potential causes beginning in the 1980’s. Infectious disease has been identified as one of the major potential contributors to amphibian declines. For example, Ranavirus has caused amphibian die-offs throughout the United States. Investigators isolated Ranavirus from dead or moribund amphibians during large-scale die-offs of amphibians in the Cades Cove area of Great Smoky Mountains National Park in 1999-2001. In 2009, after nearly a decade without follow-up monitoring, I undertook an investigation to determine if the virus persisted in the area, and if so, to assess spatial, temporal, and taxonomic patterns ...


Reproductive Failure And The Stress Response In American Kestrels Nesting Along A Human Disturbance Gradient, Erin Hennegan Strasser 2010 Boise State University

Reproductive Failure And The Stress Response In American Kestrels Nesting Along A Human Disturbance Gradient, Erin Hennegan Strasser

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Human disturbance may be an influential environmental stressor that affects birds across life stages. I examined whether external and endogenous factors including habitat type, habitat quality and individual quality (hereafter quality), or human disturbance affect American Kestrel reproductive success in southwestern Idaho. Specifically, I was interested in how these factors lead to nest failure or abandonment. I also investigated whether elevated corticosterone (CORT) concentrations mediate the relationships among explanatory variables and nest failure. As nestling kestrels may respond to stressors differently from adults, I examined whether conditions experienced during the nestling stage affected nestling American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) hypothalamic pituitary ...


Determining The Relationship Of Human Enteric Viruses In Clinical, Wastewater, And Environmental Samples Utilizing Molecular And Cell Culture Techniques, Jacquelina Susann Williams Woods 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Relationship Of Human Enteric Viruses In Clinical, Wastewater, And Environmental Samples Utilizing Molecular And Cell Culture Techniques, Jacquelina Susann Williams Woods

Dissertations

This study was the first to examine five significant enteric viruses in human fecal material, sewage, and oysters to show a genetic relationship between human enteric viruses and different sample matrices. Fecal samples were collected from an area hospital and examined for norovirus genotype I (NoV GI), norovirus genotype II (NoV Gil), hepatitis A virus (HA V), adenovirus (ADV), and enteroviruses. During this study, sewage samples were collected from a Waster Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Mobile, ALand oyster sentinels were placed at 0.1 nautical miles (nm) (station 1 ), 0.2nm (station 2}, 1.5nm (station 3), and 4nm ...


A Comparison Of The Singing Activity Of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus Ludovicianus)) In Urban And Rural Settings, Shannon R. Trimboli 2010 Western Kentucky University

A Comparison Of The Singing Activity Of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus Ludovicianus)) In Urban And Rural Settings, Shannon R. Trimboli

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

As the earth’s landscape becomes increasingly urbanized, local wildlife must adapt to urban conditions or migrate to areas that are more rural. Urban wildlife face challenges such as direct loss of habitat, competition with non-native species, disturbance due to anthropogenic noise, and micro-climatic changes. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and noise affect the acoustical environment and may affect the ability of many animals, including birds, to communicate.

Understanding how urbanization affects birds’ singing behavior is critical because singing often plays a vital role in attracting mates and defending territories. In addition, as global climate change occurs it will ...


The Interactive Effects Of Predators, Resources, And Disturbance On Freshwater Snail Populations From The Everglades, Clifton B. Ruehl 2010 Florida International University

The Interactive Effects Of Predators, Resources, And Disturbance On Freshwater Snail Populations From The Everglades, Clifton B. Ruehl

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The origins of population dynamics depend on interplay between abiotic and biotic factors; the relative importance of each changing across space and time. Predation is a central feature of ecological communities that removes individuals (consumption) and alters prey traits (non-consumptive). Resource quality mitigates non-consumptive predator effects by stimulating growth and reproduction. Disturbance resets predator-prey interactions by removing both. I integrate experiments, time-series analysis, and performance trials to examine the relative importance of these on the population dynamics of a snail species by studying a variety of their traits. A review of ninety-three published articles revealed that snail abundance was much ...


Quite A Year And New Life For Panthera Tigris: The St. Petersburg Declaration And The Future Of Wild Tigers, Philip J. Nyhus, Lisa Ann Tekancic 2010 Colby College

Quite A Year And New Life For Panthera Tigris: The St. Petersburg Declaration And The Future Of Wild Tigers, Philip J. Nyhus, Lisa Ann Tekancic

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Climatic Niche Diversity Of Malagasy Primates: A Phylogenetic Approach, Jason M. Kamilar, Kathleen M. Muldoon 2010 Yale University

The Climatic Niche Diversity Of Malagasy Primates: A Phylogenetic Approach, Jason M. Kamilar, Kathleen M. Muldoon

Anthropology Department Faculty Publication Series

Background

Numerous researchers have posited that there should be a strong negative relationship between the evolutionary distance among species and their ecological similarity. Alternative evidence suggests that members of adaptive radiations should display no relationship between divergence time and ecological similarity because rapid evolution results in near-simultaneous speciation early in the clade's history. In this paper, we performed the first investigation of ecological diversity in a phylogenetic context using a mammalian adaptive radiation, the Malagasy primates.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We collected data for 43 extant species including: 1) 1064 species by locality samples, 2) GIS climate data for each ...


Environmental And Endogenous Factors Influencing Emigration In Juvenile Anadromous Alewives, Benjamin I. Gahagan, Eric T. Schultz, Katie E. Gherard 2010 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Environmental And Endogenous Factors Influencing Emigration In Juvenile Anadromous Alewives, Benjamin I. Gahagan, Eric T. Schultz, Katie E. Gherard

EEB Articles

We analyzed juvenile anadromous alewife migration at Bride Lake, a coastal lake in Connecticut, during summer 2006 and found that migration on 24-hour and seasonal timescales was influenced by conditions of the environment and characteristics of the individual. To identify environmental cues of juvenile migration, we continuously video recorded fish at the lake outflow and employed information-theoretic model selection to identify the best predictors of daily migration rate. More than 80% of the approximately 320,000 juveniles that migrated from mid-June to mid-August departed in three pulses lasting one or two days. Pulses of migration were associated with precipitation events ...


Games Played By Predators And Prey, Amos Bouskila 2010 Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev

Games Played By Predators And Prey, Amos Bouskila

Amos Bouskila

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Parasitism Of Southern California Bean Clams (Donax Gouldii) By The Trematode Postmonorchis Donacis, R N. Winter, M.B. A. Hatch 2010 Occidental College

Investigating The Parasitism Of Southern California Bean Clams (Donax Gouldii) By The Trematode Postmonorchis Donacis, R N. Winter, M.B. A. Hatch

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

The bean clam, Donax gouldii, is an intermediate host of the monorchid trematode Postmonorchis donacis. Bean clams were collected from nine locations in San Diego County, CA, and siphons and mantle edges examined. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) parasitism increases with valve length, and (2) female clams have more parasites than males. A positive relationship was found between clam length and parasitism at all locations; there was no significant difference (a 5 0.05) in male and female parasitism rates. Spatial variation on a kilometer scale was observed in trematode infestation rate and intensity.


Reproduction In The Baja California Collared Lizard, Crotaphytus Vestigium (Squamata: Crotaphytidae), Stephen R. Goldberg, Clark R. Mahrdt 2010 Occidental College

Reproduction In The Baja California Collared Lizard, Crotaphytus Vestigium (Squamata: Crotaphytidae), Stephen R. Goldberg, Clark R. Mahrdt

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

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