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Ecological Consequences Of Sea Star Wasting Disease: Non-Consumptive Effects And Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions From Pisaster Ochraceus, Timothy Ian McClure 2019 Humboldt State University

Ecological Consequences Of Sea Star Wasting Disease: Non-Consumptive Effects And Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions From Pisaster Ochraceus, Timothy Ian Mcclure

Theses and projects

Consumptive effects (CEs) of predators are an important factor in structuring biological communities, but further work is needed to understand how the interaction between spatial and temporal differences in predator density affects non-consumptive effects (NCEs) on prey. NCEs can cause indirect effects on food resources, known as trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs), and thus can also affect community structure. However, few studies have considered the relationships between spatial and temporal predator density variation and the strength of NCEs and TMIIs in the natural environment. The ochre star Pisaster ochraceus is common predator of the herbivorous black turban snail Tegula funebralis, imposing ...


Tree Squirrels And Fishers In Northern California: The Effects Of Masting Hardwoods On Stand Use, Andria M. Townsend 2019 Humboldt State University

Tree Squirrels And Fishers In Northern California: The Effects Of Masting Hardwoods On Stand Use, Andria M. Townsend

Theses and projects

In western North America, tree squirrels such as western gray (Sciurus griseus) and Douglas squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii) are potentially important prey for fishers (Pekania pennanti). Western gray squirrels in particular may be highly ranked due to their large body size. Masting trees including black oak (Quercus kelloggii) and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) produce an important food source for tree squirrels; therefore, forest stands containing these trees may be useful to foraging fishers. I hypothesized that; 1) the abundance of western gray and Douglas squirrels in a stand is influenced by the mast production capacity of that stand, and 2) fisher stand ...


Evaluation Of Range-Wide Occupancy And Survey Methods For The Giant Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Ingens), Alyssa E. Semerdjian 2019 Humboldt State University

Evaluation Of Range-Wide Occupancy And Survey Methods For The Giant Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Ingens), Alyssa E. Semerdjian

Theses and projects

Though habitat suitability and occupancy are often correlated, they cannot always be inferred from each other. Therefore, a solid understanding of both is essential to effectively manage species. Recent studies have assessed range-wide habitat suitability for the giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens; GKR), but data regarding occupancy is lacking in parts of its distribution. Satellite and aerial imagery were used to identify GKR burrows across their known range, producing a range-wide occupancy map and non-invasive survey methods including track plates, manned flight, unmanned aerial vehicle, and sign surveys were conducted to determine effective methods for monitoring GKR occupancy. The range-wide ...


Fire And Road Disturbance Impacts On Forest Plant Species And Seed Rain In Table Mountain Fire Arai, Kittitas County, Washington, Jonathan A. Betz 2019 Central Washington University

Fire And Road Disturbance Impacts On Forest Plant Species And Seed Rain In Table Mountain Fire Arai, Kittitas County, Washington, Jonathan A. Betz

All Master's Theses

Forest communities are in a constant state of change. Disturbance events can alter the physical landscape and create conditions favorable to some species while negatively impacting others. Fire has been a natural, reoccurring source of disturbance in Pacific Northwest forests. Over the past centuries the fire paradigm has changed in favor of fire suppression. Forest roads permit access provide greater access but further fracture forest community’s continuity. The 2012 Table Mountain Fire and road influence have altered the plant community’s seed rain and vegetation. This study measured dispersed seeds and understory vegetation cover as functions of roads and ...


Estimating Space Sharing Between Seabird, Pinniped, And Human Use In The Northern California Coast, Claire Marie Nasr 2019 Humboldt State University

Estimating Space Sharing Between Seabird, Pinniped, And Human Use In The Northern California Coast, Claire Marie Nasr

Theses and projects

Rocky coastlines incur high impacts from human use, but these places are also essential habitat for marine wildlife including seabirds and pinnipeds (seals and sea lions). Marine wildlife use coastal rocks to breed, rest, and engage in social interaction and exhibit different habitat use during the breeding and non-breeding season. Peak timing of human use occurs in spring summer, coinciding with breeding seasons for colonial seabirds and gregarious pinnipeds. The high potential of spatial and temporal overlap between human and seabird use of rocky coastlines could lead to high risk of disturbance events. I investigated the relative risk of disturbance ...


Evidence For A New Search Behavior: Porcupines “Scout” For Winter Habitat During Summer In A Coastal Dune System, Pairsa N. Belamaric 2019 Humboldt State University

Evidence For A New Search Behavior: Porcupines “Scout” For Winter Habitat During Summer In A Coastal Dune System, Pairsa N. Belamaric

Theses and projects

Species are often challenged by periodic changes in food availability and habitat quality. These environmental conditions may provide strong selective pressure for animals to strategically "scout" for important resources during periods of abundance, when exploratory movements are less costly. North American porcupines experience a drastic shift in forage quality from summer - a time of abundant, high quality forage - to winter, a nutritional bottleneck. I evaluated potential scouting behaviors of porcupines in Tolowa Dunes State Park, California using movement and habitat-use data. I compared summer and winter space use of porcupines using GPS data and monitored seasonal use of winter habitat ...


Effects Of Fragmentation On Species Retention In National Parks, Liz Tanner 2019 Fort Hays State University

Effects Of Fragmentation On Species Retention In National Parks, Liz Tanner

Master's Theses

The North American landscape is becoming increasingly fragmented, resulting in habitat patches with decreased area and increased isolation. Often, these patches exist as protected areas, such as national parks. The Theory of Island Biogeography is frequently used as a model for these patches, where each park serves as an ‘island’ surrounded by a ‘sea’ of human-altered habitats. As such, species richness and extinctions in a park might be explained by its area. For this study, I used regression models to examine the relationship between richness and area, as well as extinctions and area, for mammals and birds in national parks ...


The Grass Is Always Greener On The Other Side (Of The Basement Membrane): Prostate Cancer Metastasis As Intracorporeal Dispersal, Matthew Oh 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Grass Is Always Greener On The Other Side (Of The Basement Membrane): Prostate Cancer Metastasis As Intracorporeal Dispersal, Matthew Oh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Dispersal ecology offers a possible explanation for the behavior of prostate cancer (PCa), which disproportionately metastasizes to the bone. Organisms become more likely to leave their home patch when conditions are unfavorable, with the goal of becoming established in more favorable patches. Similarly, PCa cells are pushed from the prostate tumor by hypoxic stress and pulled toward the bone by the presence of bone stromal cells (BSCs), which support PCa growth and proliferation. When PCa settles in the bone, it leads to the formation of a feedforward loop in which PCa enhances osteoblast differentiation; osteoblasts in turn promote PCa proliferation ...


Effect Of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Consumption And Seed Feeding Behavior On Caterpillar Growth, Hannah Hartung 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Effect Of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Consumption And Seed Feeding Behavior On Caterpillar Growth, Hannah Hartung

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Caterpillars who feed on a wide variety of plant hosts must adapt to the defenses of every plant they feed on. For seed-eating caterpillars this can be particularly difficult because the seed is one of the most heavily defended bodies on a plant. Helicoverpa zea, the corn earworm, is both a seed eater and a generalist, feeding on plants belonging to over 30 families, including both agricultural crops and native plants, such as Lupinus texensis. I studied the corn earworm and L. texensis to answer three questions: i) what is the feeding behavior of these seed-eating caterpillars, ii) how do ...


Comparative Analysis Of Prairie Dog Colony Spatial Structure, Elizabeth Hasan 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Comparative Analysis Of Prairie Dog Colony Spatial Structure, Elizabeth Hasan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Just as food and water are resources for organisms, so is space. The way animals make efficient use of space may be based on resource availability and genetic relatedness among individuals and has the potential to help inform how humans could use space more efficiently. It is unclear if/when animals are using space randomly or according to patterns in spatial organization. My study characterized six prairie dog colonies in Boulder and Gunnison, Colorado, to model spatial dynamics with GPS (global positioning system) data complemented by images of full colonies collected by drones. Spatial burrow data were analyzed for non- ...


Quantifying Community Response To Drought: A Trait Based Analysis Of The Xeric Tallgrass Prairie In Boulder, Colorado, Emily Kelman 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Quantifying Community Response To Drought: A Trait Based Analysis Of The Xeric Tallgrass Prairie In Boulder, Colorado, Emily Kelman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Increased severity and duration of drought events in Colorado pose a threat to grassland systems. Utilizing plant traits to analyze community responses to environmental disturbance serves as an accurate mechanism in addressing climate change influences on grassland ecosystems. In this project, I aim to quantify the relationship between five plant traits and drought intensity over time, in order to see if plant traits can capture changes in community structure in response to drought. I calculated the mean value of traits at the community level as well as the amount of variation observed in those values, in order to analyze community ...


Transgenerational Plasticity Is Sex-Dependent And Persistent In Yellow Moneyflower (Mimulus Guttatus), Kayla Akkerman 2019 Central Washington University

Transgenerational Plasticity Is Sex-Dependent And Persistent In Yellow Moneyflower (Mimulus Guttatus), Kayla Akkerman

All Master's Theses

Transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, whereby environmental cues experienced by parents alter the phenotype of their progeny, has now been documented in diverse organisms. Transmission of environmentally determined responses is known to occur through both maternal and paternal gametes, but the underlying mechanisms have rarely been compared. In addition, the persistence of induction over multiple generations appears to vary widely but has been characterized for relatively few systems. Yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) is known to exhibit transgenerational induction of increased glandular trichome production in response to simulated insect damage. Here we test for differences between maternal and paternal transmission of this response ...


Shaping The Tools Of Battle : Sexual Selection, Contest Dynamics, And Weapon Divergence In The Asian Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus, Jillian F. del Sol 2019 University of Montana

Shaping The Tools Of Battle : Sexual Selection, Contest Dynamics, And Weapon Divergence In The Asian Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus, Jillian F. Del Sol

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Exaggerated weapons of sexual selection often diverge more rapidly and dramatically than other body parts, suggesting that relevant agents of selection may be discernible in contemporary populations. I examined the ecology, reproductive behavior, and strength of sexual selection on horn length in five recently diverged beetle populations that differ in relative horn size. I show that mating system ecology differs between these locations and corresponds with the local strength of contemporary selection on horn length. Comparisons of ecological conditions and selection strength across populations offer a critical first step towards meaningfully linking mating system dynamics, selection patterns, and diversity in ...


The Marin County Livestock Protection Program: 15 Years In Review, Stephanie Larson, Devan A. McGranahan, Robert M. Timm 2019 University of California - Cooperative Extension

The Marin County Livestock Protection Program: 15 Years In Review, Stephanie Larson, Devan A. Mcgranahan, Robert M. Timm

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Predation by wild carnivores challenges livestock producers worldwide. To reduce or offset losses due to predation, a variety of predator control methods and compensation schemes have been developed. In 2001, Marin County, California, USA replaced its U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services (WS) cooperative predator damage management program with a county-run program that emphasized nonlethal methods for preventing and controlling coyote (Canis latrans) predation on domestic sheep (Ovis aries). This new Livestock Protection Program (LPP) cost-shared with livestock producers’ efforts to improve fencing, obtain and maintain guard animals, and other such nonlethal methods, and initially it compensated producers for ...


Filogeografía, Diversidad Genética Y Estructura Poblacional De La Raya Manta, Paratrygon Aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) En Las Cuencas De Las Amazonas Y Orinoco, Maira Alejandra Rizo Fuentes 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Filogeografía, Diversidad Genética Y Estructura Poblacional De La Raya Manta, Paratrygon Aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) En Las Cuencas De Las Amazonas Y Orinoco, Maira Alejandra Rizo Fuentes

Biología

La raya Manta de agua dulce Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) es un pez de interés ornamental, tiene una amplia distribución en las cuencas del Amazonas y el Orinoco. Es la única especie descrita en el género Paratrygon, aunque algunos autores mencionan que dentro y entre las cuencas mencionadas, P. aiereba revela variaciones morfométricas, osteológicas y de coloración que podrían indicar la existencia de más de una especie. Con el fin de estimar la filogeografía, la diversidad genética y la estructura poblacional de P. aiereba en las cuencas del Amazonas y Orinoco en Colombia, se amplificó una porción del gen Citocromo oxidasa subunidad I (COXI) como marcador molecular de ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt), en 50 muestras de las dos cuencas principales (Amazonas y Orinoco) y ocho subcuencas diferentes, incluidos los cauces principales de ambos ríos. Se realizaron análisis de filogenia bayesiana con calibración fósil, análisis filogeográfico y red de haplotipos, seguido de un análisis de la varianza molecular. El análisis de agrupamiento (K) de los datos de secuencias de ADN para revelar la estructura genética de la población, se implementó mediante el uso de inferencia bayesiana. Los resultados sugieren tres Filogrupos, dos en la cuenca del Orinoco (A-B) y uno en la cuenca del Amazonas (C). Se reconoce un evento vicariante de hace 43 millones de años, que marcó la divergencia de Paratrygon. Se encontró una alta estructura poblacional con un valor significativo de (ST = 0.692; p <0.005), que sugiere una conectividad genética baja y un K = 3, en el cual el valor de probabilidad marginal logarítmica fue más alto, aunque se encontraron algunos haplotipos compartidos entre las cuencas del Amazonas y el Orinoco. Se determinaron 12 haplotipos y una diversidad genética relativamente alta (Filogrupo A) (h = 0.64; π = 2,48%), (Filogrupo B) (h = 0.552; π = 1,67%), y (Filogrupo C) (h = 0,49; π = 0,73%). Los resultados genéticos de este estudio deben ser considerados en los planes de manejo locales; programas de conservación y sugieren una reclasificación de esta especie por lo menos en estas dos cuencas (Amazonas y Orinoco). Se discute sobre la historia biogeográfica en América del Sur donde aparentemente, un evento vicariante después de la elevación de los Andes durante el Paleo Orinoco-Amazonas, fue crucial en la diversificación del género Paratrygon.


Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines 2019 University of Kentucky

Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

Carotenoids serve various ecological roles in animals including coloration, immune responses, and vision. Carotenoid-derived coloration is greatly emphasized in the literature, particularly relating to mate choice and aposematic warning. However, the trade-offs between the color and non-color functions of carotenoids are not thoroughly explored. In the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), some larval populations have yellow pigmentation, using carotenoids derived from their diets for aposematic warning coloration. Other larval populations are white in color, having genetically lost the ability to produce the yellow pigment. Because carotenoids are essential to life functions in both the yellow and white populations, we aim ...


Examining Aspen Expansion From Before And After Prescribed Burning In A Native Fescue Grassland Through Geospatial Techniques, Christopher Anderson 2019 Michigan Technological University

Examining Aspen Expansion From Before And After Prescribed Burning In A Native Fescue Grassland Through Geospatial Techniques, Christopher Anderson

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Native fescue (Fescue spp.) grasslands of the Intermountain West have become increasingly scarce due to the advent of modern agriculture, the loss of Indigenous people’s land management practices, modern wildfire management and the extirpation of bison (Bison bison bison). Native grassland is a biodiversity hot-spot, is significant for carbon sequestration, and essential to many species of flora and fauna that occur in the ecosystem. Our study site, on the Rocky Mountain Front in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta Canada, consists of 30 discrete aspen stands (Populous tremuloides) which are encroaching on this declining shortgrass fescue grassland. Parks Canada is ...


Covers, 2019 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


An Ecological Niche Model To Predict Range Expansion Of The Eastern Gray Squirrel In California, Carly M. Creley, Alan Muchlinski, Fraser Shilling 2019 California State University, Los Angeles

An Ecological Niche Model To Predict Range Expansion Of The Eastern Gray Squirrel In California, Carly M. Creley, Alan Muchlinski, Fraser Shilling

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

The eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis (EGS) has been introduced to California and has expanded its geographic range since initial introductions. In this study we projected the potential future geographic range of the EGS in California using Maxent to create an ecological niche model. Location data were obtained over the time period of 2004 - 2015 from museum specimens, wildlife rehabilitation centers, the California Department of Public Health, the California Roadkill Observation System, and non-iNaturalist citizen science observations. Research grade data from iNaturalist was obtained over the time period of 2004 - 2018. Range and habitat suitability maps were developed by mapping ...


Intraguild Predation: Interactions Between Predators, Pathogens, And Their Shared Resources In Crop Pest Communities, Andrew Jason Flick 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Intraguild Predation: Interactions Between Predators, Pathogens, And Their Shared Resources In Crop Pest Communities, Andrew Jason Flick

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Crop pest management requires an understanding of the complex interactions among pest species that potentially damage crop yield and species that may be crucial for controlling pest species outbreaks. For example, predators, parasitoids, and pathogens are constantly interacting via their shared prey or hosts. Predators may prefer infected prey, which can be easier to catch; however, infected prey may be less nutritious or even lethal for predators. These interactions then dictate the short-term dynamics of host and pathogen as well as between prey and predator. "How these dynamics change as the species in the system change either empirically or theoretically ...


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