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Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen 2019 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley 2019 University of Maine

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


American White Pelicans, Tommy King 2019 National Wildlife Research Center, Starkville, Mississippi

American White Pelicans, Tommy King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Figure 1) threaten aquaculture producers by direct predation and the spread of disease. They are also considered competition and a nuisance by some sports fishermen. Pelicans can also damage pond levees and crops, such as rice, by trampling the vegetation and depositing guano. A combination of wildlife damage management techniques is often necessary to reduce pelican damage to these resources. Aquaculture Prior to the winter of 1992, American white pelican depredations at catfish facilities in the Delta regions of Arkansas and Mississippi were limited, and birds were easily dispersed from the area. Since 1992, however ...


Invasion In The Nation: How Does Temperature During Dormancy Influence Germination Rates Of Humulus Japonicus, Anna Sapone, Briauna Bivens 2019 Carroll College

Invasion In The Nation: How Does Temperature During Dormancy Influence Germination Rates Of Humulus Japonicus, Anna Sapone, Briauna Bivens

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Humulus japonicus is currently in the Eastern United States, but is rapidly migrating West and heading straight for Montana. The effects of climate change have already been seen in Montana, and more changes are expected to occur in the future. These shifts could produce a climate that would allow H. japonicus to thrive on our open lands. H. japonicus is an annual invasive species that can out compete native species in riparian and floodplain habitats, altering ecosystem function. Previous studies have shown that H. japonicus seeds need some kind of cold stratification in order to break seed dormancy. For our ...


Hawaiian Honeycreeper Explosion: Monophyletic Origins Of Nectivorous Honeycreeper Beak Morphologies, Carter Anderson 2019 Carroll College

Hawaiian Honeycreeper Explosion: Monophyletic Origins Of Nectivorous Honeycreeper Beak Morphologies, Carter Anderson

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The goal of this study was to determine if the primary nectarivorous species of Hawai’ian Honeycreepers were a monophyletic group. A well supported phylogeny, generated using cytB of the mitochondrial genome, indicates a resolved clade of nectivore honeycreepers distinct from other lineages


Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of The Forensically Significant Blow Flies Of Los Angeles County, California, United States (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Royce T. Cumming 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of The Forensically Significant Blow Flies Of Los Angeles County, California, United States (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Royce T. Cumming

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Forensic entomology although not a commonly used discipline in the forensic sciences, does have its niche and when used by investigators is respected in crinimolegal investigations (Greenberg and Kunich, 2005). With many species of forensically significant insects being regionally specific, it is often difficult for forensic entomologists to as confidently translate regionally specific studies across drastically differing geographic regions (Brundage, et al., 2011).

The purpose of this study is to help create a better temporal and geographic distributional understanding of the blow fly species present in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Twenty-five locations from four ecoregions (coastal mountains, urban ...


Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang 2019 SUNY Geneseo

Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

The ability of invasive plant species to rapidly overtake native flora has become a growing problem in the Northeast US and elsewhere. A variety of mechanisms contribute to this ability, such as different strategies of resource allocation to fruit and flowers in native compared to invasive species. Life history theory suggests that fruit and flower size should be inversely related, since the plant has a finite number of resources. We hypothesize that there is a ratio of fruit to flower size that allow invasive species to quickly outcompete native species—a larger flower would allow for better pollination, but a ...


Law, Biology, And Property: A New Theory Of The Endowment Effect, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan 2019 Georgia State University

Law, Biology, And Property: A New Theory Of The Endowment Effect, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan

Owen Jones

Recent work at the intersection of law and behavioral biology has suggested numerous contexts in which legal thinking could benefit by integrating knowledge from behavioral biology. In one of those contexts, behavioral biology may help to provide theoretical foundation for, and potentially increased predictive power concerning, various psychological traits relevant to law. This Article describes an experiment that explores that context.

The paradoxical psychological bias known as the endowment effect puzzles economists, skews market behavior, impedes efficient exchange of goods and rights, and thereby poses important problems for law. Although the effect is known to vary widely, there are at ...


Development Of A Molecular Genetic Method For Characterizing Amphibian Diets, Alexander T. Funk 2019 University of Tennessee Knoxville

Development Of A Molecular Genetic Method For Characterizing Amphibian Diets, Alexander T. Funk

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR GENETIC METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING AMPHIBIAN DIETS.Alexander Funk* and Todd W. Pierson, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee Knoxville, afunk4@vols.utk.edu

Dietary studies can provide key insights into the ecology and behavior of animals. Methods common in dietary studies of amphibians (e.g., gastric lavage, fecal analysis, dissection) often fail to identify prey beyond the level of Order, are time intensive, and can be biased against soft-bodied prey. Here, we are developing a DNA metabarcoding assay to characterize amphibian diets from non-invasive fecal samples. In DNA metabarcoding, barcoding loci from mixed ...


Index, 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Index

Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum

No abstract provided.


The Brule-Gering (Oligocene-Miocene) Contact In The Wildcat Ridge Area Of Western Nebraska, C. Bertrand Schultz, Charles H. Falkenbach, Carl F. Vondra 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Brule-Gering (Oligocene-Miocene) Contact In The Wildcat Ridge Area Of Western Nebraska, C. Bertrand Schultz, Charles H. Falkenbach, Carl F. Vondra

Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum

The contact between the Brule Formation (Oligocene) and the Gering Formation (Miocene) can be readily distinguished in the Wildcat Ridge area, as elsewhere in western Nebraska. At the critical fossiliferous exposures at Castle Rock in Scotts Bluff County, the contact on the south face between the two formations is defined as 129 feet above the base of the "Upper Ash" bed, which corresponds to the upper portion of Darton's (1899, PI. C, Fig. D, following p. 754) "sandy phase" in the upper part of the Brule. Certain key beds in the Gering Formation can be traced laterally from a ...


The Piping Plover Problem: A Review Of Management Issues For A Threatened Shorebird, Andrew Lydeard, Gerry Harris 2019 Murray State University

The Piping Plover Problem: A Review Of Management Issues For A Threatened Shorebird, Andrew Lydeard, Gerry Harris

Scholars Week

Andrew Lydeard and Gerry Harris

The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) was federally listed in 1986. Since listing, Piping Plovers have been a focus of conservation and management efforts, particularly on their breeding grounds in the Northern Great Plains, Great Lakes, and northern Atlantic Coast. Despite management efforts that have resulted in range-wide population growth of the Piping Plover, growth in individual populations is often slow and reasons for this are poorly understood. A bias towards understanding drivers of declines on breeding sites compared to wintering and migratory stopover sites may be an underlying cause of this lack of understanding. Conducting ...


Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers 2019 Roanoke College

Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers

Virginia Journal of Science

Snorkel observations of Percina roanoka and P. nevisense in the Roanoke River during summer months were followed by measuring current velocity, water depth, and substrate diameter at points of occupation. A total of 89 observations of P. roanoka and 81 observations of P. nevisense were compared using two-sample T-tests. Percina roanoka inhabited faster, shallower water than P. nevisense with the former found in a mean flow of 0.318 m/s and depth of 31.53 cm and the latter in a mean flow of 0.17 m/s and depth of 55.6 cm. Mean diameter of substrate at ...


Investigating Diel Periodicity In Export Flux In The Gulf Of Mexico Using A Particulate Imaging System, Justin Edward Blancher 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating Diel Periodicity In Export Flux In The Gulf Of Mexico Using A Particulate Imaging System, Justin Edward Blancher

Master's Theses

To estimate the diurnal periodicity in the biological pump, a floating array with a marine snow camera system at 150 m depth was used, and particles were imaged at a 40 second interval for a 24 to 30 hour period at five sites in the Gulf of Mexico in June 2017. Each image was processed to identify and size all the particles within the frame, which was then processed to determine diameter, an estimated volume, and settling speed for each particle. Using these parameters, particle mass was estimated using algebraically rearranged calculations for settling speed. Each hour during the deployment ...


Density And Mass Effect On The Development Of Phormia Regina, Brandon H. Strauss 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Density And Mass Effect On The Development Of Phormia Regina, Brandon H. Strauss

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Forensic entomology is the application of the study of arthropods to the criminal justice system. This is primarily done through the development of a post mortem interval (PMI) based the insect evidence present. A practitioner must be able to determine the age of the insect through temperature data. One factor influencing the temperature dependent development is gregarious behavior. Current literature describes a faster development rate due to an increase in feeding efficiency and temperatures produced by this aggregate. However, there is very little literature defining a minimum number needed to induce this effect and little to none on it for ...


Contrasting Non-Breeding Ecology Of Swainson’S Thrush (Catharus Ustulatus) In Andean Forest And Shade-Grown Coffee Plantations, Sean McElaney 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Contrasting Non-Breeding Ecology Of Swainson’S Thrush (Catharus Ustulatus) In Andean Forest And Shade-Grown Coffee Plantations, Sean Mcelaney

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Shade-grown coffee plantations provide Neotropical migratory birds an alternative to primary growth forest which is disappearing throughout their non-breeding range. However, it remains unclear whether plantations can provide enough structure to maintain viable non-breeding populations of many species. I studied Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus) in the Colombian Andes in a mixture of montane forest and shade-grown coffee plantation. In comparing the two habitats I looked at factors indicative of habitat quality, such as age/sex hierarchies, area of concentrated use, density, diet, and migration timing. My research aimed to determine whether Neotropical migrants benefit from this agroecosystem, and to ...


Phylogenetic History Of The Amy Gene Cluster In Catarrhines, Christian M. Gagnon 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Phylogenetic History Of The Amy Gene Cluster In Catarrhines, Christian M. Gagnon

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study phylogenetically analyzed 30 AMY-related genes from 11 primates. The results show the gradual expansion of the AMY gene family which could have allowed primates to adapt to various ecological landscapes and maximize energy intake from starch-rich foods in periods of food scarcity.


Climatic Variables Are Strong Predictors Of Allonursing And Communal Nesting In Primates, Alexandra Louppova 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Climatic Variables Are Strong Predictors Of Allonursing And Communal Nesting In Primates, Alexandra Louppova

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Allomaternal care (AMC) is widespread throughout the primate order, previous studies have focused on benefits and costs to individuals. However, our understanding of environmental impacts on AMC behaviors in primates is still limited. Our study examines how ecology and environmental factors can predict certain AMC behaviors more than others.


Concept Inventories As A Resource For Teaching Evolution, Robert E. Furrow, Jeremy L. Hsu 2019 University of California, Davis

Concept Inventories As A Resource For Teaching Evolution, Robert E. Furrow, Jeremy L. Hsu

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding evolution is critical to learning biology, but few college instructors take advantage of the body of peer-reviewed literature that can inform evolution teaching and assessment. Here we summarize the peer-reviewed papers on tools to assess student learning of evolutionary concepts. These published concept inventories provide a resource for instructors to design courses, gauge student preparation, identify key misconceptions in their student population, and measure the impact of a lesson, course, or broader curriculum on student learning. Because these inventories vary in their format, target audience, and degree of validation, we outline and explain these features. In addition to summarizing ...


An Ecological Niche Model To Predict Range Expansion Of The Eastern Gray Squirrel In California, Carly M. Creley, Alan Muchlinski, Fraser Shilling 2019 California State University, Los Angeles

An Ecological Niche Model To Predict Range Expansion Of The Eastern Gray Squirrel In California, Carly M. Creley, Alan Muchlinski, Fraser Shilling

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

The eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis (EGS) has been introduced to California and has expanded its geographic range since initial introductions. In this study we projected the potential future geographic range of the EGS in California using Maxent to create an ecological niche model. Location data were obtained over the time period of 2004 - 2015 from museum specimens, wildlife rehabilitation centers, the California Department of Public Health, the California Roadkill Observation System, and non-iNaturalist citizen science observations. Research grade data from iNaturalist was obtained over the time period of 2004 - 2018. Range and habitat suitability maps were developed by mapping ...


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