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What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 Pennsylvania State University

What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Long-term studies have been crucial to the advancement of population biology, especially our understanding of population dynamics. We argue that this progress arises from three key characteristics of long-term research. First, long-term data are necessary to observe the heterogeneity that drives most population processes. Second, long-term studies often inherently lead to novel insights. Finally, long-term field studies can serve as model systems for population biology, allowing for theory and methods to be tested under well-characterized conditions. We illustrate these ideas in three long-term field systems that have made outsized contributions to our understanding of population ecology, evolution, and conservation biology ...


An Agent-Based Modeling Approach For Predicting The Behavior Of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis) Under The Influence Of Acoustic Deterrence, Joey Gaudy, Craig Garzella 2019 Valparaiso University

An Agent-Based Modeling Approach For Predicting The Behavior Of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis) Under The Influence Of Acoustic Deterrence, Joey Gaudy, Craig Garzella

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Host Plant, Geography And Pheromone Strain On Genomic Differentiation In Sympatric Populations Of Ostrinia Nubilalis, Brad S. Coates, Genevieve M. Kozak, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Sun, Yangzhou Zhang, Shelby J. Fleischer, Erik B. Dopman, Thomas W. Sappington 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Influence Of Host Plant, Geography And Pheromone Strain On Genomic Differentiation In Sympatric Populations Of Ostrinia Nubilalis, Brad S. Coates, Genevieve M. Kozak, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Sun, Yangzhou Zhang, Shelby J. Fleischer, Erik B. Dopman, Thomas W. Sappington

Thomas W. Sappington

Patterns of mating for the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) moth depend in part on variation in sex‐pheromone blend. The ratio of (E)‐11‐ and (Z)‐11‐tetradecenyl acetate (E11‐ and Z11‐14:OAc) in the pheromone blend that females produce and males respond to differs between strains of O. nubilalis. Populations also vary in female oviposition preference for and larval performance on maize (C4) and non‐maize (C3) host plants. The relative contributions of sexual and ecological trait variation to the genetic structure of O. nubilalis remains unknown. Host‐plant use (13C/14C ratios) and genetic differentiation were ...


Influence Of Host Plant, Geography And Pheromone Strain On Genomic Differentiation In Sympatric Populations Of Ostrinia Nubilalis, Brad S. Coates, Genevieve M. Kozak, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Sun, Yangzhou Zhang, Shelby J. Fleischer, Erik B. Dopman, Thomas W. Sappington 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Influence Of Host Plant, Geography And Pheromone Strain On Genomic Differentiation In Sympatric Populations Of Ostrinia Nubilalis, Brad S. Coates, Genevieve M. Kozak, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Sun, Yangzhou Zhang, Shelby J. Fleischer, Erik B. Dopman, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Patterns of mating for the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) moth depend in part on variation in sex‐pheromone blend. The ratio of (E)‐11‐ and (Z)‐11‐tetradecenyl acetate (E11‐ and Z11‐14:OAc) in the pheromone blend that females produce and males respond to differs between strains of O. nubilalis. Populations also vary in female oviposition preference for and larval performance on maize (C4) and non‐maize (C3) host plants. The relative contributions of sexual and ecological trait variation to the genetic structure of O. nubilalis remains unknown. Host‐plant use (13C/14C ratios) and genetic differentiation were ...


Evaluating The Effect Of Time Of Day On Singing Behavior In Anna’S Hummingbirds, Adrian D. Macedo, Maxine R. Mota 2019 Humboldt State University

Evaluating The Effect Of Time Of Day On Singing Behavior In Anna’S Hummingbirds, Adrian D. Macedo, Maxine R. Mota

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.


Behaviour Development: A Cephalopod Perspective, Jennifer A. Mather 2019 University of Lethbridge

Behaviour Development: A Cephalopod Perspective, Jennifer A. Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

This paper evaluates the development of behaviour from the viewpoint of the intelligent and learningdependent cephalopod mollusks as a contrast to that of mammals. They have a short lifespan, commonly one to two years, and most are semelparous, reproducing only near the end of their lifespan. In the first two months of life, Sepia officinalis cuttlefish show drastic limitation on learning of prey choice and capture, gradually acquiring first short-term and then long-term learning over 60 days. This is paralleled by development of the vertical lobe of the brain which processes visually learned information. In the long nonreproductive adulthood, Octopus ...


Does Detection Range Matter For Inferring Social Networks In A Benthic Shark Using Acoustic Telemetry?, Johann Mourier, Nathan Charles Bass, Tristan L. Guttridge, Joanna Day, Culum Brown 2019 Macquarie University

Does Detection Range Matter For Inferring Social Networks In A Benthic Shark Using Acoustic Telemetry?, Johann Mourier, Nathan Charles Bass, Tristan L. Guttridge, Joanna Day, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

Accurately estimating contacts between animals can be critical in ecological studies such as examining social structure, predator–prey interactions or transmission of information and disease. While biotelemetry has been used successfully for such studies in terrestrial systems, it is still under development in the aquatic environment. Acoustic telemetry represents an attractive tool to investigate spatio-temporal behaviour of marine fish and has recently been suggested for monitoring underwater animal interactions. To evaluate the effectiveness of acoustic telemetry in recording interindividual contacts, we compared co-occurrence matrices deduced from three types of acoustic receivers varying in detection range in a benthic shark species ...


Physiological Status Of Male And Female Popillia Japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Affects Mating And Grouping Behavior, Natasha Tigreros, Rashmi Jadhav, Katelyn A. Kowles, Britto P. Nathan, Paul Switzer 2019 Eastern Illinois University

Physiological Status Of Male And Female Popillia Japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Affects Mating And Grouping Behavior, Natasha Tigreros, Rashmi Jadhav, Katelyn A. Kowles, Britto P. Nathan, Paul Switzer

Britto P. Nathan

Because mating may be costly, sexually active males or females are predicted to be in relatively good physiological condition and may preferentially direct their mating behavior toward relatively high-quality mates. We tested this hypothesis in Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman), a pest species in which males and females may be either isolated or in aggregations while feeding on host plants. We examined male size and lipid content and female size and egg load with respect to both their pairing status and whether they were isolated or in aggregations. Males that were paired had the highest lipid levels, and single, isolated ...


Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Humans have transformed much of the natural landscape and are continuing to do so at an accelerated rate, compromising natural areas that serve as important habitat for many species. Roads impact much of the environment as they fragment habitat and introduce traffic noise into the acoustic environment, deferentially affecting wildlife in roadside habitat. I explored how traffic noise affects the detection of birds based on whether their vocalizations were masked by traffic noise. Masked species detection was not affected by an increase in traffic noise amplitude, while there was a negative effect of traffic noise amplitude on unmasked species detection ...


Solar Eclipse Has Little Discernible Effect On Bat Activity, Michael J. Bender, Sara Robertson 2019 University of North Georgia

Solar Eclipse Has Little Discernible Effect On Bat Activity, Michael J. Bender, Sara Robertson

Georgia Journal of Science

N/A - Research Note


Major Histocompatibility Complex Does Not Affect Mating Patterns In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Lucas Silveira 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Major Histocompatibility Complex Does Not Affect Mating Patterns In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Lucas Silveira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In many species, individuals prefer mates that are genetically dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This is likely because it improves offspring resistance to pathogens. Here I provide the first genotypic characterization of the MHC class II peptide binding region in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), a species of sunfish, and examine its effect on mating patterns. I hypothesized females would choose to mate with MHC dissimilar males leading to an increase in the resulting offspring’s fitness. I captured females and males during spawning and sequenced the DNA of these fish at the MHC class II putative peptide binding region ...


Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson 2019 Iowa State University

Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson

Aileen Keating

The objective of this study was to evaluate approachability of gilts divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) to a novel human. Twenty low-RFI and 19 high-RFI gilts were tested using a human approach test. Testing occurred over two consecutive weeks between 1300 and 1900 hours. Gilts were tested individually within a 4.9 x 2.4 m test arena. Throughout the test, latency to first enter, duration of time spent, and frequency of entrances within 1 m and 0.5 m of the human were recorded. These results suggest that divergent selection for RFI did not alter gilt approach ...


The Fruitless Gene Influences Female Mate Preference In Drosophila, Tabashir A. Chowdhury 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Fruitless Gene Influences Female Mate Preference In Drosophila, Tabashir A. Chowdhury

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Species can arise as a result of reproductive barriers that prevent gene flow between diverging populations that force them to remain isolated from one another. Behavioural isolation is one of the earliest acting reproductive barriers determined by the evolution of mating preferences that prevent inter-specific matings. Several traits have been identified that contribute to behavioural isolation, but the genetic basis of interspecific female preference is yet to be determined. I used genetic mapping techniques to identify and confirm that the fruitless gene is affecting species-specific female rejection of interspecies males, contributing to the behavioural isolation between Drosophila melanogaster and D ...


Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney 2019 Western Kentucky University

Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

As charismatic megafauna and a flagship species, African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are vital to the African tourist economy. Conversely, high levels of wildlife tourism can induce behavioral shifts that push desired animals into less frequented areas and disrupt natural behaviors. In order to examine this trade-off, tourism levels and African elephant behaviors were studied in Zambezi National Park (ZNP) near Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. Over the course of 14 weeks, in-person observations and camera traps in ZNP were used to collect geographic, demographic, and behavioral data from elephant sightings. As a proxy for human presence, geo-locational data were collected for each ...


Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. McCaslin 2019 Western Kentucky University

Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. Mccaslin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Marine mammals are in a precarious conservation position because of anthropogenic impacts and historic perceptions that they are a consumable commodity. In light of changing abiotic conditions, further evaluation is needed on the habitat use, behavior, and interactions among marine mammals. Conservation legislation has helped protect species, but the greatest ground swelling may be the advent of the commercial whale watching industry. The feeding grounds in Alaskan waters have made this area a prime tourism location, and these nutrient-rich waters have resulted in a confluence of marine mammal species, including the appealing and abundant humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) that may ...


Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka 2019 Western Kentucky University

Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is a fundamental and essential component of vertebrate life, although its exact function remains unknown. Animals that are deprived of sleep typically show reduced neurobiological performance, health, and in some cases, survival. However, a number of animals exhibit adaptations that permit them to carry out normal activities even when sleep is restricted or deprived. Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), arctic-breeding passerine birds, exhibit around-the-clock activity during their short breeding season, with an inactive period of only 3–4 h/day (71°N). Whether these birds suffer behavioral and physiological costs associated with acute sleep loss (SL) is unknown. To assess ...


Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney 2019 DePaul University

Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney

DePaul Discoveries

Animals are considered to possess personalities when individuals differ in behavior, and these differences are consistent between situations. Several studies have identified personalities in diverse groups but less is known about personality variation between the sexes. In this study, we examined variation in two key personality traits (boldness, activity) in female and male purple marsh crabs (Sesarma reticulatum) using a semi-field approach. Specifically, we measured boldness and activity on two consecutive days using the same behavioral assays during each time point. Consistency (personality) was determined using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance based on Spearman correlation coefficients for each behavior. The ...


If Jeremiah Is Going To Stay, He Needs To Change His Tone: Reframing Apocalyptic Discourse, Bernard Kondenar 2019 Lake Forest College

If Jeremiah Is Going To Stay, He Needs To Change His Tone: Reframing Apocalyptic Discourse, Bernard Kondenar

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Ecological Effects Of Fear: How Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity In Predation Risk Influences Mule Deer Access To Forage In A Sky‐Island System, Christopher Lowrey, Kathleen M. Longshore, David M. Choate, Jyoteshwar R. Nagol, Joseph Sexton, Daniel Thompson 2019 U.S. Geological Survey

Ecological Effects Of Fear: How Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity In Predation Risk Influences Mule Deer Access To Forage In A Sky‐Island System, Christopher Lowrey, Kathleen M. Longshore, David M. Choate, Jyoteshwar R. Nagol, Joseph Sexton, Daniel Thompson

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Forage availability and predation risk interact to affect habitat use of ungulates across many biomes. Within sky‐island habitats of the Mojave Desert, increased availability of diverse forage and cover may provide ungulates with unique opportunities to extend nutrient uptake and/or to mitigate predation risk. We addressed whether habitat use and foraging patterns of female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) responded to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), NDVI rate of change (green‐up), or the occurrence of cougars (Puma concolor). Female mule deer used available green‐up primarily in spring, although growing vegetation was available during other seasons. Mule deer ...


Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun 2019 Utah State University

Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Global urbanization is rapidly changing the landscape for wildlife species that must learn to persist in declining wild spacing, adapt, or risk extinction. Many mesopredators have successfully exploited urban niches, and research on these species in an urban setting offers insights into the traits that facilitate their success. In this study, we examined space use and activity patterns from GPS-collared bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Texas, USA. We found that bobcats select for natural/agricultural features, creeks, and water ways and there is greater home-range overlap in these habitats. They avoid roads and are less likely ...


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