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What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 Pennsylvania State University

What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Long-term studies have been crucial to the advancement of population biology, especially our understanding of population dynamics. We argue that this progress arises from three key characteristics of long-term research. First, long-term data are necessary to observe the heterogeneity that drives most population processes. Second, long-term studies often inherently lead to novel insights. Finally, long-term field studies can serve as model systems for population biology, allowing for theory and methods to be tested under well-characterized conditions. We illustrate these ideas in three long-term field systems that have made outsized contributions to our understanding of population ecology, evolution, and conservation biology ...


A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth 2019 University of London, Egham

A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth

Amy Toth

Eusociality, a form of animal social organization involving sterile and reproductive castes, is a rare, but highly ecologically successful form of life. There are striking examples of eusocial species with populations that are ecologically dominant in their native ranges, as well as remarkably successful globally as invasive species; prominent examples include fire ants and yellowjacket wasps. At the same time, there have been startling population declines in other social insects, notably bumble bees. Here, we explore the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in invasion biology and declines of social insect species. This topic is of particular interest, because social insects ...


An Agent-Based Modeling Approach For Predicting The Behavior Of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis) Under The Influence Of Acoustic Deterrence, Joey Gaudy, Craig Garzella 2019 Valparaiso University

An Agent-Based Modeling Approach For Predicting The Behavior Of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis) Under The Influence Of Acoustic Deterrence, Joey Gaudy, Craig Garzella

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Hpi Reactivity Does Not Reflect Changes In Personality Among Trout Introduced To Bold Or Shy Social Groups, Jack S. Thomson, Phillip C. Watts, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Hpi Reactivity Does Not Reflect Changes In Personality Among Trout Introduced To Bold Or Shy Social Groups, Jack S. Thomson, Phillip C. Watts, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Physiological stress responses often correlate with personalities (e.g., boldness). However, this relationship can become decoupled, although the mechanisms underlying changes in this relationship are poorly understood. Here we quantify (1) how an individual’s boldness (response to novel objects) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, changes in response to interactions with a population of either bold or shy conspecifics and we (2) measured associated post-stress cortisol levels. Initially-bold trout became shyer regardless of group composition, whereas shy trout remained shy demonstrating that bold individuals are more plastic. Stress-induced plasma cortisol reflected the original personality of fish but not the personality ...


A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth 2019 University of London, Egham

A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality, a form of animal social organization involving sterile and reproductive castes, is a rare, but highly ecologically successful form of life. There are striking examples of eusocial species with populations that are ecologically dominant in their native ranges, as well as remarkably successful globally as invasive species; prominent examples include fire ants and yellowjacket wasps. At the same time, there have been startling population declines in other social insects, notably bumble bees. Here, we explore the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in invasion biology and declines of social insect species. This topic is of particular interest, because social insects ...


Social Assemblages And Mating Relationships In Prairie Dogs: A Dna Fingerprint Analysis, Steven E. Travis, Con Slobodchikoff, Paul Kefan 2019 Northern Arizona University

Social Assemblages And Mating Relationships In Prairie Dogs: A Dna Fingerprint Analysis, Steven E. Travis, Con Slobodchikoff, Paul Kefan

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

Mating system characterizations have been hindered by difficulties in accurately assigning parentage to offspring. We investigated the relationship between social assemblages and mating relationships in a territorial harem polygynous mammal, the Gunnison's prairie dog, using a combination of behavioral and molecular analyses. We demonstrate multiple paternity and an extraordinarily high incidence of extraterritorial fertilizations (i.e., 61% of all progeny), in combination with the existence of female kin groups. On this basis, we conclude that social assemblages alone provide a poor description of the Gunnison's prairie dog mating system, and suggest several potential reasons for the maintenance of ...


Resources And The Evolution Of Social Behavior, Con Slobodchikoff 2019 Northern Arizona University

Resources And The Evolution Of Social Behavior, Con Slobodchikoff

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Host Plant, Geography And Pheromone Strain On Genomic Differentiation In Sympatric Populations Of Ostrinia Nubilalis, Brad S. Coates, Genevieve M. Kozak, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Sun, Yangzhou Zhang, Shelby J. Fleischer, Erik B. Dopman, Thomas W. Sappington 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Influence Of Host Plant, Geography And Pheromone Strain On Genomic Differentiation In Sympatric Populations Of Ostrinia Nubilalis, Brad S. Coates, Genevieve M. Kozak, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Sun, Yangzhou Zhang, Shelby J. Fleischer, Erik B. Dopman, Thomas W. Sappington

Thomas W. Sappington

Patterns of mating for the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) moth depend in part on variation in sex‐pheromone blend. The ratio of (E)‐11‐ and (Z)‐11‐tetradecenyl acetate (E11‐ and Z11‐14:OAc) in the pheromone blend that females produce and males respond to differs between strains of O. nubilalis. Populations also vary in female oviposition preference for and larval performance on maize (C4) and non‐maize (C3) host plants. The relative contributions of sexual and ecological trait variation to the genetic structure of O. nubilalis remains unknown. Host‐plant use (13C/14C ratios) and genetic differentiation were ...


Influence Of Host Plant, Geography And Pheromone Strain On Genomic Differentiation In Sympatric Populations Of Ostrinia Nubilalis, Brad S. Coates, Genevieve M. Kozak, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Sun, Yangzhou Zhang, Shelby J. Fleischer, Erik B. Dopman, Thomas W. Sappington 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Influence Of Host Plant, Geography And Pheromone Strain On Genomic Differentiation In Sympatric Populations Of Ostrinia Nubilalis, Brad S. Coates, Genevieve M. Kozak, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Sun, Yangzhou Zhang, Shelby J. Fleischer, Erik B. Dopman, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Patterns of mating for the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) moth depend in part on variation in sex‐pheromone blend. The ratio of (E)‐11‐ and (Z)‐11‐tetradecenyl acetate (E11‐ and Z11‐14:OAc) in the pheromone blend that females produce and males respond to differs between strains of O. nubilalis. Populations also vary in female oviposition preference for and larval performance on maize (C4) and non‐maize (C3) host plants. The relative contributions of sexual and ecological trait variation to the genetic structure of O. nubilalis remains unknown. Host‐plant use (13C/14C ratios) and genetic differentiation were ...


Evaluating The Effect Of Time Of Day On Singing Behavior In Anna’S Hummingbirds, Adrian D. Macedo, Maxine R. Mota 2019 Humboldt State University

Evaluating The Effect Of Time Of Day On Singing Behavior In Anna’S Hummingbirds, Adrian D. Macedo, Maxine R. Mota

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.


Sex, Scents, And Cephalopods: Factors That Affect Social And Reproductive Behavior In Chambered Nautilus And Oval Squid, Naomi J. Lewandowski 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Sex, Scents, And Cephalopods: Factors That Affect Social And Reproductive Behavior In Chambered Nautilus And Oval Squid, Naomi J. Lewandowski

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cephalopods are a highly specialized group of molluscs that show a wide range of behavioral patterns. Chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) and oval squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) are two very distinct species of cephalopod that both provide unique insight into cephalopod reproductive and social behavior. In experiments utilizing both species, I aimed to fill in knowledge gaps in a range of reproductive behaviors from fundamental responses to conspecifics, to preferred mating habitat.

In Chapter 1 and 2 I tested individual nautiluses in a Y-maze where recipients were exposed to paired odors of two donor nautiluses. I collected data on both their choice ...


Behaviour Development: A Cephalopod Perspective, Jennifer A. Mather 2019 University of Lethbridge

Behaviour Development: A Cephalopod Perspective, Jennifer A. Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

This paper evaluates the development of behaviour from the viewpoint of the intelligent and learningdependent cephalopod mollusks as a contrast to that of mammals. They have a short lifespan, commonly one to two years, and most are semelparous, reproducing only near the end of their lifespan. In the first two months of life, Sepia officinalis cuttlefish show drastic limitation on learning of prey choice and capture, gradually acquiring first short-term and then long-term learning over 60 days. This is paralleled by development of the vertical lobe of the brain which processes visually learned information. In the long nonreproductive adulthood, Octopus ...


Does Detection Range Matter For Inferring Social Networks In A Benthic Shark Using Acoustic Telemetry?, Johann Mourier, Nathan Charles Bass, Tristan L. Guttridge, Joanna Day, Culum Brown 2019 Macquarie University

Does Detection Range Matter For Inferring Social Networks In A Benthic Shark Using Acoustic Telemetry?, Johann Mourier, Nathan Charles Bass, Tristan L. Guttridge, Joanna Day, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

Accurately estimating contacts between animals can be critical in ecological studies such as examining social structure, predator–prey interactions or transmission of information and disease. While biotelemetry has been used successfully for such studies in terrestrial systems, it is still under development in the aquatic environment. Acoustic telemetry represents an attractive tool to investigate spatio-temporal behaviour of marine fish and has recently been suggested for monitoring underwater animal interactions. To evaluate the effectiveness of acoustic telemetry in recording interindividual contacts, we compared co-occurrence matrices deduced from three types of acoustic receivers varying in detection range in a benthic shark species ...


Response Of Early Life Stage Homarus Americanus To Ocean Warming And Acidification: An Interpopulation Comparison, Maura K. Niemisto 2019 University of Maine

Response Of Early Life Stage Homarus Americanus To Ocean Warming And Acidification: An Interpopulation Comparison, Maura K. Niemisto

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic carbon released into the atmosphere is driving rapid, concurrent increases in temperature and acidity across the world’s oceans, most prominently in northern latitudes. The geographic range of the iconic American lobster (Homarus americanus) spans a steep thermal gradient and one of the most rapidly warming oceanic environments. Understanding the interactive effects of ocean warming and acidification on this species’ most vulnerable early life stages is important to predict its response to climate change on a stage-specific and population level. This study compares the responses of lobster larvae from two sub-populations spanning New England’s north-south temperature gradient (southern ...


Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Humans have transformed much of the natural landscape and are continuing to do so at an accelerated rate, compromising natural areas that serve as important habitat for many species. Roads impact much of the environment as they fragment habitat and introduce traffic noise into the acoustic environment, deferentially affecting wildlife in roadside habitat. I explored how traffic noise affects the detection of birds based on whether their vocalizations were masked by traffic noise. Masked species detection was not affected by an increase in traffic noise amplitude, while there was a negative effect of traffic noise amplitude on unmasked species detection ...


Solar Eclipse Has Little Discernible Effect On Bat Activity, Michael J. Bender, Sara Robertson 2019 University of North Georgia

Solar Eclipse Has Little Discernible Effect On Bat Activity, Michael J. Bender, Sara Robertson

Georgia Journal of Science

N/A - Research Note


Major Histocompatibility Complex Does Not Affect Mating Patterns In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Lucas Silveira 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Major Histocompatibility Complex Does Not Affect Mating Patterns In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Lucas Silveira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In many species, individuals prefer mates that are genetically dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This is likely because it improves offspring resistance to pathogens. Here I provide the first genotypic characterization of the MHC class II peptide binding region in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), a species of sunfish, and examine its effect on mating patterns. I hypothesized females would choose to mate with MHC dissimilar males leading to an increase in the resulting offspring’s fitness. I captured females and males during spawning and sequenced the DNA of these fish at the MHC class II putative peptide binding region ...


Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson 2019 Iowa State University

Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson

Aileen Keating

The objective of this study was to evaluate approachability of gilts divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) to a novel human. Twenty low-RFI and 19 high-RFI gilts were tested using a human approach test. Testing occurred over two consecutive weeks between 1300 and 1900 hours. Gilts were tested individually within a 4.9 x 2.4 m test arena. Throughout the test, latency to first enter, duration of time spent, and frequency of entrances within 1 m and 0.5 m of the human were recorded. These results suggest that divergent selection for RFI did not alter gilt approach ...


The Fruitless Gene Influences Female Mate Preference In Drosophila, Tabashir A. Chowdhury 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Fruitless Gene Influences Female Mate Preference In Drosophila, Tabashir A. Chowdhury

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Species can arise as a result of reproductive barriers that prevent gene flow between diverging populations that force them to remain isolated from one another. Behavioural isolation is one of the earliest acting reproductive barriers determined by the evolution of mating preferences that prevent inter-specific matings. Several traits have been identified that contribute to behavioural isolation, but the genetic basis of interspecific female preference is yet to be determined. I used genetic mapping techniques to identify and confirm that the fruitless gene is affecting species-specific female rejection of interspecies males, contributing to the behavioural isolation between Drosophila melanogaster and D ...


Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka 2019 Western Kentucky University

Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is a fundamental and essential component of vertebrate life, although its exact function remains unknown. Animals that are deprived of sleep typically show reduced neurobiological performance, health, and in some cases, survival. However, a number of animals exhibit adaptations that permit them to carry out normal activities even when sleep is restricted or deprived. Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), arctic-breeding passerine birds, exhibit around-the-clock activity during their short breeding season, with an inactive period of only 3–4 h/day (71°N). Whether these birds suffer behavioral and physiological costs associated with acute sleep loss (SL) is unknown. To assess ...


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