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Using Tree-Ring Growth And Stable Isotopes To Explore Ponderosa Pine Ecophysiological Responses To Climate Variability And The 2012-2015 California Drought, Rachel M. Keen 2019 Utah State University

Using Tree-Ring Growth And Stable Isotopes To Explore Ponderosa Pine Ecophysiological Responses To Climate Variability And The 2012-2015 California Drought, Rachel M. Keen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate warming in recent decades has resulted in more frequent and severe drought events in the western United States. These changes are projected to continue, making it exceedingly important to understand how forests respond to severe drought stress, and how we can manage these forests to reduce mortality during future events. The 2012-2015 California drought is a recent example of a severe, multi-year drought that was coupled with an epidemic-scale outbreak of western pine beetle, killing nearly 90% of ponderosa pines in the central and southern Sierra Nevadas. In the first portion of this study, we compared pairs of surviving ...


Fire History Of A Georgia Montane Longleaf Pine (Pinus Palustris) Community, Nathan Klaus 2019 Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Nongame Conservation Section

Fire History Of A Georgia Montane Longleaf Pine (Pinus Palustris) Community, Nathan Klaus

Georgia Journal of Science

Montane longleaf pine forests, woodlands, and savannas are endangered, fire-dependent ecosystems of the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, Appalachian, and Cumberland Plateau physiographic provinces of Georgia, Alabama, and North Carolina. Compared to other longleaf pine ecosystems, e.g., longleaf pine-wiregrass, little has been published about montane longleaf pine ecosystems. Understanding the historic fire regimes that once maintained montane longleaf pine ecosystems is an important first step toward achieving restoration and conservation goals for this ecosystem. I used two approaches to investigate historic fire regimes: 1) a dendrochronological study of fire scars on Sprewell Bluff Natural Area and 2) calculations of the ...


More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. MacDougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens 2019 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. Macdougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens

Lori A. Biederman

Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically and geographically, spanning five orders of magnitude. Site‐level foliar sodium increased most strongly with site aridity and soil sodium; nutrient addition weakened the relationship ...


Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen 2019 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, 2019 Utah State University

Table Of Contents

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the table of contents.


Advertising And Orders, 2019 Utah State University

Advertising And Orders

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the advertising and orders.


Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information, 2019 Utah State University

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer McLaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White 2019 Hoven High School, Hoven, South Dakota

Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White

Madhav Nepal

In this lesson, students will learn about sustainability, where farmers/agriculturists can meet the needs of food, fiber, and fuel for the growing population. Students learn about growing population, its growth rate, major food source, sustainability barrel, potential ripple effects of positive impacts as well as the food waste and its effects.


Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler 2019 University of Maine

Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of lake ecology, as it contributes to light attenuation and carbon cycling. In recent years, DOC declined in a suite of lakes in Greenland. I performed experiments to test potential mechanisms of DOC loss. The tested mechanisms did not reduce DOC concentration, but DOC composition was affected. I also paired water quality data with meteorological observations to evaluate effects of climate drivers on lake variables. The lake variables were temporally coherent and associated with patterns of mean annual precipitation.

In the northeastern U.S., recovery from acidification and climate change have contributed ...


Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver 2019 Iowa State University

Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver

Lisa A. Schulte Moore

We conducted a designed experiment to test whether having a thermal‐imaging camera available affected researchers’ nest detection rates when searching for bird nests in cropland and grassland habitat in an agricultural landscape of Iowa, USA, in 2016. With known active nests present, naïve observers searched for nests with and without a thermal imager available. We did not find a difference in detection probabilities, although only a large difference would have been detectable with our sample size. Extraneous heat signatures from reflected solar radiation and dense vegetation were key factors limiting the usefulness of thermal imagers for locating nests.


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley 2019 University of Maine

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi de Leon 2019 Yale University

Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon

Library Map Prize

Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are known for their adaptability, allowing them to inhabit a large range of forest types and driving high levels of variation in ranging and behavioral patterns. I address a series of hypotheses relating these relationships: 1) If an energy minimizing lifestyle is an adaptation to eating high quantities of leaves, then howler groups that have a high proportion of leaves in their diet will occupy smaller home ranges, have shorter daily path lengths, and spend more time resting, 2) if temperature is the primary driver of high levels of resting, then howlers will conserve energy and ...


Mapping Wilderness Character In Adams County, Pennsylvania, Alyssa J. Kaewwilai 2019 Gettysburg College

Mapping Wilderness Character In Adams County, Pennsylvania, Alyssa J. Kaewwilai

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

The spatial trends in wilderness character in Adams County, Pennsylvania were examined to evaluate how influenced specific areas are impacted by human activity and development. Indicators of wilderness character were selected as natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, along with solitude and unconfined recreation by the Death Valley National Park staff in which a 0-4 ranking system was based upon to portray a range of most degraded to optimal land. This was executed through examination of factors such as abundance of biodiversity and human development within the given area before a Monte Carlo simulation was run to show sensitivity of change. It was ...


Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu 2019 Iowa State University

Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of ...


Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang 2019 Auburn University

Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

To accurately assess how increased global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission has affected the climate system requires a robust estimation of the preindustrial N2O emissions since only the difference between current and preindustrial emissions represents net drivers of anthropogenic climate change. However, large uncertainty exists in previous estimates of preindustrial N2O emissions from the land biosphere, while preindustrial N2O emissions on the finer scales, such as regional, biome, or sector scales, have not been well quantified yet. In this study, we applied a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of preindustrial N2O fluxes at ...


Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan 2019 Auburn University

Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite‐derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901–2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ± 0.1 Tg CH4 ...


Global Land Carbon Sink Response To Temperature And Precipitation Varies With Enso Phase, Yuanyuan Fang, Anna M. Michalak, Christopher R. Schwalm, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Joseph A. Berry, Philippe Ciais, Shilong Piao, Benjamin Poulter, Joshua B. Fisher, Robert B. Cook, Daniel Hayes, Maoyi Huang, Akihiko Ito, Atul Jain, Huimin Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jiafu Mao, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Shushi Peng, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaoying Shi, Bo Tao, Hanqin Tian, Weile Wang, Yaxing Wei, Jia Yang 2019 Carnegie Institution for Science

Global Land Carbon Sink Response To Temperature And Precipitation Varies With Enso Phase, Yuanyuan Fang, Anna M. Michalak, Christopher R. Schwalm, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Joseph A. Berry, Philippe Ciais, Shilong Piao, Benjamin Poulter, Joshua B. Fisher, Robert B. Cook, Daniel Hayes, Maoyi Huang, Akihiko Ito, Atul Jain, Huimin Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jiafu Mao, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Shushi Peng, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaoying Shi, Bo Tao, Hanqin Tian, Weile Wang, Yaxing Wei, Jia Yang

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Climate variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its consequent impacts on land carbon sink interannual variability have been used as a basis for investigating carbon cycle responses to climate variability more broadly, and to inform the sensitivity of the tropical carbon budget to climate change. Past studies have presented opposing views about whether temperature or precipitation is the primary factor driving the response of the land carbon sink to ENSO. Here, we show that the dominant driver varies with ENSO phase. Whereas tropical temperature explains sink dynamics following El Niño conditions (r TG,P = 0.59, p ...


Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao 2019 Northern Arizona University

Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO2, and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since ...


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