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Effects Of E-Cigarette Vapor On Dalpha7 Gene Expression In Adult Drosophila Melanogaster, Roma Seal, Bella Maag 2019 Carroll College

Effects Of E-Cigarette Vapor On Dalpha7 Gene Expression In Adult Drosophila Melanogaster, Roma Seal, Bella Maag

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

While it is commonly known that there are many negative effects of nicotine on humans, the effects of nicotine specifically from vapor produced by Electric Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes), have not yet been determined. In this study, students test to see if a gene specifically related to nicotine addiction in both fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and humans is expressed upon exposure to E-Cigarette vapor. Furthermore, students will test to determine if exposure to E-Cigarette vapor has a deleterious effect on the motor function of flies; as similar studies using nicotine alone have concluded. In this study, students will focus on the expression ...


Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli 2019 Chapman University

Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are hair-like cellular extensions that sense microenvironmental signals surrounding cells. The role of adenylyl cyclases in ciliary function has been of interest because the product of adenylyl cyclase activity, cAMP, is relevant to cilia-related diseases. In the present study, we show that vasopressin receptor type-2 (V2R) is localized to cilia in kidney epithelial cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of V2R with tolvaptan increases ciliary length and mechanosensory function. Genetic knockdown of V2R, however, does not have any effect on ciliary length, although the effect of tolvaptan on ciliary length is dampened. Our study reveals that tolvaptan may have a cilia-specific ...


Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2019 Chapman University

Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A number of amphiphilic cyclic peptides—[FR]4, [WR]5, and [WK]5—containing hydrophobic and positively-charged amino acids were synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide methods and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of siRNA to triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, in the presence and absence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Among the peptides, [WR]5, which contains alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues, was found to be the most efficient in the delivery of siRNA by improving the delivery by more than 3-fold when compared to other synthesized cyclic peptides that were not efficient ...


Comparative Analysis Of Dna Isolation Methods For The Human Microbiome, Hannah Chatwin 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Comparative Analysis Of Dna Isolation Methods For The Human Microbiome, Hannah Chatwin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The human microbiome is made up of millions of microbes coexisting in and on us with involvement in health and disease. The exact mechanisms by which this occurs have yet to be fully elucidated. Due to high variability in the composition of each person’s microbiome, it requires large numbers of people to begin to identify some of these processes. A major road block to generating large data sets for analysis is the high cost of DNA isolation from large collections of phenotypically well-characterized human subjects. This study explores the possible application of an inexpensive alternative DNA isolation method utilizing ...


Effects Of Pag1 On Src-Family Kinase Trafficking In Neuroblastoma Cells, Makenzie E. Mayfield 2019 University of Montana, Missoula

Effects Of Pag1 On Src-Family Kinase Trafficking In Neuroblastoma Cells, Makenzie E. Mayfield

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are known to help regulate cell behaviors including differentiation, proliferation and migration during embryonic development of the neural crest. RTKs are believed to initiate signaling cascades in response to extracellular cues in part by controlling localization of Src-family kinases (SFKs). The scaffolding protein PAG1 binds SFKs and is believed to influence SFK activity and location within the cell by promoting interaction of SFKs with regulatory proteins and by drawing SFKs into different components of the endocytic pathway. By targeting the PAG1 gene in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids, we created PAG1-mutant cell-lines in ...


Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, Samadhan B. Patil, Rajai M. Al-Jehani, Hashem Etayash, Valerian Turbe, Keren Jiang, Joe Bailey, Walid Al-Akkad, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Rachel A. McKendry, Thomas Thundat, Joseph W. Ndieyira 2018 University College London

Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, Samadhan B. Patil, Rajai M. Al-Jehani, Hashem Etayash, Valerian Turbe, Keren Jiang, Joe Bailey, Walid Al-Akkad, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Rachel A. Mckendry, Thomas Thundat, Joseph W. Ndieyira

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mechanical signaling involved in molecular interactions lies at the heart of materials science and biological systems, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we use nanomechanical sensors and intact human cells to provide unique insights into the signaling pathways of connectivity networks, which deliver the ability to probe cells to produce biologically relevant, quantifiable and reproducible signals. We quantify the mechanical signals from malignant cancer cells, with 10 cells per ml in 1000-fold excess of non-neoplastic human epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that a direct link between cells and molecules creates a continuous connectivity which acts like a percolating ...


Cellular Mechanisms Of Slime Gland Refilling In Pacific Hagfish (Eptatretus Stoutii), Sarah Schorno, Todd E. Gillis, Douglas S. Fudge 2018 University of Guelph

Cellular Mechanisms Of Slime Gland Refilling In Pacific Hagfish (Eptatretus Stoutii), Sarah Schorno, Todd E. Gillis, Douglas S. Fudge

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Hagfishes use their defensive slime to ward off gill-breathing predators. Slime gland refilling is a surprisingly slow process, and previous research has shown that the composition of the slime exudate changes significantly during refilling, which likely has consequences for the functionality of the slime. This study set out to expand our understanding of slime gland refilling by examining the cellular processes involved in refilling of the glands, as well as determining where in the gland the main slime cells – the gland thread cells and gland mucous cells – arise. Slime glands were electro-stimulated to exhaust their slime stores, left to refill ...


Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen 2018 Northern Michigan University

Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a type of primary CNS tumor in which viable treatment options do not exist. Standard of care including tumor resection, chemotherapy, and radiation does little to extend the 5-year survival expectancy past 5.1%. Herein, two small-peptide molecules with inherent antitumor activity, blood-brain barrier permeability, and capability for tumor-specific drug deliverance and intraoperative visualization (termed theranostic) were of focus. Confocal microscopy was employed to characterize in vitro specificity of chlorotoxin, a 4 kDa scorpion venom peptide, and rBSG, the recombinant 25 kDa non-glycosylated extracellular domain of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; Basigin ...


Efficient Intracellular Delivery Of Cell-Impermeable Cargo Molecules By Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Histidine, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Saghar Mozaffari, Rinzhin Tshering Sherpa, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2018 Chapman University

Efficient Intracellular Delivery Of Cell-Impermeable Cargo Molecules By Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Histidine, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Saghar Mozaffari, Rinzhin Tshering Sherpa, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We have previously evaluated and reported numerous classes of linear and cyclic peptides containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments for intracellular delivery of multiple molecular cargos. Herein, a combination of histidine and tryptophan amino acids were designed and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of cell-impermeable phosphopeptides and the anti-HIV drug, emtricitabine. Two new decapeptides, with linear and cyclic natures, both containing alternate tryptophan and histidine residues, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase chemistry. The peptides were characterized and purified by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. These peptides did not show significant ...


Disentangling The Subalpine Marshmarigold Species Complex: The Cytogeography, Phylogeography, And Systematics Of Caltha Biflora Dc., C. Chionophila Greene, And C. Leptosepala Dc. (Ranunculaceae), Keir Wefferling 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Disentangling The Subalpine Marshmarigold Species Complex: The Cytogeography, Phylogeography, And Systematics Of Caltha Biflora Dc., C. Chionophila Greene, And C. Leptosepala Dc. (Ranunculaceae), Keir Wefferling

Theses and Dissertations

Subalpine marshmarigolds (Caltha biflora DC., C. chionophila DC., and C. leptosepala Greene, Ranunculaceae) are herbaceous perennials that grow in western North American mountainous and subarctic regions, from Alaska and Yukon in the north to California, Arizona, and New Mexico in the south. Variation in morphology across the range has generally led to recognition of a single species, though some have described up to nine species in the complex. In this dissertation, I describe our approaches to disentangling reticulate evolution across the geographical range of the subalpine marshmarigold complex, including chromosome counts (Chapter II), genome size estimates (Chapter III), morphology (Chapters ...


Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Rescue Of Neocortical Circuit Deficits With Modified Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Sb623, In A Rat Model Of Photothrombotic Stroke, Alexander Urry 2018 Yale University

Rescue Of Neocortical Circuit Deficits With Modified Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Sb623, In A Rat Model Of Photothrombotic Stroke, Alexander Urry

Yale Day of Data

The following poster characterizes the effects of a novel stem cell line on treating the neural circuit deficits resulting from stroke.


Obesity, Noah Rhodes 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Obesity, Noah Rhodes

Global Issues in Public Health

Obesity is a worldwide issue that can be defined as a non-communicable condition which means that it is non-infectious and non-transmissible and it is defined as having a BMI over 30 even though BMI doesn’t account for the person’s muscle mass which causes some athletes to be considered obese just because they weigh a lot for their height. Diagnosing obesity can be a long process which includes a health history being taken, a general physical exam, calculation of BMI, and measuring waist circumference. Diagnosis of obesity also involves checking for problems such as high blood pressure, variation of ...


Identifying Functional Components Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control And Degradation Factor Edem1, Lydia Lamriben 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Identifying Functional Components Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control And Degradation Factor Edem1, Lydia Lamriben

Doctoral Dissertations

The ER Degradation-Enhancing Mannosidase-Like protein 1 (EDEM1) is a critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control factor involved in identifying and directing non-native proteins to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. However, its recognition and binding properties have remained enigmatic since its discovery. Here we provide evidence for an additional redox-sensitive interaction between EDEM1 and Z/NHK that requires the presence of the single Cys on the α-1 antitrypsin ERAD clients. Moreover, this Cys-dependent interaction is necessary when the proteins are isolated under stringent detergent conditions, ones in which only strong covalent interactions can be sustained. This interaction is inherent to ...


The Functions Of Setd5 And Mir-221 In Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Tsai-Yu Chen 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The Functions Of Setd5 And Mir-221 In Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Tsai-Yu Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a widely used model system to study cellular differentiation because of their pluripotent characteristics, and ESC differentiation is an epigenetic process. In an effort to identify a new epigenetic factor that is required for ESC differentiation, the function of SETD5 in ESCs was studied for this thesis. Results show that SETD5 is essential for retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of mouse ESCs and for RA-induced expression of critical developmental genes (e.g., Hoxa1 and Hoxa2) and neuron-related genes (e.g., Nestin and Pax6). SETD5 was upregulated during ESC differentiation. Additional results demonstrated that SETD5 bound ...


Transgneic Endothelin 3 Regulates Murine Pigment Production And Coat Color, Javier Pino 2017 Florida International University

Transgneic Endothelin 3 Regulates Murine Pigment Production And Coat Color, Javier Pino

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pigmentation plays a protective role against damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Humans with fair skin and light hair have a higher susceptibility to UV-induced DNA damage that can lead to the development of skin cancers. The melanocytes found in the skin and hair follicles depend on different signaling molecules for their proper development and pigment production. α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (α-msh) binds to the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) to regulate pigment production and the switch between eumelanin and pheomelanin. Lethal yellow mice (Ay) overexpress the agouti signaling protein, which inhibits the binding of α-msh, resulting in a yellow coat ...


The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All of the tissues in triploblastic organisms, with the exception of the germ cells, arise from the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The identification of the genes that underlie the differentiation of these layers is crucial to our understanding of development. T-box family proteins are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators that play important roles during germ layer formation in the early vertebrate embryo. Well-characterized members of this family, including the transcriptional activators Brachyury and VegT, are essential for the proper formation of mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. To date, T-box proteins have not been shown to play a role in ...


Morphogenesis And Growth Driven By Selection Of Dynamical Properties, Yuri Cantor 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Morphogenesis And Growth Driven By Selection Of Dynamical Properties, Yuri Cantor

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Organisms are understood to be complex adaptive systems that evolved to thrive in hostile environments. Though widely studied, the phenomena of organism development and growth, and their relationship to organism dynamics is not well understood. Indeed, the large number of components, their interconnectivity, and complex system interactions all obscure our ability to see, describe, and understand the functioning of biological organisms.

Here we take a synthetic and computational approach to the problem, abstracting the organism as a cellular automaton. Such systems are discrete digital models of real-world environments, making them more accessible and easier to study then their physical world ...


Intracellular Signalling Crosstalk In The Differentiation Of F9 Cells Into Extraembryonic Endoderm, Tina Nicole Cuthbert 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Intracellular Signalling Crosstalk In The Differentiation Of F9 Cells Into Extraembryonic Endoderm, Tina Nicole Cuthbert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mouse F9 cells differentiate into primitive extraembryonic endoderm (PrE) with retinoic acid (RA) treatment, resulting in up-regulation of Gata6, which when translated directly activates Wnt6. Canonical Wnt signalling is required for PrE differentiation, and this, like most developmental processes, requires input from one or more additional pathways, including hedgehog (Hh). The Hh pathway is regulated by GATA6, and crosstalks positively/negatively with Wnt signalling. Ihh up-regulation in F9 cells accompanies PrE induction, but a role for GATA6 or Hh pathway activation in obligatory Wnt/ß-catenin signalling is not known. To address this, I show that RA induces Ihh and altered ...


Compartmentalized Camp Responses To Prostaglandin Ep2 Receptor Activation In Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells, Shailesh R. Agarwal, Kathryn Miyashiro, Htun Latt, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Robert D. Harvey 2017 University of Nevada, Reno

Compartmentalized Camp Responses To Prostaglandin Ep2 Receptor Activation In Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells, Shailesh R. Agarwal, Kathryn Miyashiro, Htun Latt, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Robert D. Harvey

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background and Purpose

Previous studies indicate that prostaglandin EP2 receptors (EP2Rs) selectively couple to adenylyl cyclase type 2 (AC2) in non-lipid raft domains of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, where they regulate specific cAMP-dependent responses. The goal of the present study was to identify the cellular microdomains where EP2Rs stimulate cAMP production.

Experimental Approach

FRET-based cAMP biosensors were targeted to different subcellular locations of primary human ASM cells. The Epac2-camps biosensor, which expresses throughout the cell, was used to measure bulk cytoplasmic responses. Epac2-MyrPalm and Epac2-CAAX were used to measure responses associated with lipid raft and non-raft regions of the ...


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