Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,596 Full-Text Articles 8,277 Authors 443,989 Downloads 170 Institutions

All Articles in Cell Biology

Faceted Search

3,596 full-text articles. Page 6 of 135.

The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback 2019 University of Kentucky

The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The ketogenic diet is commonly used to control epilepsy, especially in cases when medications cannot. The diet typically consists of high fat, low carb, and adequate protein and produces a metabolite called acetoacetate. Seizure activity is characterized by glutamate excitotoxicity and therefore glutamate regulation is a point of research for control of these disorders. Acetoacetate is heavily implicated as the primary molecule responsible for decreasing glutamate in the synapse; it is believed that acetoacetate interferes with the transport of glutamate into the synaptic vesicles. The effects on synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses was studied in relation to the ketogenic diet ...


The Role Of Serum Histones In Canine Heat Stroke, Jenna Acutt 2019 Claremont Colleges

The Role Of Serum Histones In Canine Heat Stroke, Jenna Acutt

Scripps Senior Theses

Rising temperatures all over the world has correlated with more frequent heat stroke related injuries and death. This statistic not only applies to humans, but to canines as well, who have similar body temperature thresholds. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum histones, released after cell death from heat stroke, play a role in heat stroke related injuries and death. This proposal aims to determine the severity of the effects caused by serum histone release after heat stroke by exposing selected canine cell lines to cell lysate and purified histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, which have been found to be ...


Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori 2019 Old Dominion University

Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Accumulating data indicates that some cancer treatments can restore anticancer immunosurveillance through the induction of tumor immunogenic cell death (ICD). Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) have been shown to efficiently ablate melanoma tumors. In this study we investigated the mechanisms and immunogenicity of nsPEF-induced cell death in B16F10 melanoma tumors. Our data show that in vitro nsPEF (20-200, 200-ns pulses, 7 kV/cm, 2 Hz) caused a rapid dose-dependent cell death which was not accompanied by caspase activation or PARP cleavage. The lack of nsPEF-induced apoptosis was confirmed in vivo in B16F10 tumors. NsPEF also failed to trigger ICD-linked responses ...


Constitutive Interferon Signaling Maintains Critical Threshold Of Mlkl Expression To License Necroptosis, Joseph Sarhan, Beiyun C. Liu, Hayley I. Muendlein, Chi G. Weindel, Irina Smirnova, Amy Y. Tang, Vladimir Ilyukha, Maxim Sorokin, Anton Buzdin, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Alexander Poltorak 2019 Tufts University

Constitutive Interferon Signaling Maintains Critical Threshold Of Mlkl Expression To License Necroptosis, Joseph Sarhan, Beiyun C. Liu, Hayley I. Muendlein, Chi G. Weindel, Irina Smirnova, Amy Y. Tang, Vladimir Ilyukha, Maxim Sorokin, Anton Buzdin, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Alexander Poltorak

Open Access Articles

Interferons (IFNs) are critical determinants in immune-competence and autoimmunity, and are endogenously regulated by a low-level constitutive feedback loop. However, little is known about the functions and origins of constitutive IFN. Recently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IFN was implicated as a driver of necroptosis, a necrotic form of cell death downstream of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase activation and executed by mixed lineage kinase like-domain (MLKL) protein. We found that the pre-established IFN status of the cell, instead of LPS-induced IFN, is critical for the early initiation of necroptosis in macrophages. This pre-established IFN signature stems from cytosolic DNA sensing via cGAS ...


Regulation Of The Long Non-Coding Rna Fam83h-As1 By Human Papillomavirus In Cervical Cancer, Jamie Ann Barr Ph.D. 2019 West Virginia University

Regulation Of The Long Non-Coding Rna Fam83h-As1 By Human Papillomavirus In Cervical Cancer, Jamie Ann Barr Ph.D.

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Non-coding RNAs (NcRNAs), such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have been found to be involved in a variety of critical biological processes, and dysregulation of ncRNAs have been involved with several human diseases including cancer.

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the first events in the process of carcinogenesis in cervical and a subset of head and neck cancers. The expression of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 is essential in this process by inactivating the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb, respectively, in addition to their interactions with other host proteins and regulation of ...


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...


Regorafenib Enhances Lethality Of Sildenafil And Curcumin In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Kervin Benjamin Owusu 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Regorafenib Enhances Lethality Of Sildenafil And Curcumin In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Kervin Benjamin Owusu

Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, more than 130,000 people will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) each year and an estimated 50,000 people will die from the disease. Standard of care (SOC) therapies for CRC combine multiple cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs. These combinations have varying degrees of effectiveness and can often result in significant patient morbidity. For second recurrence patients, the multi-kinase inhibitor, regorafenib, is an approved agent, but is often poorly tolerated at current doses. In the current study, we propose to develop therapeutic regime of combining agents with modest toxicity profiles: curcumin and sildenafil with regorafenib. Using clinically ...


Expression Of Alternative Oxidase In The Copepod T. Californicus When Exposed To Environmental Stressors, Carly Tward 2019 Wilfrid Laurier University

Expression Of Alternative Oxidase In The Copepod T. Californicus When Exposed To Environmental Stressors, Carly Tward

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In addition to the typical electron transport system in animal mitochondria responsible for oxidative phosphorylation, some species possess an alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway, which causes electrons to bypass proton pumping complexes. Although AOX appears to be energetically wasteful, studies have revealed its wide taxonomic distribution, and indicate it plays a role in environmental stress tolerance. AOX discovery in animals is recent, and further research into its expression, regulation, and physiological role has been impeded by the lack of an experimental model organism. DNA database searches using bioinformatics revealed an AOX sequence present in the arthropod Tigriopus californicus. Multiple sequence alignments ...


Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are membraneless assemblies of condensed RNA and protein that form through multivalent interactions between the constituent components. Recently, RNA self-assembly has been shown to contribute to the formation of stress granules, which are RNP granules associated with the stress response and neurodegeneration. However, little is understood about the properties of self-assembled RNA. Here, I show that different RNA sequences can self- assemble into condensates with distinct material properties and partitioning preferences in vitro. Due to interactions that minimize surface free energy, RNA self-assembly can generate the spontaneous self-patterning of RNA assemblies. By reducing surface free energy, thereby ...


Exosomes Mediate Zika Virus Transmission Through Smpd3 Neutral Sphingomyelinase In Cortical Neurons, Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana 2019 Old Dominion University

Exosomes Mediate Zika Virus Transmission Through Smpd3 Neutral Sphingomyelinase In Cortical Neurons, Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The harmful effects of ZIKA virus (ZIKV) infection are reflected by severe neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in neonates and other complications associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. The transmission dynamics of ZIKV in or between neurons, or within the developing brains of the foetuses are not fully understood. Using primary cultures of murine cortical neurons, we show that ZIKV uses exosomes as mediators of viral transmission between neurons. Cryo-electron microscopy showed heterogeneous population of neuronal exosomes with a size range of 30-200 nm. Increased production of exosomes from neuronal cells was noted upon ZIKV infection. Neuronal exosomes contained both ...


Predicting Persisters: Investigating Gene Regulation In Persister Cells, Sowmya Dhanwada 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Predicting Persisters: Investigating Gene Regulation In Persister Cells, Sowmya Dhanwada

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bacterial populations produce a small number of persister cells that remain tolerant to multidrug exposure by becoming metabolically dormant. This inquiry focuses on investigating metabolic gene expression levels in persisters to determine potential predictors of bacterial persistence. Strains from the E. Coli Promoter library were imaged using single cell microscopy, and gene expression levels were measured with the integrated reporter GFP. Persister cells were isolated using ofloxacin. Results indicate that bacterial cells that survive antibiotic exposure exhibit filamentous growth before dividing. Resumption of normal growth morphology is accompanied by increased proteolytic activity in daughter cells, however more investigation is required ...


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks 2019 Missouri State University

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine ...


Developing Novel Methods To Investigate Real-Time In Vivo Dopamine Dynamics In The Monogamous Prairie Vole, Emma Burt 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Developing Novel Methods To Investigate Real-Time In Vivo Dopamine Dynamics In The Monogamous Prairie Vole, Emma Burt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Humans are among a small percentage of mammals that form monogamous relationships. These relationships, along with other strong social bonds, are essential to human well-being. In the absence of strong social relationships, humans experience a variety of detrimental conditions such as depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular disease. Traditional barriers to studying social bonds stem from the use of lab rodents such as mice and rats which do not form selective social attachments. However, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) does form these selective social attachments. The robust social bonds – pair bonds – formed between adult prairie voles may be observed and therefore studied ...


Multiple Feedback Mechanisms Fine-Tune Rho Signaling To Regulate Morphogenetic Outcomes, Katy Lauren Ong 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Multiple Feedback Mechanisms Fine-Tune Rho Signaling To Regulate Morphogenetic Outcomes, Katy Lauren Ong

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Rho signaling is a conserved mechanism for generating forces through activation of contractile actomyosin. How this pathway is tuned to produce different morphologies of cells and tissues is poorly understood. In the Drosophila embryonic epithelium, I investigated how Rho signaling controls force asymmetries to drive morphogenesis. Specifically, I studied a distinctive morphogenetic process termed “alignment”. This process of coordinated cell shape changes results in a unique cell geometry of rectilinear cells connected by aligned cell-cell contacts. I found that this rearrangement is initialized by contractility of actomyosin cables that elevate the local tension along aligning interfaces. Curiously, I find that ...


The Regulation Of Egfr Signaling And Kras Tumorigenesis By Receptor Palmitoylation, Akriti Kharbanda 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Regulation Of Egfr Signaling And Kras Tumorigenesis By Receptor Palmitoylation, Akriti Kharbanda

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is often characterized by mutually exclusive mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or KRAS. The mutual exclusivity of these mutations is due to synthetic lethality, revealing a potential therapeutic vulnerability if possible to selectively activate EGFR in KRAS mutant cells. This thesis work demonstrates a previously unidentified mechanism of EGFR signal regulation through palmitoylation, the addition of the 16-carbon palmitate. The palmitoyltransferase, DHHC20, catalyzes this palmitoylation to Cys1025, Cys1122 and Cys1034 on the C-terminal tail of EGFR. Loss of EGFR palmitoylation leads to hyperactivation of the receptor, but decreased cell growth of KRAS mutant ...


Role Of The Nuclear Receptor Pparγ In Clear Cell Renal And Bladder Urotheial Carcinoma, Danielle Sanchez 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Role Of The Nuclear Receptor Pparγ In Clear Cell Renal And Bladder Urotheial Carcinoma, Danielle Sanchez

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has a well-characterized role in the developmental process of adipogenesis and transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism. However, its expression patterns and functions in various cancer subtypes are less understood. My studies investigate the role of PPARγ in two distinct cancers of the urinary tract: clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC). In ccRCC, I hypothesized that PPARγ activity contributes to the aberrant lipid accumulation phenotype characteristic of this disease, thereby promoting tumor progression. Through ChIP-seq, I demonstrated that PPARγ and its heterodimeric DNA binding partner retinoid X receptor ...


Cardiac Effects Of Huntington’S Disease In Murine Models, Daniel David Child 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Cardiac Effects Of Huntington’S Disease In Murine Models, Daniel David Child

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disease known for its severe neurologic phenotype. However, the causative protein in HD, mutant huntingtin (mHTT), is widely expressed across tissue types and may have profound consequences for peripheral organs. Notably, heart disease is the second leading cause of death in HD patients, but if or how cardiac mHTT expression causes pathology is still unknown. Here, I characterize the cardiac phenotype in two HD mouse models and show that dysregulated mTORC1 activity is a key underlying mechanism. I show that normal heart growth is limited in HD mouse models, with mass regulated ...


Unraveling The Beta Cell Translatome: Elucidation Of An Erk/Hnrnpk/Jund Axis, Austin Lewis Good 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Unraveling The Beta Cell Translatome: Elucidation Of An Erk/Hnrnpk/Jund Axis, Austin Lewis Good

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In type 2 diabetes, oxidative stress contributes to the dysfunction and loss of pancreatic β cells. A highly conserved feature of the cellular response to stress is the regulation of mRNA translation, however, the mechanisms underlying this process in β cells are not fully understood. Here we use TRAP-seq to examine changes in the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs during conditions associated with β cell dysfunction, leading us to identify a cohort of translationally regulated genes with 3’UTR enrichment of a cytosine-rich motif. Of particular interest was the gene encoding JUND, a transcription factor with anti-oxidant functions in other cell ...


The Role Of P120catenin In The Initiation And Dissemination Of Pancreatic Cancer, Basil Bakir 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of P120catenin In The Initiation And Dissemination Of Pancreatic Cancer, Basil Bakir

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality, the overwhelming majority of which is due to metastasis. The mechanisms of dissemination have been intensively studied, but questions remain as to how epithelial properties are regulated between the primary tumor site and destination as well as to how organotropic patterns of metastasis are determined. We demonstrate, using multiple complementary mouse models, that liver and lung metastatic organotropism in pancreatic cancer is dependent on p120catenin (p120ctn)-mediated epithelial identity. Monoallelic p120ctn loss accelerates KrasG12D-driven PanIN/PDAC formation and metastasis to the liver as well as being sufficient for E-CADHERIN-mediated cell ...


Roles Of Euchromatin And Heterochromatin In Hepatocyte Maturation And Liver Fibrosis, Jessica Mae Grindheim 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Roles Of Euchromatin And Heterochromatin In Hepatocyte Maturation And Liver Fibrosis, Jessica Mae Grindheim

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Liver transplantation is the main treatment for acute liver failure patients; however, there is an insufficient supply of donor livers. Since transplanting hepatocytes, the main liver cell type, provides therapeutic effect and can be a bridge to transplant or recovery, scientists are working on generating replacement hepatocytes from stem cells and other cell types through reprogramming protocols. Currently, replacement hepatocytes recapitulate a subset of natural hepatocyte features, yet are still in an immature state, as they have not silenced all immature hepatocyte genes and activated all mature hepatocyte genes. Consequently, replacement hepatocytes do not perform as well as natural hepatocytes ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress