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Recombinant Netrin-4 Does Not Signal Through The Netrin-1 Or Netrin-3 Pathway In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nicholas Bradley, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2019 Cedarville University

Recombinant Netrin-4 Does Not Signal Through The Netrin-1 Or Netrin-3 Pathway In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nicholas Bradley, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Netrin 4 protein and its homologs are found throughout the animal kingdom. Netrin-4 is known to have a protective role against vascular damage. Previous studies have shown that human netrin-1 has a role in angiogenesis. This information about human netrin-1 and netrin-4 led us to research the pathway of netrin-4 in Tetrahymena thermophila. Our previous studies of the netrin proteins show that netrin-1 and netrin-3 are both repellents in Tetrahymena thermophila. The data in this study show that netrin-4 is also a repellent of Tetrahymena thermophila. These data suggest that netrin-4 could signal through the same pathway as netrin-1 and ...


Transfer Rna Genes Affect Chromosome Structure And Function Via Local Effects, Omar Hamdani, Tsung-Han S. Hsieh, Oliver J. Rando, Rohinton T. Kamakaka 2019 University of California, Santa Cruz

Transfer Rna Genes Affect Chromosome Structure And Function Via Local Effects, Omar Hamdani, Tsung-Han S. Hsieh, Oliver J. Rando, Rohinton T. Kamakaka

Open Access Articles

The genome is packaged and organized in an ordered, non-random manner and specific chromatin segments contact nuclear substructures to mediate this organization. Transfer RNA genes (tDNAs) are binding sites for transcription factors and architectural proteins and are thought to play an important role in the organization of the genome. In this study, we investigate the role of tDNAs in genomic organization and chromosome function by editing a chromosome so that it lacks any tDNAs. Surprisingly our analyses of this tDNA-less chromosome show that loss of tDNAs does not grossly affect chromatin architecture or chromosome tethering and mobility. However, loss of ...


Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham 2019 New York Medical College

Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham

Nader G. Abraham

Background Hmox1 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and function by regulating cellular heme-derived CO and bilirubin. Previous studies have demonstrated that global disruption of HO-1 in humans and mice resulted in severe organ dysfunction. Methods We investigated the potential role of adipose-specific-HO-1 genetic ablation on adipose tissue function, mitochondrial quality control and energy expenditure by generating an adipo-HO-1 knockout mouse model (Adipo-HO-1-/-) and, in vitro, adipocyte cells in which HO activity was inhibited. Adiposity, signaling proteins, fasting glucose and oxygen consumption were determined and compared to adipocyte cultures with depressed levels of both HO-1/HO-2 ...


X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston 2019 Southern Maine Community College

X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston

Thinking Matters Symposium

To prevent abnormal development caused by expressing both X chromosomes, female mammals inactivate one of their X chromosomes using an epigenetic process called dosage compensation. This literature review examines how X chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs during the formation and development of an embryo. This condensation of DNA is marked by histone tail modifications, DNA methylation, and the arrival of structural proteins resulting in extraordinarily stable heterochromatin. X-inactivation is regulated in cis by the X-inactivation center (Xic) that contains the Xist gene and its antisense gene, Tsix. On one X chromosome, Xist RNA is expressed and coats the center of the ...


A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell 2019 Iowa State University

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, INOSITOL REQUIRING ENZYME1 (IRE1). We have analyzed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ire1a ire1b bzip17 triple mutant, with defects in stress signaling, and found that the mutant is also impaired in vegetative plant growth under conditions without externally applied stress. This raised the possibility that the UPR functions in plant development in the same manner ...


Combating Drug Resistance - Comparison Of The Antibiotic Effect Of Hydrastis Canadensis Extract And Pure Berberine Via Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay, William Luke Scott, Timothy D. Trott 2019 Southern Adventist University

Combating Drug Resistance - Comparison Of The Antibiotic Effect Of Hydrastis Canadensis Extract And Pure Berberine Via Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay, William Luke Scott, Timothy D. Trott

Research in Biology

Herbal medicines are a melee of complex organic chemicals, making it difficult to ascertain their direct mechanism of action. In contrast to mainstream pharmaceuticals, it is argued that herbal medicines are effective because of multiple constituents working synergistically. The complexity of herbal medicines may give them advantages over simpler pharmaceuticals in combating antibiotic resistant microbes, but these advantages can be difficult to quantitate. Popular literature frequently espouses the healing properties of herbal medicines, but many of these claims are not scientifically supported. Many gains could be realized in public health and medicine if more research was aimed at validating / disproving ...


Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann 2019 Pepperdine University

Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Carbon black (CB) is the primary nanoparticulate component of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion. This work examines the cellular impact of ultrafine carbon (carbon black, CB) nanoparticles, that range in size down to 30 nm, upon murine macrophages. The size analysis of the carbon black nanoparticles was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. RAW246.7 macrophage cells were exposed to CB doses ranging from 50 – 200 ug/ml in complete media. Analysis of cell survival over time revealed elevated rates of significant nuclear degradation and cell lifting after 48 hours of exposure, and ...


Vegf/Neuropilin Signaling In Cancer Stem Cells, Arthur M. Mercurio 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Vegf/Neuropilin Signaling In Cancer Stem Cells, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer extends beyond angiogenesis and vascular permeability. Specifically, VEGF-mediated signaling occurs in tumor cells and this signaling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis including the self-renewal and survival of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins (NRPs) are critical for mediating the effects of VEGF on CSCs, primarily because of their ability to impact the function of growth factor receptors and integrins. VEGF/NRP signaling can regulate the expression and function of key molecules that have been implicated in CSC function including Rho family guanosine ...


Inhibition Of Triggering Receptor Expressed On Myeloid Cells 1 Ameliorates Inflammation And Macrophage And Neutrophil Activation In Alcoholic Liver Disease In Mice, David Tornai, Istvan Furi, Zu T. Shen, Alexander B. Sigalov, Sahin Coban, Gyongyi Szabo 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Inhibition Of Triggering Receptor Expressed On Myeloid Cells 1 Ameliorates Inflammation And Macrophage And Neutrophil Activation In Alcoholic Liver Disease In Mice, David Tornai, Istvan Furi, Zu T. Shen, Alexander B. Sigalov, Sahin Coban, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by macrophage and neutrophil leukocyte recruitment and activation in the liver. Damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns contribute to a self-perpetuating proinflammatory state in ALD. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a surface receptor that amplifies inflammation induced by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is expressed on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. We hypothesized that TREM-1 signaling contributes to proinflammatory pathway activation in ALD. Using an in vivo ALD model in mice, we tested the effects of ligand-independent TREM-1 inhibitory peptides that were formulated into human high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking complexes GF9-HDL and GA ...


Constitutive Interferon Signaling Maintains Critical Threshold Of Mlkl Expression To License Necroptosis, Joseph Sarhan, Beiyun C. Liu, Hayley I. Muendlein, Chi G. Weindel, Irina Smirnova, Amy Y. Tang, Vladimir Ilyukha, Maxim Sorokin, Anton Buzdin, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Alexander Poltorak 2019 Tufts University

Constitutive Interferon Signaling Maintains Critical Threshold Of Mlkl Expression To License Necroptosis, Joseph Sarhan, Beiyun C. Liu, Hayley I. Muendlein, Chi G. Weindel, Irina Smirnova, Amy Y. Tang, Vladimir Ilyukha, Maxim Sorokin, Anton Buzdin, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Alexander Poltorak

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Interferons (IFNs) are critical determinants in immune-competence and autoimmunity, and are endogenously regulated by a low-level constitutive feedback loop. However, little is known about the functions and origins of constitutive IFN. Recently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IFN was implicated as a driver of necroptosis, a necrotic form of cell death downstream of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase activation and executed by mixed lineage kinase like-domain (MLKL) protein. We found that the pre-established IFN status of the cell, instead of LPS-induced IFN, is critical for the early initiation of necroptosis in macrophages. This pre-established IFN signature stems from cytosolic DNA sensing via cGAS ...


Molecular Basis For Strain Variation In The S. Cerevisiae Adhesion Flo11p, Li Li Ph.D., Subit Barua, Peter N. Lipke, Anne M. Dranginis 2019 Molloy College

Molecular Basis For Strain Variation In The S. Cerevisiae Adhesion Flo11p, Li Li Ph.D., Subit Barua, Peter N. Lipke, Anne M. Dranginis

Li Li

FLO11 encodes a yeast cell wall flocculin that mediates a variety of adhesive phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Flo11p is implicated in many developmental processes, including flocculation, formation of pseudohyphae, agar invasion, and formation of microbial mats and biofilms. However, Flo11p mediates different processes in different yeast strains. To investigate the mechanisms by which FLO11 determines these differences in colony morphology, flocculation, and invasion, we studied gene structure, function, and expression levels. Nonflocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae Σ1278b cells exhibited significantly higher FLO11mRNA expression, especially in the stationary phase, than highly flocculent S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus. The two strains varied in cell ...


Expression And Characterization Of The Flocculin Flo11/Muc1, A Yeast Mannoprotein With Homotypic Properties Of Adhesion, Li Li Ph.D., Lois M. Douglas, Yang Yang, A M. Dranginis 2019 Molloy College

Expression And Characterization Of The Flocculin Flo11/Muc1, A Yeast Mannoprotein With Homotypic Properties Of Adhesion, Li Li Ph.D., Lois M. Douglas, Yang Yang, A M. Dranginis

Li Li

The Flo11/Muc1 flocculin has diverse phenotypic effects. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells of strain background Σ1278b require Flo11p to form pseudohyphae, invade agar, adhere to plastic, and develop biofilms, but they do not flocculate. We show that S. cerevisiae var. diastaticusstrains, on the other hand, exhibit Flo11-dependent flocculation and biofilm formation but do not invade agar or form pseudohyphae. In order to study the nature of the Flo11p proteins produced by these two types of strains, we examined secreted Flo11p, encoded by a plasmid-borne gene, in which the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor sequences had been replaced by a histidine tag. A protein ...


Endosome To Golgi Retrieval Of The Vacuolar Protein Sorting Receptor, Vps10p, Requires The Function Of The Vps29, Vps30, And Vps35 Gene Products, Matthew N. J. Seaman, Eric G. Marcusson, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Scott D. Emr 2019 University of California, San Diego

Endosome To Golgi Retrieval Of The Vacuolar Protein Sorting Receptor, Vps10p, Requires The Function Of The Vps29, Vps30, And Vps35 Gene Products, Matthew N. J. Seaman, Eric G. Marcusson, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Scott D. Emr

Joan Lin-Cereghino

Mutations in the S. cerevisiae VPS29 and VPS30 genes lead to a selective protein sorting defect in which the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is missorted and secreted from the cell, while other soluble vacuolar hydrolases like proteinase A (PrA) are delivered to the vacuole. This phenotype is similar to that seen in cells with mutations in the previously characterized VPS10 and VPS35 genes. Vps10p is a late Golgi transmembrane protein that acts as the sorting receptor for soluble vacuolar hydrolases like CPY and PrA, while Vps35p is a peripheral membrane protein which cofractionates with membranes enriched in Vps10p. The ...


Entosis Controls A Developmental Cell Clearance In C. Elegans, Yongchan Lee, Jens C. Hamann, Mark Pellegrino, Joanne Durgan, Marie-Charlotte Domart, Lucy M. Collinson, Cole M. Haynes, Oliver Florey, Michael Overholtzer 2019 Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research

Entosis Controls A Developmental Cell Clearance In C. Elegans, Yongchan Lee, Jens C. Hamann, Mark Pellegrino, Joanne Durgan, Marie-Charlotte Domart, Lucy M. Collinson, Cole M. Haynes, Oliver Florey, Michael Overholtzer

Open Access Articles

Metazoan cell death mechanisms are diverse and include numerous non-apoptotic programs. One program called entosis involves the invasion of live cells into their neighbors and is known to occur in cancers. Here, we identify a developmental function for entosis: to clear the male-specific linker cell in C. elegans. The linker cell leads migration to shape the gonad and is removed to facilitate fusion of the gonad to the cloaca. We find that the linker cell is cleared in a manner involving cell-cell adhesions and cell-autonomous control of uptake through linker cell actin. Linker cell entosis generates a lobe structure that ...


Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan 2019 Temple University

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional ...


Tryptophan Confers Resistance To Sds-Associated Cell Membrane Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Lea Schroeder, Amy E. Ikui 2019 CUNY Brooklyn College

Tryptophan Confers Resistance To Sds-Associated Cell Membrane Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Lea Schroeder, Amy E. Ikui

Publications and Research

Sodium dodecyl sulfate is a detergent that disrupts cell membranes, activates cell wall integrity signaling and restricts cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the underlying mechanism of how sodium dodecyl sulfate inhibits cell growth is not fully understood. Previously, we have shown that deletion of the MCK1 gene leads to sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate; thus, we implemented a suppressor gene screening revealing that the overexpression of TAT2 tryptophan permease rescues cell growth in sodium dodecyl sulfatetreated Δmck1 cells. Therefore, we questioned the involvement of tryptophan in the response to sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. In this work, we show that ...


Adenosine Triphosphate Is Co-Secreted With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 To Modulate Intestinal Enterocytes And Afferent Neurons, Van B. Lu, Juraj Rievaj, Elisabeth A. O'Flaherty, Christopher A. Smith, Ramona Pais, Luke A. Pattison, Gwen Tolhurst, Andrew B. Leiter, David C. Bulmer, Fiona M. Gribble, Frank Reimann 2019 University of Cambridge

Adenosine Triphosphate Is Co-Secreted With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 To Modulate Intestinal Enterocytes And Afferent Neurons, Van B. Lu, Juraj Rievaj, Elisabeth A. O'Flaherty, Christopher A. Smith, Ramona Pais, Luke A. Pattison, Gwen Tolhurst, Andrew B. Leiter, David C. Bulmer, Fiona M. Gribble, Frank Reimann

Open Access Articles

Enteroendocrine cells are specialised sensory cells located in the intestinal epithelium and generate signals in response to food ingestion. Whilst traditionally considered hormone-producing cells, there is evidence that they also initiate activity in the afferent vagus nerve and thereby signal directly to the brainstem. We investigate whether enteroendocrine L-cells, well known for their production of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), also release other neuro-transmitters/modulators. We demonstrate regulated ATP release by ATP measurements in cell supernatants and by using sniffer patches that generate electrical currents upon ATP exposure. Employing purinergic receptor antagonists, we demonstrate that evoked ATP release from ...


Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

During normal cell metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation. ROS are utilized in the cell as a signaling molecule and can be maintained at healthy levels by cellular antioxidants. However, when the cell experiences oxidative stress due to environmental or genetic conditions, levels of ROS can exceed healthy levels and inhibit necessary life functions by damaging biomolecules and cellular structures. This loss of function can lead to physiological decline and neurodegeneration, such as in diseases like Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and, potentially, Huntington’s disease. The following experiments use the model ...


Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (Rip3) Regulates Ipscs Generation Through Modulating Cell Cycle Progression Genes, Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Bo Tian, Nikolaos E. Efstathiou, Eleni K. Konstantinou, Mien Hoang, Haijiang Lin, Joan W. Miller, Demetrios G. Vavvas 2019 Harvard Medical School

Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (Rip3) Regulates Ipscs Generation Through Modulating Cell Cycle Progression Genes, Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Bo Tian, Nikolaos E. Efstathiou, Eleni K. Konstantinou, Mien Hoang, Haijiang Lin, Joan W. Miller, Demetrios G. Vavvas

Open Access Articles

The molecular mechanisms involved in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation are poorly understood. The cell death machinery of apoptosis-inducing caspases have been shown to facilitate the process of iPSCs reprogramming. However, the effect of other cell death processes, such as programmed necrosis (necroptosis), on iPSCs induction has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the role of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3), an essential regulator of necroptosis, in reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) into iPSCs. RIP3 was found to be upregulated in iPSCs compared to MEFs. Deletion of RIP3 dramatically suppressed the reprogramming of iPSCs (~82%). RNA-seq ...


Viral Infection Or Ifn-Alpha Alters Mitotic Spindle Orientation By Modulating Pericentrin Levels, William M. McDougall, Jill Perreira, Hui-Fang Hung, Anastassiia Vertii, E. Xiaofei, Wendy Zimmerman, Timothy F. Kowalik, Stephen J. Doxsey, Abraham L. Brass 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Viral Infection Or Ifn-Alpha Alters Mitotic Spindle Orientation By Modulating Pericentrin Levels, William M. Mcdougall, Jill Perreira, Hui-Fang Hung, Anastassiia Vertii, E. Xiaofei, Wendy Zimmerman, Timothy F. Kowalik, Stephen J. Doxsey, Abraham L. Brass

Open Access Articles

Congenital microcephaly occurs in utero during Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The single-gene disorder, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), also leads to microcephaly and is concomitant with a decrease in the centrosomal protein, pericentrin (PCNT). This protein is a known contributor of mitotic spindle misorientation and ultimately, microcephaly. Similar to MOPDII, either viral infection or interferon (IFN)-alpha exposure reduced PCNT levels at the mitotic spindle poles. We unexpectedly found that infection of cells with any one of a diverse set of viruses, such as ZIKV, dengue virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza A virus, or hepatitis B virus, or treatment of ...


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