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Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


A Novel Kinesin Adapter Directly Mediates Dendritic Mrna Localization During Synapse Development, Hao Wu 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Novel Kinesin Adapter Directly Mediates Dendritic Mrna Localization During Synapse Development, Hao Wu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cytoskeleton based active transport with motor proteins is essential for mRNA localization and local protein translation in animal cells, yet how mRNA granules interact with motor proteins remains poorly understood. Using an unbiased screen for interaction between mRNA binding proteins (RBP) and motor proteins, we identified protein interacting with APP tail 1 (PAT1) as a potential direct adapter between the β-actin mRNA Zipcode-binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and Kinesin-1 motor complex.

Mouse PAT1 is similar to the Kinesin Light Chain (KLC) in amino acid sequence and binds directly to KLC. High-resolution images from structured illumination microscopy (SIM) indicates that synaptic stimulation ...


The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays specific anti-tumor effects across many cancer cell types. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis, toxic autophagy, cancer-specific apoptosis, and sensitization to traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. Overexpression of IL-24 can selectively induce apoptosis in various cancer cells while having no adverse effects on normal cells. Due to this favorable killing effect, IL-24 is currently in phase II clinical trials. There is accumulating evidence that IL-24’s anti-cancer activity is primarily through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway but other pathways leading to cell death ...


Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani

Open Access Articles

Adhesion is a crucial characteristic of epithelial cells to form barriers to pathogens and toxic substances from the environment. Epithelial cells attach to each other using intercellular junctions on the lateral membrane, including tight and adherent junctions, as well as the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our group has shown that non-adherent chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the canine beta1 subunit become adhesive, and those homotypic interactions amongst beta1 subunits of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase occur between neighboring epithelial cells. Ouabain, a cardiotonic steroid, binds to the alpha subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, inhibits the pump activity and induces ...


Effects Of Fatty Acids From Coconut And Olive Oil On Expression Of The Hmg1 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Amelia Konen, Taryn Stewart 2019 Carroll College

Effects Of Fatty Acids From Coconut And Olive Oil On Expression Of The Hmg1 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Amelia Konen, Taryn Stewart

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

HMG-CoA reductase is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathways of sterols in many different organisms. The gene in Tetrahymena thermophila which codes for this protein is HMG1, and has many homologs across many other organisms, from fungi to humans. For this project, we wanted to look at the effect of external fatty acids from coconut and olive oil on the expression of HMG1 in T. thermophila. Previous research has shown that exposure to unsaturated oils result in decreased cholesterol levels. We hypothesized that if T. thermophila are introduced to saturated fats and unsaturated fats, they would exhibit a respectively ...


Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli 2019 Chapman University

Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are hair-like cellular extensions that sense microenvironmental signals surrounding cells. The role of adenylyl cyclases in ciliary function has been of interest because the product of adenylyl cyclase activity, cAMP, is relevant to cilia-related diseases. In the present study, we show that vasopressin receptor type-2 (V2R) is localized to cilia in kidney epithelial cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of V2R with tolvaptan increases ciliary length and mechanosensory function. Genetic knockdown of V2R, however, does not have any effect on ciliary length, although the effect of tolvaptan on ciliary length is dampened. Our study reveals that tolvaptan may have a cilia-specific ...


Gamete Nuclear Migration In Animals And Plants, Umma Fatema, Mohammad F. Ali, Zheng Hu, Anthony J. Clark, Tomokazu Kawashima 2019 University of Kentucky

Gamete Nuclear Migration In Animals And Plants, Umma Fatema, Mohammad F. Ali, Zheng Hu, Anthony J. Clark, Tomokazu Kawashima

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The migration of male and female gamete nuclei to each other in the fertilized egg is a prerequisite for the blending of genetic materials and the initiation of the next generation. Interestingly, many differences have been found in the mechanism of gamete nuclear movement among animals and plants. Female to male gamete nuclear movement in animals and brown algae relies on microtubules. By contrast, in flowering plants, the male gamete nucleus is carried to the female gamete nucleus by the filamentous actin cytoskeleton. As techniques have developed from light, electron, fluorescence, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy to live-cell time-lapse imaging using ...


Exploiting Unique Biological Features Of Leukemia Stem Cells For Therapeutic Benefit, Haojian Zhang, Shaoguang Li 2019 Wuhan University

Exploiting Unique Biological Features Of Leukemia Stem Cells For Therapeutic Benefit, Haojian Zhang, Shaoguang Li

Open Access Articles

Cancer stem cells play a critical role in disease initiation and insensitivity to chemotherapy in numerous hematologic malignancies and some solid tumors, and these stem cells need to be eradicated to achieve a cure. Key to successful targeting of cancer stem cells is to identify and functionally test critical target genes and to fully understand their associated molecular network in these stem cells. Human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is well accepted as one of the typical types of hematopoietic malignancies that are derived from leukemia stem cells (LSCs), serving as an excellent model disease for understanding the biology of LSCs ...


A Cell Cycle Cue Triggers Cell Growth Resumption After Division, Afton R. Russell 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Cell Cycle Cue Triggers Cell Growth Resumption After Division, Afton R. Russell

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The decoupling of the fundamental processes of cell division and growth is important for maintaining cell integrity. Through a chemical approach, we delayed the clock that controls when cells separate, uncoupling cell division and cell growth. This led to polarized cell growth before the cells completed separation. Using fluorescent markers to denote the cell’s stage in the cell cycle, we observed that only cells that were in mitosis exhibited this uncoupling. Previously it was thought that growth resumption occurred after completion of cell division, but this observation suggests that growth is triggered earlier, from a mitotic cue. This mitotic ...


Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2019 Chapman University

Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A number of amphiphilic cyclic peptides—[FR]4, [WR]5, and [WK]5—containing hydrophobic and positively-charged amino acids were synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide methods and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of siRNA to triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, in the presence and absence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Among the peptides, [WR]5, which contains alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues, was found to be the most efficient in the delivery of siRNA by improving the delivery by more than 3-fold when compared to other synthesized cyclic peptides that were not efficient ...


Hyperactive Torc1 Sensitizes Yeast Cells To Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress By Compromising Cell Wall Integrity, Khadija Ahmed 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Hyperactive Torc1 Sensitizes Yeast Cells To Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress By Compromising Cell Wall Integrity, Khadija Ahmed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The disruption of protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in an accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins and activates a network of signaling events collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). While UPR activation upon ER stress is well characterized, how other signaling pathways integrate into the ER proteostasis network is unclear. Here, I sought to investigate how the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling cascade acts in parallel with the UPR to regulate ER stress sensitivity. Using S. cerevisiae, I found that TORC1 signaling is attenuated during ER stress and constitutive activation of TORC1 increases ...


Single-Cell Rna-Sequencing-Based Crispri Screening Resolves Molecular Drivers Of Early Human Endoderm Development, Ryan M. Genga, Eric M. Kernfeld, Krishna M. Parsi, Teagan J. Parsons, Michael J. Ziller, Rene Maehr 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Single-Cell Rna-Sequencing-Based Crispri Screening Resolves Molecular Drivers Of Early Human Endoderm Development, Ryan M. Genga, Eric M. Kernfeld, Krishna M. Parsi, Teagan J. Parsons, Michael J. Ziller, Rene Maehr

Open Access Articles

Studies in vertebrates have outlined conserved molecular control of definitive endoderm (END) development. However, recent work also shows that key molecular aspects of human END regulation differ even from rodents. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to END offers a tractable system to study the molecular basis of normal and defective human-specific END development. Here, we interrogated dynamics in chromatin accessibility during differentiation of ESCs to END, predicting DNA-binding proteins that may drive this cell fate transition. We then combined single-cell RNA-seq with parallel CRISPR perturbations to comprehensively define the loss-of-function phenotype of those factors in END development. Following ...


Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey 2019 University of New Mexico

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey

Biology ETDs

Properly executed cell division is crucial to development, maintenance, and longevity of multicellular organisms. Defects in both symmetric and asymmetric divisions can lead to improper developmental patterning, as well as genomic instability, disruption of tissue homeostasis, and cancer. Our research focuses on how regulators orchestrate proper cell divisions. Mushroom Body Defect (Mud) is one such regulator, and here we describe how Mud is regulated via the Hippo signaling pathway kinase Warts (Wts), showing Wts phosphorylates Mud to enhance interaction with the polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable, promoting spindle orientation activity. We next focus on another regulator, Shortstop (Shot), describing a ...


Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Cr(VI) (hexavalent chromium) has recently been found in the drinking water of over 250 million Americans. It is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is known to cause cancer, although the specific mechanism has yet to be elucidated. There is no known preventative treatment for Cr(VI) exposure, and the US EPA is currently determining what concentration of Cr(VI) in drinking water can be safely tolerated. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Cr(VI) cytotoxicity can be prevented by various antioxidants. We tested this hypothesis by exposing human embryonic kidney and human intestinal epithelial cells to Cr ...


The Erk Mapk Pathway Is Essential For Skeletal Development And Homeostasis, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Kwang Hwan Park, Hwanhee Oh, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Erk Mapk Pathway Is Essential For Skeletal Development And Homeostasis, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Kwang Hwan Park, Hwanhee Oh, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim

Open Access Articles

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of protein kinases that function as key signal transducers of a wide spectrum of extracellular stimuli, including growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK pathway is associated with human skeletal abnormalities including Noonan syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that ERK activation in osteoprogenitors is required for bone formation during skeletal development and homeostasis. Deletion of Mek1 and Mek2, kinases upstream of ERK MAPK, in osteoprogenitors (Mek1(Osx)Mek2(-/-)), resulted in severe osteopenia and cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), similar to that seen in humans ...


Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths yearly worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is an almost universal mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research. Alpha ...


The Er-Localized Protein Dfcp1 Modulates Er-Lipid Droplet Contact Formation, Dongfang Li, Yan G. Zhao, Di Li, Hongyu Zhao, Jie Huang, Guangyan Miao, Du Feng, Pingsheng Liu, Dong Li, Hong Zhang 2019 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Er-Localized Protein Dfcp1 Modulates Er-Lipid Droplet Contact Formation, Dongfang Li, Yan G. Zhao, Di Li, Hongyu Zhao, Jie Huang, Guangyan Miao, Du Feng, Pingsheng Liu, Dong Li, Hong Zhang

Open Access Articles

Very little is known about the spatiotemporal generation of lipid droplets (LDs) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the factors that mediate ER-LD contacts for LD growth. Using super-resolution grazing incidence structured illumination microscopy (GI-SIM) live-cell imaging, we reveal that upon LD induction, the ER-localized protein DFCP1 redistributes to nascent puncta on the ER, whose formation depends on triglyceride synthesis. These structures move along the ER and fuse to form expanding LDs. Fusion and expansion of DFCP1-labeled nascent structures is controlled by BSCL2. BSCL2 depletion causes accumulation of nascent DFCP1 structures. DFCP1 overexpression increases LD size and enhances ER-LD contacts ...


Genome-Scale Crispr Screens Identify Human Pluripotency-Specific Genes, Robert J. Ihry, Zinger Yang, Ajamete Kaykas 2019 Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research

Genome-Scale Crispr Screens Identify Human Pluripotency-Specific Genes, Robert J. Ihry, Zinger Yang, Ajamete Kaykas

Open Access Articles

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) generate a variety of disease-relevant cells that can be used to improve the translation of preclinical research. Despite the potential of hPSCs, their use for genetic screening has been limited by technical challenges. We developed a scalable and renewable Cas9 and sgRNA-hPSC library in which loss-of-function mutations can be induced at will. Our inducible mutant hPSC library can be used for multiple genome-wide CRISPR screens in a variety of hPSC-induced cell types. As proof of concept, we performed three screens for regulators of properties fundamental to hPSCs: their ability to self-renew and/or survive (fitness ...


A Screen For Genetic Modifiers Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Function In Drosophila Collective Cell Cohesion And Migration, Carmen F. Del Real, Yujun Chen, Marissa Komp, Jocelyn A. McDonald 2019 Kansas State University

A Screen For Genetic Modifiers Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Function In Drosophila Collective Cell Cohesion And Migration, Carmen F. Del Real, Yujun Chen, Marissa Komp, Jocelyn A. Mcdonald

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Cells can migrate collectively in tightly or loosely-associated groups during tissue and organ formation, during embryonic development, in tumor metastases, and in wound healing. Drosophilaborder cellsserve as an excellent genetic model of collective cell migration inside a developing tissue. During ovarian development, 6-8 cells form the border cell cluster and migrate together as a cohesive group to reach the large oocyte. Previous experiments have shown that Nuclear inhibitor of Protein Serine Threonine Phosphatase 1 (NiPP1) causes border cells to separate into single cells, rather than stay in a group, and limits their ability to migrate. NiPP1 inhibits the ...


Tetrahymena Thermophila Lack A Homologue Of The Caenorhabditis Elegans Lin-4 Mirna, Bryce H. Childers, Sorrel Paris, Emma Wessels, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2019 Cedarville University

Tetrahymena Thermophila Lack A Homologue Of The Caenorhabditis Elegans Lin-4 Mirna, Bryce H. Childers, Sorrel Paris, Emma Wessels, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The netrin family of proteins was first discovered because of their role in axonal guidance during development. Netrin homologues are important developmental signals in organisms ranging from vertebrates to the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and netrin-like proteins have even been found in the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila. Since the lin-4 miRNA regulates netrin signaling in C. elegans, we hypothesized that a lin-4 homologue might exists in Tetrahymena thermophila. In order to test this hypothesis, we purified total miRNA from T. thermophila, used this miRNA to make cDNA, then used RT-PCR to quantitate the amount of lin-4 specific cDNA we obtained. Our ...


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