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Myogenin Modulates Exercise Endurance By Altering Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, james eric meadows 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Myogenin Modulates Exercise Endurance By Altering Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, James Eric Meadows

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The function of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) during adult life is not well understood. The requirement of one of these MRFs, myogenin (Myog), during embryonic muscle development suggests an equally important role in adult muscle. In this study, we have determined the function of myogenin during adult life using a conditional allele of Myog. In contrast to embryonic development, myogenin is not required for adult viability, and Myog-deleted mice exhibited no remarkable phenotypic changes during sedentary life. Remarkably, sedentary Myog-deleted mice demonstrated enhanced exercise endurance during involuntary treadmill running. Altered blood glucose and lactate levels in sedentary Myog-deleted mice after ...


Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia Due To Acta2/Myh11 Mutations: Identification Of Novel Pathology And Pathways Leading To Aneurysms And Diverse Vascular Occlusive Diseases, Christina L. Papke 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia Due To Acta2/Myh11 Mutations: Identification Of Novel Pathology And Pathways Leading To Aneurysms And Diverse Vascular Occlusive Diseases, Christina L. Papke

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Missense mutations in smooth muscle cell (SMC) specific ACTA2 (á-actin) and MYH11 (â-myosin heavy chain) cause diffuse and diverse vascular diseases, including thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) and early onset coronary artery disease and stroke. The mechanism by which these mutations lead to dilatation of some arteries but occlusion of others is unknown. We hypothesized that the mutations act through two distinct mechanisms to cause varied vascular diseases: a loss of function, leading to decreased SMC contraction and aneurysms, and a gain of function, leading to increased SMC proliferation and occlusive disease. To test this hypothesis, ACTA2 mutant SMCs ...


The Consequences Of Disrupting The Mdm2-P53 Balance In Hematopoiesis, Hussein A. Abbas 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Consequences Of Disrupting The Mdm2-P53 Balance In Hematopoiesis, Hussein A. Abbas

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The bone marrow accommodates hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. These cells provide an indispensible resource for replenishing the blood constituents throughout an organism’s life. A tissue with such a high turn-over rate mandates intact cycling checkpoint and apoptotic pathways to avoid inappropriate cell proliferation and ultimately the development of leukemias. p53, a major tumor suppressor, is a transcription factor that regulates cell cycle, and induces apoptosis and senescence. Mice inheriting a hypomorphic p53 allele in the absence of Mdm2, a p53 inhibitor, have elevated p53 cell cycle activity and die by postnatal day 13 due to hematopoietic failure. Hematopoiesis ...


Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cellular invasion represents a critical early step in the metastatic cascade, and many proteins have been identified as part of an “invasive signature.” The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is commonly upregulated in breast cancers, often in conjunction with overexpression of EGFR. Signaling from this pathway stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and frequently involves proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. My data demonstrates that inhibition of Src, using the small-molecule inhibitor dasatinib, impairs cellular migration and invasion. Furthermore, Src inhibition sensitizes the cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin resulting in dramatic, synergistic inhibition of proliferation with combination treatments. The ...


The Ubiquitin Ligase Ube4b Is Required For Efficient Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Degradation, Natalie Sirisaengtaksin 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Ubiquitin Ligase Ube4b Is Required For Efficient Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Degradation, Natalie Sirisaengtaksin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The length of time that integral membrane proteins reside on the plasma membrane is regulated by endocytosis, a process that can inactivate these proteins by removing them from the membrane and may ultimately result in their degradation. Proteins are internalized and pass through multiple distinct intracellular compartments where targeting decisions determine their fate. Membrane proteins initially enter early endosomes, and subsequently late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs), before being degraded in the lysosome. The MVB is a subset of late endosomes characterized by the appearance of small vesicles in its luminal compartment. These vesicles contain cargo proteins sorted from the limiting ...


Validation Of The Activation Of Aurora B Kinase By Caenorhabditis Elegans Tousled-Like Kinase And The Identification Of Cyclin B3 As A Phospho-Specific Tlk-1 Interactor, Gary Michael Deyter 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Validation Of The Activation Of Aurora B Kinase By Caenorhabditis Elegans Tousled-Like Kinase And The Identification Of Cyclin B3 As A Phospho-Specific Tlk-1 Interactor, Gary Michael Deyter

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A hallmark of tumorigenesis and certain birth defect syndromes is the loss of ploidy that can result from incorrect chromosome segregation. Chromosomes that are not partitioned properly during mitosis are often fragmented, changing the genetic makeup of daughter cells. Inheriting extrachromosomal fragments that contain cell survival genes or losing chromosomal loci that encode tumor suppressors can promote tumor development. Thus, it is essential to elucidate molecular mechanisms required for correct chromosome segregation. Chromosomes are connected to mitotic spindle microtubules by way of a proteinacous, chromosome-bound organelle called the kinetochore. Two decades of research have confirmed that the conserved Aurora B ...


Analysis Of Apoptosis Of Memory T Cells And Dendritic Cells During The Early Stages Of Viral Infection Or Exposure To Toll-Like Receptor Agonists, Kapil Bahl, Anette Hubner, Roger J. Davis, Raymond M. Welsh 2010 Yale University

Analysis Of Apoptosis Of Memory T Cells And Dendritic Cells During The Early Stages Of Viral Infection Or Exposure To Toll-Like Receptor Agonists, Kapil Bahl, Anette Hubner, Roger J. Davis, Raymond M. Welsh

Davis Lab Publications

Profound type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent attrition of memory CD8 and CD4 T cells occurs early during many infections. It is dramatic at 2 to 4 days following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice and can be elicited by the IFN-inducing Toll receptor agonist poly(I:C). We show that this attrition occurs in many organs, indicating that it is due to T cell loss rather than redistribution. This loss correlated with elevated intracellular staining of T cells ex vivo for activated caspases but with only low levels of ex vivo staining with annexin V, probably due to the ...


Microtubule Stabilization By Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor-Mediated Scaffolding Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Promotes Dendrite Formation, Monika Podkowa, Xin Zhao, Chi-Wing Chow, Eleanor T. Coffey, Roger J. Davis, Liliana Attisano 2010 University of Toronto

Microtubule Stabilization By Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor-Mediated Scaffolding Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Promotes Dendrite Formation, Monika Podkowa, Xin Zhao, Chi-Wing Chow, Eleanor T. Coffey, Roger J. Davis, Liliana Attisano

Davis Lab Publications

Neuronal outgrowth occurs via coordinated remodeling of the cytoskeleton involving both actin and microtubules. Microtubule stabilization drives the extending neurite, yet little is known of the molecular mechanisms whereby extracellular cues regulate microtubule dynamics. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play an important role in neuronal differentiation and morphogenesis, and BMP7 in particular induces the formation of dendrites. Here, we show that BMP7 induces stabilization of microtubules in both a MAP2-dependent neuronal cell culture model and in dendrites of primary cortical neurons. BMP7 rapidly activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), known regulators of microtubule dynamics, and we show that JNKs associate with the ...


Mult1e-Rgd Fusion Protein Drives Nk Cell-Mediated Anti-Tumor Response, Meg Steiner 2010 Clemson University

Mult1e-Rgd Fusion Protein Drives Nk Cell-Mediated Anti-Tumor Response, Meg Steiner

All Theses

A growing body of evidence indicates that natural killer (NK) cells are paramount to the identification and elimination of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells during normal immunosurveillance. In addition, NK cells provide a vital link between the innate and adaptive immune systems during an anti-tumoral response. In the present study, a novel fusion protein was designed from the extracellular portion of mouse UL16-binding protein-like transcript 1 (MULT1), a ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor on NK cells, and a short arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) -containing peptide, which binds the integrin αvβ3 of tumor-specific neovasculature. In vitro studies showed that the fusion protein ...


Genetic And Biochemical Studies Of Plasmid Pir52-1 In Lactobacillus Helveticus, Cody Alexander Tramp 2010 Utah State University

Genetic And Biochemical Studies Of Plasmid Pir52-1 In Lactobacillus Helveticus, Cody Alexander Tramp

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Lactobacillus helveticus is a species of lactic acid bacteria. These bacteria, which produce lactic acid as a major product of carbohydrate metabolism, are used industrially to produce cheese and other fermented dairy products (Ebringer et al., 2008). Many species of lactic acid bacteria also possess probiotic characteristics and when ingested potentially confer increased immune function, regulate gut microbiota, and improve digestion in the host (Reid, 2008). Genetic studies of these probiotic effects and other characteristics of L. helveticus and related species have been hindered by the lack of stably replicating plasmid vectors. Plasmid vectors for several Lactobacillus species have been ...


From Mouse Mammary Tumor Model To New Therapeutic Method ---Mammary Tumor Development In Balb/C-Trp53+/- Mice And Magnetic Nanoparticle Induced Heating For Cancer Treatment, Haoheng Yan 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

From Mouse Mammary Tumor Model To New Therapeutic Method ---Mammary Tumor Development In Balb/C-Trp53+/- Mice And Magnetic Nanoparticle Induced Heating For Cancer Treatment, Haoheng Yan

Open Access Dissertations

PATHWAYS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPMENT OF SPONTANEOUS MAMMARY TUMORS IN BALB/c-Trp53+/- MICE Mutation and loss of p53 function are common features among human breast cancers. We use BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice as a model to examine the sequence of events leading to mammary tumors. Mammary epithelium proliferation rates were similar in both BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice and wild type controls. Among the 28 mammary tumors collected from BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice, loss of heterozygosity for Trp53 was detected in more than 90% of invasive mammary tumors. Transplantation of Trp53+/- ductal hyperplasias indicated an association between loss of the wild type allele of Trp53 ...


Notch 1 Mediated Inhibition Of Nur77-Induced Apoptosis: Implications For T-Cell Leukemia, Jonathan George Rud 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Notch 1 Mediated Inhibition Of Nur77-Induced Apoptosis: Implications For T-Cell Leukemia, Jonathan George Rud

Open Access Dissertations

It is widely accepted that activating mutations of genes encoding the Notch family of transmembrane receptors, specifically Notch1, are associated with oncogenic transformation. Previous data from our lab has shown that an active form of Notch1 (NICD) provides protection against apoptosis in D011.10 T cells; and that this effect may be attributed to NICD binding the pro-apoptotic protein Nur77. Nur77 is an immediate early gene that is upregulated during both negative selection of thymocytes and activation-induced apoptosis in D011.10 T cells. Nur77 upregulation is tightly regulated and requires MEF2D, NFAT, and the transcriptional co-activator, p300, to effectively respond ...


Cellular And Developmental Functions Of The Xenopus Arvcf-Catenin:Kazrin Complex, Kyucheol Cho 2010 The Texas Medical Center Library

Cellular And Developmental Functions Of The Xenopus Arvcf-Catenin:Kazrin Complex, Kyucheol Cho

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Xenopus ARVCF (xARVCF), a member of p120-catenin subfamily, binds cadherin cytoplasmic domains to enhance cadherin metabolic stability, or when dissociated, modulates Rho-family GTPases. We previously found that xARVCF binds directly to Xenopus KazrinA (xKazrinA), a widely expressed, conserved protein that bears little homology to established protein families. xKazrinA is also known to influence keratinocyte proliferation-differentiation and cytoskeletal activity. In my study, I first evaluated the expression pattern of endogenous Kazrin RNA and protein in Xenopus embryogenesis as well as in adult tissues. We then collaboratively predicted the helical structure of Kazrin’s coiled-coil domain, and I obtained evidence of Kazrin ...


Discrete Fractional Calculus And Its Applications To Tumor Growth, Sevgi Sengul 2010 Western Kentucky University

Discrete Fractional Calculus And Its Applications To Tumor Growth, Sevgi Sengul

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Almost every theory of mathematics has its discrete counterpart that makes it conceptually easier to understand and practically easier to use in the modeling process of real world problems. For instance, one can take the "difference" of any function, from 1st order up to the n-th order with discrete calculus. However, it is also possible to extend this theory by means of discrete fractional calculus and make n- any real number such that the ½-th order difference is well defined. This thesis is comprised of five chapters that demonstrate some basic definitions and properties of discrete fractional calculus while ...


Functional Analysis Of Chromodomain Helicase Dna Binding Protein 2(Chd2) Mediated Genomic Stability, Sangeetha Rajagopalan 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Functional Analysis Of Chromodomain Helicase Dna Binding Protein 2(Chd2) Mediated Genomic Stability, Sangeetha Rajagopalan

Doctoral Dissertations

Histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes play an important regulatory role in chromatin dynamics that dictate the interaction of regulatory factors involved in processes such as DNA replication, recombination, repair and transcription, with DNA template. The CHD (Chromodomain Helicase DNA Binding Protein) family of proteins is known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, recombination and chromatin remodeling via their chromatin specific interactions and activities. Phenotypic analysis of the Chd2 mutant mouse model developed by our laboratory indicates that the Chd2 protein plays a critical role in tumor suppression as the heterozygous mutant mice develop spontaneous lymphomas ...


Glycopeptidome Of A Heavily N-Glycosylated Cell Surface Glycoprotein Of Dictyostelium Implicated In Cell Adhesion, Christa L. Feasley, Jennifer M. Johnson, Christopher M. West, Catherine P. Chia 2010 University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Glycopeptidome Of A Heavily N-Glycosylated Cell Surface Glycoprotein Of Dictyostelium Implicated In Cell Adhesion, Christa L. Feasley, Jennifer M. Johnson, Christopher M. West, Catherine P. Chia

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Genetic analysis has implicated the cell surface glycoprotein gp130 in cell interactions of the social amoeba Dictyostelium, and information about the utilization of the 18 N-glycosylation sequons present in gp130 is needed to identify critical molecular determinants of its activity. Various glycomics strategies, including mass spectrometry of native and derivatized glycans, monosaccharide analysis, exoglycosidase digestion, and antibody binding, were applied to characterize a nonanchored version secreted from Dictyostelium. s-gp130 is modified by a predominant Man8GlcNAc4 species containing bisecting and intersecting GlcNAc residues and additional high-mannose N-glycans substituted with sulfate, methyl-phosphate, and/or core R3-fucose. Site mapping confirmed the occupancy of ...


Inhibition Of Deubiquitinase Activity And Ubiquitination Of Jak2 Blocks Cytokine Signaling And Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis, Vaibhav Kapuria 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Inhibition Of Deubiquitinase Activity And Ubiquitination Of Jak2 Blocks Cytokine Signaling And Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis, Vaibhav Kapuria

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Jak-stat pathway is critical for cellular proliferation and is commonly found to be deregulated in many solid tumors as well as hematological malignancies. Such findings have spurred the development of novel therapeutic agents that specifically inhibit Jak2 kinase, thereby suppressing tumor cell growth. Tyrphostin AG490, the first described Jak2 inhibitor, displays poor pharmacology and requires high concentrations for anti-tumor activities. Our research group screened a small library of AG490 structural analogues and identified WP1130 as a potent inhibitor of Jak2 signaling. However, unlike AG490, WP1130 did not directly inhibit Jak2 kinase activity. Our results show that WP1130 induces rapid ...


Midterm Outcomes Of Autologous Cultivated Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation With Or Without Penetrating Keratoplasty, Hossein Baharvand 2010 university of science & culture

Midterm Outcomes Of Autologous Cultivated Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation With Or Without Penetrating Keratoplasty, Hossein Baharvand

university of science & culture

To report the midterm outcomes of autologous limbal stem cell transplantation cultivated on amniotic membrane (AM) with or without subsequent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in patients with total unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Methods: Eight eyes of 8 consecutive patients with unilateral total LSCD underwent autologous limbal stem cell transplantation cultivated on AM. Four eyes underwent subsequent optical PKP. Main outcome measures were corneal vascularization and transparency. Results: The patients were followed for 34.0 6 13.5 months (6–48 months). Seven cases had a stable corneal epithelium with marked decrease in opacification and vascularization. Progressive sectorial conjunctivalization was ...


Pcdp1 Is A Central Apparatus Protein That Binds Ca2+-Calmodulin And Regulates Ciliary Motility, Christen G. DiPetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith 2010 Dartmouth College

Pcdp1 Is A Central Apparatus Protein That Binds Ca2+-Calmodulin And Regulates Ciliary Motility, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

For all motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella, beating is regulated by changes in intraciliary calcium concentration. Although the mechanism for calcium regulation is not understood, numerous studies have shown that calmodulin (CaM) is a key axonemal calcium sensor. Using anti-CaM antibodies and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii axonemal extracts, we precipitated a complex that includes four polypeptides and that specifically interacts with CaM in high [Ca2+]. One of the complex members, FAP221, is an orthologue of mammalian Pcdp1 (primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1). Both FAP221 and mammalian Pcdp1 specifically bind CaM in high [Ca2+]. Reduced expression of Pcdp1 complex members in ...


Disheveled Hair And Ear (Dhe), A Spontaneous Mouse Lmna Mutation Modeling Human Laminopathies, Paul R. Odgren, Craig H. Pratt, Carole A. MacKay, April Mason-Savas, Michelle Curtain, Lindsay S. Shopland, Tsutomu Ichicki, John P. Sundberg, Leah Rae Donahue 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Disheveled Hair And Ear (Dhe), A Spontaneous Mouse Lmna Mutation Modeling Human Laminopathies, Paul R. Odgren, Craig H. Pratt, Carole A. Mackay, April Mason-Savas, Michelle Curtain, Lindsay S. Shopland, Tsutomu Ichicki, John P. Sundberg, Leah Rae Donahue

Odgren Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: Investigations of naturally-occurring mutations in animal models provide important insights and valuable disease models. Lamins A and C, along with lamin B, are type V intermediate filament proteins which constitute the proteinaceous boundary of the nucleus. LMNA mutations in humans cause a wide range of phenotypes, collectively termed laminopathies. To identify the mutation and investigate the phenotype of a spontaneous, semi-dominant mutation that we have named Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe), which causes a sparse coat and small external ears in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes by postnatal day 10.

FINDINGS: Genetic mapping identified a point mutation in the ...


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