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Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. AL-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-ulrahman Al-Tomah 2020 University of Basra,College of Science

Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. Al-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-Ulrahman Al-Tomah

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Entamoeba spp. in particular E.histolytica is the main reason of human amoebiasis. The molecular mechanism of its pathogenicity is poorly understood, therefore the aim this study is to investigate these mechanism on both molecular and ultrastructure levels. Tight junction (TJ) genes Claudin-1 (Cldn1) and Occludin (Ocln) were investigated by real time PCR and the pathological changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), the result showed that the gene expression levels of TJ genes were significantly high in rats infected with E. histolytica E. dispar and E. moshkovskii after 28, 14, 7 days in compare with ...


Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial to many cellular processes. Many of these processes are regulated by extracellular signaling cues, which direct changes in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in changes to cellular morphology, and directed motility. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as a simple model system to study the translation of extracellular signals to the actin cytoskeleton. When starved, these unicellular amoebae undergo a multicellular developmental process characterized by a tightly regulated sequence of signaling events. This results in chemotaxis and formation of a multicellular aggregate, and ultimately cell differentiation and the formation of a fruiting ...


Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao 2020 Eastern Washington University

Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao

2020 Symposium Posters

Bordetella Type III Secretion System Effector A (BteA) is a virulence protein found in members of the genus Bordetella which include important pathogens of humans and other mammals. Bordetella pertussis is a causative agent of the whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is especially dangerous, and sometimes deadly, for infants. The BteA protein appears to be an important factor in the ability of these pathogens to cause disease, as it leads to rapid killing of a wide range of mammalian cells. The aim of this project is to determine which regions of the DNA are important for mediating ...


Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson 2020 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Patenting Antibodies: A Complication In Written Description Jurisprudence, Krisha Yadav-Rajan 2020 DePaul University College of Law

Patenting Antibodies: A Complication In Written Description Jurisprudence, Krisha Yadav-Rajan

DePaul Journal of Health Care Law

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Age/Rage Signaling On Oxidative Stress Under Diabetic Conditions In Cardiac Fibroblasts, Christopher Dorroh 2020 University of Mississippi

The Impact Of Age/Rage Signaling On Oxidative Stress Under Diabetic Conditions In Cardiac Fibroblasts, Christopher Dorroh

Honors Theses

Diabetes is a major health concern in the United States, with 1.5 million new cases diagnosed each year. Patients who suffer from diabetes have an increased risk of developing heart failure, a form of cardiovascular disease. Heart failure has been shown to result from increased left ventricular stiffness, which in turn is caused by increased remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This increase in ECM remodeling is a result of AGE/RAGE signaling, which occurs at a heightened level in the cardiac fibroblast cells of diabetics. Studies have shown that diabetics have elevated levels of AGEs (Advanced Glycation End-Products ...


Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt 2020 University of Mississippi

Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt

Honors Theses

Cannabis is the most commonly used, cultivated, and trafficked illicit drug worldwide. Increased availability and acceptance of cannabis and cannabinoid-containing products provide the necessity for understanding how these substances influence aging. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.08, 0.4, 2 µM) during embryonic-larval development, the effects on aging were measured 30 months later and in the offspring of the exposed fish (F1 generation. We observed results indicating a biphasic and hormetic effect. Treatment with the lowest concentration of THC significantly increased egg production, while higher concentrations resulted in impaired ...


Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The “browning” of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) through increased abundance of thermogenic beige/brite adipocytes is induced by cold exposure and many other perturbations in association with beneficial systemic metabolic effects. Adipose browning is reported to require activation of sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF), aided by alternately activated macrophages within iWAT. Here we demonstrate the first example of a non-cell autonomous pathway for iWAT browning that is fully independent of SNF activity. Thus, the strong induction of thermogenic adipocytes prompted by deletion of adipocyte fatty acid synthase (iAdFASNKO mice) was unaffected by denervation or the deletion of SNF modulator Neuregulin-4 ...


Development Of An Auto-Bioluminescent Lung Cell Line For Evaluation Of In Vitro Effects Of E-Cigarette Compounds On Normal Cell Proliferation, Olivia Morrison 2020 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Development Of An Auto-Bioluminescent Lung Cell Line For Evaluation Of In Vitro Effects Of E-Cigarette Compounds On Normal Cell Proliferation, Olivia Morrison

Honors Theses

The effects of smoking have long been studied; however, with the rise of electronic cigarettes there is a growing interest in the effects of this smoking substitute. Marketed as a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes, the popularity of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has dramatically increased. This has demanded regulatory methods to be put into effect, however, scientific study is only beginning on the new fad to determine the impacts of its use on the human body. The present study aims to examine the biological effects of lung cell exposure to tobacco alkaloids found in electronic cigarette filling solutions. We hypothesize ...


Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey 2020 University of South Florida

Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Caves formed by sulfuric acid dissolution have been identified worldwide. These caves can host diverse microbial communities that are responsible for speleogenesis and speleothem formation. It is not well understood how microbial communities change in response to surface water entering caves. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to determine the impact of surface water on the microbial community diversity and function within a spring pool found deep in the Monte Conca Cave system in Sicily, Italy. Sulfur oxidizers comprised more than 90% of the microbial community during the dry season and were replaced by potential anthropogenic contaminants ...


Quantification Of Mammalian Circadian Rhythms In Response To Photopollution With A Focus On Splitting Behavior, Mehdi Khan 2020 Northeastern Illinois University

Quantification Of Mammalian Circadian Rhythms In Response To Photopollution With A Focus On Splitting Behavior, Mehdi Khan

University Honors Program Senior Projects

Circadian rhythms are generated by internal biological clocks of organisms and are responsible for the synchronization of an organism’s external and internal environment. The cells responsible for conducting and maintaining the circadian system are known to be coupled in order to maintain a harmonic rhythm. Desynchronization of the master circadian rhythm can cause the presence of two or more rhythms to emerge in a single organism, also known as splitting behavior. Photopollution and artificial light is known to disrupt this synchronization and result in a desynchronized or split rhythm. Many studies have highlighted that photopollution can disrupt the biological ...


Sensing Ribonuclease H Activity With Dna Nanoswitches, Ruju Trivedi 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Sensing Ribonuclease H Activity With Dna Nanoswitches, Ruju Trivedi

Biological Sciences

Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is a damage-repair protein and ribonuclease that specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of RNA in an RNA/DNA duplex and breaks down RNA/DNA junctions. It plays an important role in a variety of biological processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. It is also pivotal in anti-HIV drug development and the analysis of cellular processes and has been shown to be a potential therapeutic target for various neoplastic diseases. This thesis discusses a unique assay based on DNA nanoswitches to detect RNase H levels and activity. The assay is based on conformational changes of DNA ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti

Open Access Articles

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, HCA Lung Biological Network 2020 Harvard Medical School

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Counterillumination, the mechanism by which pelagic species produce bioluminescence to replace the light blocked by their bodies to hide their silhouettes, has been known for over 100 years. However, little is known about how these animals are able to so precisely replicate the intensity of downwelling light. The recent discovery of opsins in photophores (Bracken-Grissom et al. 2020) suggests that these autogenic organs (i.e. non-bacterial) may be sensitive to light, in addition to their function of emitting visible light. The study presented here is 1) the first ultrastructural assessment of photophores in species Systellaspis debilis, Janicella spinicauda, Parasergestes armatus ...


155— Analysis Of Her4.1 And Ascl1a In Gef Mutants, Rico Amato, Tessa Beiter, Christopher Lepore 2020 SUNY Geneseo

155— Analysis Of Her4.1 And Ascl1a In Gef Mutants, Rico Amato, Tessa Beiter, Christopher Lepore

GREAT Day

Zebrafish are a model organism for studying developmental abnormalities, especially in the eye. The good effort (gef) mutant zebrafish have smaller eyes than wild-type embryos due to rapid retinal degeneration that becomes apparent only after two days post fertilization. The genetic problem arises from a deletion of intronic DNA sequence which leads to the loss of an exon and disrupts the coding region of the Cha1b protein. Chaf1b is a subunit of the Chromosome assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), a complex of three proteins which has a role in histone loading and chromatin regulation. This small eye phenotype has been hypothesized ...


486— Cell Cycle Effect On Hla Expression In Htb-4 And Mrc-5, Nick Turnquist, Andrew Kareeparampil 2020 SUNY Geneseo

486— Cell Cycle Effect On Hla Expression In Htb-4 And Mrc-5, Nick Turnquist, Andrew Kareeparampil

GREAT Day

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a gene that codes for cell-surface proteins that are the basis of our bodies’ immune response. We observed two cell lines, HTB-4 and a non-cancerous cell line known as MRC-5. Our purpose for this experiment was to observe the effect of the cell cycle on HLA expression for these cell lines. Two flasks were prepared for each cell line: one confluent and one non-confluent. Flow cytometry analysis was performed for each of the four flasks. The flow cytometry results of the MRC-5 cells indicate increased HLA expression in the confluent flask, in the G1 phase ...


Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC), a rare primary liver cancer, differs from the most common liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, as FL-HCC is not correlated with chronic liver diseases. Mayo Clinic conducted a proteomic screening and found the proline biosynthetic pathway to be dysregulated in FL-HCC patients. In liver cells, free proline has been shown to induce the mTOR pathway, which stimulates cell proliferation through upregulation of full-length Cyclin E (FL-E). In addition, FL-E can be partially cleaved by an enzyme called serine protease neutrophil elastase, creating low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) that has been linked to tumorigenesis. To further investigate ...


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