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Polyhistidine Facilitates Direct Membrane Translocation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Into Cells, Han-Jung Lee, Yue-Wern Huang, Shiow-Her Chiou, Robert Aronstam 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Polyhistidine Facilitates Direct Membrane Translocation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Into Cells, Han-Jung Lee, Yue-Wern Huang, Shiow-Her Chiou, Robert Aronstam

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

The bovine lactoferricin L6 (RRWQWR) has been previously identified as a novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that is able to efficiently internalize into human cells. L6 interacts with quantum dots (QDs) noncovalently to generate stable L6/QD complexes that enter cells by endocytosis. In this study, we demonstrate a modified L6 (HL6; CHHHHHRRWQWRHHHHHC), in which short polyhistidine peptides are introduced into both flanks of L6, has enhanced cell-penetrating ability in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma A549 cells. The mechanism of cellular uptake of HL6/QD complexes is primarily direct membrane translocation rather than endocytosis. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), but not pyrenebutyrate (PB), ethanol, oleic ...


Oil Preference In Ants And Arthropod Diversity In Urban Environments, Itzel Guzman-Hernandez 2019 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Oil Preference In Ants And Arthropod Diversity In Urban Environments, Itzel Guzman-Hernandez

Honors Theses

The success of certain ant species in urban areas is largely unknown. Available food in the environment could affect the composition of ants in urban areas due to a possible relationship between ant physiology and diet. I tested the oil preference of ants as a function of available arthropod prey in urban environments. I hypothesized that as arthropod diversity decreased, ant abundance at oil baits would decrease. Oil is an important nutrient that can affect ant body functions and activities. Ant foraging activities have been found to be affected by lipid depletion. A food source where ants can obtain oil ...


Phylogenomics Resolves Major Relationships And Reveals Significant Diversification Rate Shifts In The Evolution Of Silk Moths And Relatives, J. R. Barber 2019 Boise State University

Phylogenomics Resolves Major Relationships And Reveals Significant Diversification Rate Shifts In The Evolution Of Silk Moths And Relatives, J. R. Barber

Jesse R. Barber

Background: Silkmoths and their relatives constitute the ecologically and taxonomically diverse superfamily Bombycoidea, which includes some of the most charismatic species of Lepidoptera. Despite displaying spectacular forms and diverse ecological traits, relatively little attention has been given to understanding their evolution and drivers of their diversity. To begin to address this problem, we created a new Bombycoidea-specific Anchored Hybrid Enrichment (AHE) probe set and sampled up to 571 loci for 117 taxa across all major lineages of the Bombycoidea, with a newly developed DNA extraction protocol that allows Lepidoptera specimens to be readily sequenced from pinned natural history collections.

Results ...


Loss Of Scribble Confers Cisplatin Resistance During Nsclc Chemotherapy Via Nox2/Ros And Nrf2/Pd-L1 Signaling, Na Wang, Lele Song, Yi Xu, Longfu Zhang, Yanjun Wu, Jingyu Guo, Weiwei Ji, Li Li Ph.D., Jingya Zhao, Xin Zhang, Lixing Zhan 2019 Molloy College

Loss Of Scribble Confers Cisplatin Resistance During Nsclc Chemotherapy Via Nox2/Ros And Nrf2/Pd-L1 Signaling, Na Wang, Lele Song, Yi Xu, Longfu Zhang, Yanjun Wu, Jingyu Guo, Weiwei Ji, Li Li Ph.D., Jingya Zhao, Xin Zhang, Lixing Zhan

Li Li

Background: Cisplatin resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to the successful treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Scribble contributes to ROS-induced inflammation and cisplatin-elevated toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes cell death. However, it is unknown whether and how Scribble is involved in the cisplatin-related cell death and the underlying mechanism of Scribble in response to chemotherapies and in the process of oxidative stress in NSCLC. Methods: We used two independent cohorts of NSCLC samples derived from patients treated with platinumcontaining chemotherapy and xenograft modeling in vivo. We analyzed the correlation between Scribble and Nox2 or Nrf2/PD-L1 both ...


Petri Nets As A Unifying Tool To Link Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic (Pbtk) Models To Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Ian Edhlund 2019 Illinois State University

Petri Nets As A Unifying Tool To Link Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic (Pbtk) Models To Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Ian Edhlund

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Integrating Mathematics And Biology In The Classroom: A Compendium Of Case Studies And Labs, Becky Sanft, Anne Walter 2019 University of North Carolina at Asheville

Integrating Mathematics And Biology In The Classroom: A Compendium Of Case Studies And Labs, Becky Sanft, Anne Walter

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Beyond The Binary (Part 1): Re-Envisioning The Complexity Of Life History Evolution In The Bromeliaceae With Comparative Data, Rachel Jabaily, Erin Bodine 2019 Rhodes College

Beyond The Binary (Part 1): Re-Envisioning The Complexity Of Life History Evolution In The Bromeliaceae With Comparative Data, Rachel Jabaily, Erin Bodine

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Oscillation In Mathematical Epidemiology, Meredith Greer 2019 Bates College

Oscillation In Mathematical Epidemiology, Meredith Greer

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Intrarectal Transmission, Systemic Infection, And Cd4+ T Cell Depletion In Humanized Mice Infected With Hiv-1, Zhifeng Sun, Paul W. Denton, Jacob D. Estes, Florence A. Othieno, Bangdong L. Wei, Anja K. Wege, Michael W. Melkus, Angela Padgett-Thomas, Mary Zupancic, Ashley T. Haase, J. Victor Garcia 2019 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

Intrarectal Transmission, Systemic Infection, And Cd4+ T Cell Depletion In Humanized Mice Infected With Hiv-1, Zhifeng Sun, Paul W. Denton, Jacob D. Estes, Florence A. Othieno, Bangdong L. Wei, Anja K. Wege, Michael W. Melkus, Angela Padgett-Thomas, Mary Zupancic, Ashley T. Haase, J. Victor Garcia

Paul W. Denton

Intrarectal infection between men who have sex with men represents a predominant form of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) transmission in developed countries. Currently there are no adequate small animal models that recapitulate intrarectal HIV transmission. Here we demonstrate that human lymphocytes generated in situ from hematopoietic stem cells reconstitute the gastrointestinal tract of humanized mice with human CD4+ T cells rendering them susceptible to intrarectal HIV transmission. HIV infection after a single intrarectal inoculation results in systemic infection with depletion of CD4+ T cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and other pathologic sequela that closely mimics those observed in HIV ...


Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting Hiv Infected Cells During Art, Paul W. Denton, Julie M. Long, Stephen W. Wietgrefe, Craig Sykes, Rae Ann Spagnuolo, Olivia D. Snyder, Katherine Perkey, Nancie M. Archin, Shailesh K. Choudhary, Kuo Yang, Michael G. Hudgens, Ira Pastan, Ashley T. Haase, Angela D. Kashuba, Edward A. Berger, David M. Margolis, J. Victor Garcia 2019 UNC Center for AIDS Research

Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting Hiv Infected Cells During Art, Paul W. Denton, Julie M. Long, Stephen W. Wietgrefe, Craig Sykes, Rae Ann Spagnuolo, Olivia D. Snyder, Katherine Perkey, Nancie M. Archin, Shailesh K. Choudhary, Kuo Yang, Michael G. Hudgens, Ira Pastan, Ashley T. Haase, Angela D. Kashuba, Edward A. Berger, David M. Margolis, J. Victor Garcia

Paul W. Denton

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART ...


Cryptopatches Are Essential For The Development Of Human Galt, Tomonori Nochi, Paul W. Denton, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia 2019 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Cryptopatches Are Essential For The Development Of Human Galt, Tomonori Nochi, Paul W. Denton, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia

Paul W. Denton

Abnormal gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in humans is associated with infectious and autoimmune diseases, which cause dysfunction of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract immune system. To aid in investigating GALT pathologies in vivo, we bioengineered a human-mouse chimeric model characterized by the development of human GALT structures originating in mouse cryptopatches. This observation expands our mechanistic understanding of the role of cryptopatches in human GALT genesis and emphasizes the evolutionary conservation of this developmental process. Immunoglobulin class switching to IgA occurs in these GALT structures, leading to numerous human IgAproducing plasma cells throughout the intestinal lamina propria. CD4+ T cell depletion ...


Hypogammaglobulinemia In Blt Humanized Mice – An Animal Model Of Primary Antibody Deficiency, Francisco Martinez-Torres, Tomonori Nochi, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia, Paul W. Denton 2019 Merz Pharma GmbH

Hypogammaglobulinemia In Blt Humanized Mice – An Animal Model Of Primary Antibody Deficiency, Francisco Martinez-Torres, Tomonori Nochi, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia, Paul W. Denton

Paul W. Denton

Primary antibody deficiencies present clinically as reduced or absent plasma antibodies without another identified disorder that could explain the low immunoglobulin levels. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice also exhibit primary antibody deficiency or hypogammaglobulinemia. Comprehensive characterization of B cell development and differentiation in BLT mice revealed other key parallels with primary immunodeficiency patients. We found that B cell ontogeny was normal in the bone marrow of BLT mice but observed an absence of switched memory B cells in the periphery. PC-KLH immunizations led to the presence of switched memory B cells in immunized BLT mice although plasma cells producing PCor ...


Humanized Mouse Models Of Hiv Infection, Paul W. Denton, J. Victor Garcia 2019 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Humanized Mouse Models Of Hiv Infection, Paul W. Denton, J. Victor Garcia

Paul W. Denton

Because of the limited tropism of HIV, in vivo modeling of this virus has been almost exclusively limited to other lentiviruses such as SIV that reproduce many important characteristics of HIV infection. However, there are significant genetic and biological differences among lentiviruses and some HIV-specific interventions are not effective against other lentiviruses in non-human hosts. For these reasons much emphasis has recently been placed on developing alternative animal models that support HIV replication and recapitulate key aspects of HIV infection and pathogenesis in humans. Humanized mice, CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell transplanted immunodeficient mice and in particular mice also implanted with ...


Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Prevents Vaginal Transmission Of Hiv-1 In Humanized Blt Mice, Paul W. Denton, Jacob D. Estes, Zhifeng Sun, Florence A. Othieno, Bangdong L. Wei, Anja K. Wege, Daniel A. Powell, Deborah A. Payne, Ashley T. Haase, J. Victor Garcia 2019 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Prevents Vaginal Transmission Of Hiv-1 In Humanized Blt Mice, Paul W. Denton, Jacob D. Estes, Zhifeng Sun, Florence A. Othieno, Bangdong L. Wei, Anja K. Wege, Daniel A. Powell, Deborah A. Payne, Ashley T. Haase, J. Victor Garcia

Paul W. Denton

Background: Worldwide, vaginal transmission now accounts for more than half of newly acquired HIV-1 infections. Despite the urgency to develop and implement novel approaches capable of preventing HIV transmission, this process has been hindered by the lack of adequate small animal models for preclinical efficacy and safety testing. Given the importance of this route of transmission, we investigated the susceptibility of humanized mice to intravaginal HIV-1 infection.

Methods and Findings: We show that the female reproductive tract of humanized bone marrow–liver–thymus (BLT) mice is reconstituted with human CD4þ T and other relevant human cells, rendering these humanized mice ...


Human Breast Milk And Antiretrovirals Dramatically Reduce Oral Hiv-1 Transmission In Blt Humanized Mice, Angela Wahl, Michael D. Swanson, Tomonori Nochi, Rikke Olesen, Paul W. Denton, Morgan Chateau, J. Victor Garcia 2019 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Human Breast Milk And Antiretrovirals Dramatically Reduce Oral Hiv-1 Transmission In Blt Humanized Mice, Angela Wahl, Michael D. Swanson, Tomonori Nochi, Rikke Olesen, Paul W. Denton, Morgan Chateau, J. Victor Garcia

Paul W. Denton

Currently, over 15% of new HIV infections occur in children. Breastfeeding is a major contributor to HIV infections in infants. This represents a major paradox in the field because in vitro, breast milk has been shown to have a strong inhibitory effect on HIV infectivity. However, this inhibitory effect has never been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we address this important paradox using the first humanized mouse model of oral HIV transmission. We established that reconstitution of the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mice with human leukocytes, including the human cell types ...


Microwave Solventless Synthesis Of Meso-Tetrakis (Pentafluorophenyl)Poprphyrin (Tppf20) And Tris(Pentafluorophenyl))Corrole [Chemistry], Sunaina Singh 2019 CUNY La Guardia Community College

Microwave Solventless Synthesis Of Meso-Tetrakis (Pentafluorophenyl)Poprphyrin (Tppf20) And Tris(Pentafluorophenyl))Corrole [Chemistry], Sunaina Singh

Open Educational Resources

Organic chemistry is a two-semester course (Organic Chemistry I, SCC 251 and Organic Chemistry II, SCC 252) required for majors in Biology. The SCC 251 course has been designated for the Integrative Learning Core Competency as well the Digital Communication Ability. This course emphasizes the synthesis, structure, reactivity, and mechanisms of reaction of organic compounds. Laboratory stresses various organic synthetic and analytic techniques (distillation, extraction, chromatography and spectroscopy).

This lab provided an opportunity for students to go deeper with the chemistry content by correlating to the concepts they learned in General Chemistry courses such as Valence shell electron pair repulsion ...


Insect Population Dynamics, Varietal Preference And Performance Of Organic Bio-Pesticides, Anitha Chitturi, Jeanine Davis, Margaret Bloomquist, Franklin Quarcoo, Kokoasse Kpomblekou-A, Desmond Mortley 2019 Tuskegee University

Insect Population Dynamics, Varietal Preference And Performance Of Organic Bio-Pesticides, Anitha Chitturi, Jeanine Davis, Margaret Bloomquist, Franklin Quarcoo, Kokoasse Kpomblekou-A, Desmond Mortley

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Organic farming prohibits use of synthetic agrochemicals and encourages use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods. States in the Southeastern US generally lag behind the rest of the country in organic vegetable production partly because of high insect pressures that make it difficult to grow vegetables without pesticides. This study on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo), grown using organic management practices, was conducted at a research station located in Mills River, North Carolina. The objectives of the study were to assess insect population dynamics and to evaluate performance of three OMRI-approved bio-pesticides: Azadirachtin, Pyrethrin and Spinosad against major insect pests ...


Titration Of A Newtown Creek Environmental Water Sample To Determine The Amount Of Chloride Ions [Chemistry], Kevin Mark 2019 CUNY La Guardia Community College

Titration Of A Newtown Creek Environmental Water Sample To Determine The Amount Of Chloride Ions [Chemistry], Kevin Mark

Open Educational Resources

Main Course Learning Objectives:

The General Chemistry 1 (SCC 201) course has multiple course learning objectives, which articulate key introductory chemistry concepts that all STEM students should possess. In particular, the Newtown Creek titration experiment aligns with SCC 201 learning objectives of:

  1. Demonstrate an appreciation of the role of chemistry in various aspects of life
  2. Perform basic laboratory skills such as the proper execution of titration techniques
  3. Describe and explain the fundamental chemistry concept of solution concentration
  4. Analyze and represent experimental data in tables and graphs, interpret experimental results and write laboratory reports

In the SCC 201 laboratory, students are ...


Materials Collected By The Southern Branch Of The Uc Africa Expedition With A Report On Previously Unpublished Plio-Pleistocene Fossil Localities, Tesla A. Monson, Marianne F. Brasil, Leslea J. Hlusko 2019 UC Berkeley

Materials Collected By The Southern Branch Of The Uc Africa Expedition With A Report On Previously Unpublished Plio-Pleistocene Fossil Localities, Tesla A. Monson, Marianne F. Brasil, Leslea J. Hlusko

Tesla Monson

From 1947 to 1948, paleontologists from the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP), Charles Camp and Frank Peabody, led the southern branch of the University of California’s Africa Expedition. While in South Africa, Camp and Peabody collected thousands of specimens excavated from more than 70 sites, 40 of which make up the Plio-Pleistocene South African assemblage at the UCMP. Materials collected by researchers accompanying the expedition are held at numerous repositories on the University of California Berkeley campus including the UCMP, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ), the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology and the University of ...


Why We Can’T Solve The Opioid Problem, Wayne F. Coombs, Ph.D. 2019 None

Why We Can’T Solve The Opioid Problem, Wayne F. Coombs, Ph.D.

Journal of Appalachian Health

Appalachia’s opioid epidemic is a complex, systemic problem being addressed by limited intervention processes conceptualized through narrow disciplinary models that are not working. We need a new comprehensive, collaborative approach if we ever hope to find solutions to this problem.


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