Enhanced Cas12a Editing In Mammalian Cells And Zebrafish, 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Enhanced Cas12a Editing In Mammalian Cells And Zebrafish, Pengpeng Liu, Kevin Luk, Masahiro Shin, Feston Idrizi, Samantha F. Kwok, Benjamin P. Roscoe, Esther Mintzer, Sneha Suresh, Kyle Morrison, Josias B. Frazao, Mehmet Fatih Bolukbasi, Karthikeyan Ponnienselvan, Jeremy Luban, Lihua Julie Zhu, Nathan D. Lawson, Scot A. Wolfe
Open Access Articles
Type V CRISPR-Cas12a systems provide an alternate nuclease platform to Cas9, with potential advantages for specific genome editing applications. Here we describe improvements to the Cas12a system that facilitate efficient targeted mutagenesis in mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos. We show that engineered variants of Cas12a with two different nuclear localization sequences (NLS) on the C terminus provide increased editing efficiency in mammalian cells. Additionally, we find that pre-crRNAs comprising a full-length direct repeat (full-DR-crRNA) sequence with specific stem-loop G-C base substitutions exhibit increased editing efficiencies compared with the standard mature crRNA framework. Finally, we demonstrate in zebrafish embryos that the ...
Studies On Luminescent Gold And Platinum Nanoclusters For Biological Sensing And Catalysis, 2019 University of Mississippi
Studies On Luminescent Gold And Platinum Nanoclusters For Biological Sensing And Catalysis, Richard Covington
Nanoclusters are small nanoparticles that usually range around a micrometer in diameter. Gold Nanoclusters are known for their unique size and surface qualities and do not share metallic properties with nanoparticles or their respective bulk material. Some metal nanoclusters show high fluorescence and can be synthesized with protein mediation. Nanocluster formation depends on a number of variables, including temperature, pH, and type of reducing agent. This experiment was done to begin to understand how these variables may affect synthesis and what exactly they are. Pure Wild Type CSP-1 protein was induced, transformed, and purified in order to mediate gold and ...
Synthesis And Evaluation Of Novel Silica Hydride-Based Stationary Phases For Bioanalytical Application, 2019 San José State University
Synthesis And Evaluation Of Novel Silica Hydride-Based Stationary Phases For Bioanalytical Application, Seiichiro Watanabe
Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, 2019 Collin College
Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan
Independent Research Paper
Research in progress for PHYS 2426: University Physics II
Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.
The following paper represents research work done by students in a University Physics 2426 class, the second half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus-based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or ...
Circular Dichroism And Molecular Modeling Yield A Structure For The Complex Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Trans-Activation Response Rna And The Binding Region Of Tat, The Trans-Acting Transcriptional Activator, 2019 Marshall University
Circular Dichroism And Molecular Modeling Yield A Structure For The Complex Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Trans-Activation Response Rna And The Binding Region Of Tat, The Trans-Acting Transcriptional Activator, Erwann P. Loret, Philippe T. Georgel, W. Curtis Johnson Jr., Pui Shing Ho
Philippe T. Georgel
Transcription in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) retrovirus is regulated by binding the viral Tat protein (trans-acting transcriptional activator) to the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA sequence. Here, vacuum UV circular dichroism (VUV-CD) is used to study the structure of TAR and its complex with two peptide fragments that are important for Tat binding to TAR. The VUV-CD spectrum of TAR is typical of A-form RNA and is minimally perturbed when bound to either the short or the long Tat peptide. The CD spectra ofthe complexes indicate an extended structure in the argnine-rich region of Tat from amino acid ...
Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, 2019 University of the Incarnate Word
Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers
No abstract provided.
Decrypting Female Attractivity In Garter Snakes, 2019 James Madison University
Decrypting Female Attractivity In Garter Snakes, Holly Rucker
Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current
Pheromones are utilized by many species as sexual signals driving mate choice, and pheromone production in vertebrates hinges on sex hormone action. Female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) produce a skin-based sex pheromone used by males for mate detection and selection. Estradiol is necessary for pheromone production, yet the specific mechanisms within the skin are unknown. Central to this is the metabolism of testosterone to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase. It is hypothesized that female garter snakes synthesize estradiol locally in the skin and maintain pheromone production via tissue-specific regulation of aromatase. Further, I hypothesize that female attractiveness, and ...
Experimental Evidence Supportive Of The Quantum Dna Model, 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Experimental Evidence Supportive Of The Quantum Dna Model, F. Matthew Mihelic
The DNA molecule can be modeled as a quantum logic processor in which electron spin qubits are held coherently in each nucleotide in a logically and thermodynamically reversible enantiomeric symmetry, and can be coherently conducted along the pi-stacking interactions of aromatic nucleotide bases, while simultaneously being spin-filtered via the helicity of the DNA molecule. Entangled electron pairs can be separated by that spin-filtering, held coherently at biological temperatures in the topologically insulated nucleotide quantum gates, and incorporated into separate DNA strands during DNA replication. Two separate DNA strands that share quantum entangled electrons can be mitotically divided into individual cells ...
When Life Gives You Lemons: Comparing Two Diffusion Methods For A Psychological Screening Tool In The Medical Field, 2019 University of Mississippi
When Life Gives You Lemons: Comparing Two Diffusion Methods For A Psychological Screening Tool In The Medical Field, Jessica Tran
E.M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory is used to explain the process of how an idea or technology gains momentum and spreads through a particular population. The result of the diffusion is called adoption, meaning that over time the group has changed their initial behavior (i.e. using the new technology, purchasing and performing new behavior, etc.). There is considerable evidence for successful use of this theory in various fields. The study investigates the theory using a new psychological screening technology. A solicitation to hear information about the tool was presented to 19 physicians who were separated into two ...
The Worlds Of Splicing And Chromatin Collide, 2019 Marshall University
The Worlds Of Splicing And Chromatin Collide, J. Adam Hall, Philippe T. Georgel
Philippe T. Georgel
Both transcription and splicing take place in a nuclear environment which, at face value, may seem refractory to the efficiency afforded by the coupling of both processes. This environment, chromatin, was once viewed as only a passive packaging system for genetic material, with very little contribution to the variety of nuclear activities occurring within and around it. However, overwhelming evidence now points to the chromatin environment as being highly dynamic, and an active player in nuclear activities.
Biotransformation Of Natural Antioxidants Osajin And Pomiferin By Cunninghamella Elegans (Atcc® 9245tm), 2019 University of the Incarnate Word
Biotransformation Of Natural Antioxidants Osajin And Pomiferin By Cunninghamella Elegans (Atcc® 9245tm), Stephen Luis
Theses & Dissertations
Osajin and pomiferin, prenylated isoflavones extracted from the fruit of the osage orange tree (Maclura pomifera) have been reported as antioxidant compounds. The purpose of this study is to analyze the metabolization of osajin and pomiferin by the fungi Cunninghamella elegans (ATCC 9245) and supporting strains Umbelopsis ramanniana and Aspergillus fumigatus fresnius.
HPLC analysis of the extracts showed new, more polar compounds were formed, evidenced by peaks at lower retention times for each strain of fungi. To further investigate the metabolites produced, HPLC-guided chromatographic purification will be performed, and the pure metabolites will be analyzed through nuclear magnetic resonance and ...
Pre-Administration Of Medium Chain Triglycerides In Vivo Can Attenuate Or Block The Effects Of Recurrent Hypoglycemia, 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York
Pre-Administration Of Medium Chain Triglycerides In Vivo Can Attenuate Or Block The Effects Of Recurrent Hypoglycemia, Dhanisha Nandigama
Hypoglycemia is a state of abnormally low blood glucose. Many patients who use insulin, primarily for the treatment of diabetes, experience multiple bouts of hypoglycemia, termed recurrent hypoglycemia (RH). Because RH impairs cognitive function and ability to appropriately respond to a subsequent episode of hypoglycemia, it is critical to develop treatments. One approach, which we have taken here, is to attempt to preserve neuronal fuel supply during a hypoglycemic episode. Medium-chain triglycerides are medium-chain fatty acid (MCT) esters of glycerol that can provide an alternative fuel source to the brain via ketones; the hippocampus is known to express transporters for ...
Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu
Theses and Dissertations
Ipomoeassin F is a flagship congener of a resin glycoside family that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with only single-digital nanomolar IC50 values. However, biological and pharmacological mechanisms of ipomoeassin F have been undefined. To facilitate exploration of the biological and pharmacological properties, we performed sophisticate SAR (Structure–activity relationship) studies of ipomoeassin F to understand its pharmacophore and structure properties so that we can design favorable probes for further biological investigation. By applying appropriate deviates that possess fluorescent groups and similar bio-activity, the target protein was found to be localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Through biotin affinity ...
Relationships Of Protein Biomarkers Of The Urokinase Plasminogen Activator System With Expression Of Their Cognate Genes In Primary Breast Carcinomas., Seth B. Sereff
College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses
Background: Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor uPAR and serine protease inhibitors PAI-1 or PAI-2 play key roles in tissue membrane remodeling and invasion of basement membranes by induction of a fibrinolytic pathway. Earlier studies reported that uPA and PAI-1 protein levels in breast carcinomas assist in prediction of response to chemotherapy. Our goal is to develop molecular signatures of candidate genes and identify novel relationships with these four protein biomarkers that demonstrate clinical utility for assessment of breast carcinoma outcomes.
Methods: This retrospective study used de-identified biomarker results and clinical outcomes from primary breast cancers that were stored in ...
Effect Of Turmeric On The Promoter Activity Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster, 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Effect Of Turmeric On The Promoter Activity Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Alexa Stroh
Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects
No abstract provided.
Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
The eukaryotic cytosolic proteome is vulnerable to changes in proteostatic and redox balance caused by temperature, pH, oxidants and xenobiotics. Cysteine-containing proteins are especially at risk as the thiol side chain is subject to oxidation, adduction and chelation by thiol-reactive compounds. All of these thiol-modifiers have been demonstrated to induce the heat shock response and recruit protein chaperones to sites of presumed protein aggregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, endogenous targets of thiol stress toxicity responsible for these outcomes are largely unknown. Furthermore, I hypothesize proteins identified as redox-active are prone to misfolding and aggregation by thiol-specific stress ...
Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin
Open Access Articles
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) development is relevant to understanding energy homeostasis and obesity. The AKT kinases are insulin effectors with critical in vivo functions in adipocytes; however, their role in adipocyte development remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate AKT function in BAT development.
METHODS: We conditionally deleted Akt1 and Akt2 either individually or together with Myf5-Cre, which targets early mesenchymal precursors that give rise to brown adipocytes. Because Myf5-Cre also targets skeletal muscle and some white adipocyte lineages, comparisons were made between AKT function in BAT versus white ...
Regulation Of The Drosophila Imd Pathway By Signaling Amyloids, 2019 Aarhus University
Regulation Of The Drosophila Imd Pathway By Signaling Amyloids, Anni Kleino, Neal S. Silverman
Open Access Articles
Fruit flies elicit effective defense responses against numerous microbes. The responses against Gram-negative bacteria are mediated by the Imd pathway, an evolutionarily conserved NF-kappaB pathway recognizing meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan from bacterial cell walls. Several reviews already provide a detailed view of ligand recognition and signal transduction during Imd signaling, but the formation and regulation of the signaling complex immediately downstream of the peptidoglycan-sensing receptors is still elusive. In this review, we focus on the formation of the Imd amyloidal signaling center and post-translational modifications in the assembly and disassembly of the Imd signaling complex.
Transformation Of Model Organisms With Munc13-1 For Subcloning And Protein Harvesting, 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi
Transformation Of Model Organisms With Munc13-1 For Subcloning And Protein Harvesting, Grace Dittmar
Exocytosis is the process by which cells release various molecules into the extracellular space. This mechanism is accomplished by membrane fusion, in which the membrane of the transport vesicle and that of the cell itself fuse to create one continuous membrane, allowing the release of the molecules inside the vesicle. A family of proteins, known as SNARE proteins, is responsible for facilitating membrane fusion. SNARE proteins form a complex between the vesicle membrane and the plasma membrane. For various cells, such as mast cells and neurons, exocytosis is essential to carry out their vital functions. Various accessory proteins are known ...
The Effect Of Cysteine-Reactive Catechol Antioxidants On Alcohol Dehydrogenase As A Model For Oxidative Stress In Neurodegenerative Disease, Rachel Smith
Undergraduate Honors Theses
The cellular mechanisms underlying age-related neurodegeneration, especially in disease states, are poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been heavily implicated as one factor both produced by and contributing to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In particular, it can destroy a cell’s ability to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic respiration, thus leading to the death of individual cells and brain tissues as a whole. This study focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and energy production in disease states. In particular, we examine the ability of catechol molecules to take on pro-oxidative properties and modify ...