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12,633 full-text articles. Page 409 of 435.

Small Rnas Prevent Transcription-Coupled Erosion Of Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Raymond Enke, Z. Dong, J. Bender 2010 James Madison University

Small Rnas Prevent Transcription-Coupled Erosion Of Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Raymond Enke, Z. Dong, J. Bender

Ray Enke Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Evolution Of Domain Co-Occurrences: Some Striking Results, Arli A. Parikesit, Peter F. Stadler, Sonja J. Prohaska 2010 University of Indonesia

Evolution Of Domain Co-Occurrences: Some Striking Results, Arli A. Parikesit, Peter F. Stadler, Sonja J. Prohaska

Arli A Parikesit

No abstract provided.


Enhancement Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production And Chlamydial Infection By The Mitochondrial Nod-Like Family Member Nlrx1, Ali A. Abdul-Sater, Najwene Saïd-Sadier, Verissa M. Lam, Bhavni Singh, Matthew A. Pettengill, Fraser Soares, Ivan Tattoli, Simone Lipinski, Stephen E. Girardin, Philip Rosenstiel, David M. Ojcius 2010 University of California, Merced

Enhancement Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production And Chlamydial Infection By The Mitochondrial Nod-Like Family Member Nlrx1, Ali A. Abdul-Sater, Najwene Saïd-Sadier, Verissa M. Lam, Bhavni Singh, Matthew A. Pettengill, Fraser Soares, Ivan Tattoli, Simone Lipinski, Stephen E. Girardin, Philip Rosenstiel, David M. Ojcius

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Chlamydia trachomatis infections cause severe and irreversible damage that can lead to infertility and blindness in both males and females. Following infection of epithelial cells, Chlamydia induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Unconventionally, Chlamydiae use ROS to their advantage by activating caspase-1, which contributes to chlamydial growth. NLRX1, a member of the Nod-like receptor family that translocates to the mitochondria, can augment ROS production from the mitochondria following Shigella flexneri infections. However, in general, ROS can also be produced by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. Given the importance of ROS-induced caspase-1 activation in growth of the chlamydial vacuole, we investigated the ...


Characterization Of The Role Of Nicotine And Delta 9-Thc In Modulation Of Neuroinflammation, Jared Ehrhart 2010 University of South Florida

Characterization Of The Role Of Nicotine And Delta 9-Thc In Modulation Of Neuroinflammation, Jared Ehrhart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Neuroinflammation is a major driving force in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as cannabinoid CB2 receptors, have been shown to have strong anti-inflammatory properties when activated. These effects are shown, in vivo, to be a result of stimulation of α7 nAChRs and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Microglia cells, an immune cell in the brain, are shown to express both of these receptor subtypes. The studies detailed herein, investigated the ability of two compounds, nicotine and Δ9-THC, in modulation of inflammatory processes. Stimulation of these receptors on microglia using nicotine and Δ9-THC blocked the activation of these ...


Strategies To Resolve The Three-Dimensional Structure Of The Genome Of Small Single-Stranded Icosahedral Viruses, Eduardo Sanz Garcia 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

Strategies To Resolve The Three-Dimensional Structure Of The Genome Of Small Single-Stranded Icosahedral Viruses, Eduardo Sanz Garcia

Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study is the three-dimensional structural characterization of the genome packaging inside viral capsids via cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. The genome of some single-stranded viruses can be densely packaged within their capsid shells. Several stretches of the genome are known to adopt stable secondary structures, however, to date, little is known about the three-dimensional organization of the genome inside their capsid shells. Two techniques have been developed to facilitate the structural elucidation of genome packaging: the asymmetric random-model method, and the symmetry-mismatch, random model method. Both techniques were successfully tested with model and experimental data. The ...


Structure-Based Design Of Inhibitors Targeting Influenza A Virus M2 Proton Channel (A/M2), Jun Wang 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Structure-Based Design Of Inhibitors Targeting Influenza A Virus M2 Proton Channel (A/M2), Jun Wang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Influenza A virus M2 (A/M2) forms a homotetrameric channel in viral membranes that is highly selective for protons. A/M2 has been extensively studied by electrophysiologists, biophysicists, structural biologists and biochemists in order to understand the mechanism and selectivity of proton conductance from the structural basis. Medicinal chemists have also studied A/M2 as therapeutic target for anti-flu drugs. However, research on A/M2 drug binding lead to entirely different binding sites of two very similar anti-flu drugs. In light of the urgency in developing novel antivirals against drug resistant A/M2 mutants, it is imperative to solve this ...


Nucleoside Modifications Suppress Rna Activation Of Cytoplasmic Rna Sensors, Bart R. Anderson 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Nucleoside Modifications Suppress Rna Activation Of Cytoplasmic Rna Sensors, Bart R. Anderson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Multiple innate defense pathways exist to recognize and defend against foreign nucleic acids. Unlike innate immune receptors that recognize structures specific for pathogens that are not shared by mammalian hosts — for example, toll-like receptor (TLR)4-lipopolysaccharide, TLR5-flagellin, NOD1 and 2-peptidoglycan — all nucleic acids are made from four components that are identical from bacteria to man. Nucleoside modifications are prevalent in nature but vary greatly in their distribution and frequency, and therefore could serve as patterns for recognition of pathogenic nucleic acids. The presence of modified nucleosides in RNA reduces the activation of RNA-sensing TLRs and retinoic acid inducible gene I ...


The Tumor Suppressor Protein P53 And The Antagonizing Oncoprotein E6 From Human Papillomavirus Type 16, Kimberly A. Malecka 2010 University of Pennsylvania

The Tumor Suppressor Protein P53 And The Antagonizing Oncoprotein E6 From Human Papillomavirus Type 16, Kimberly A. Malecka

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The tumor suppressor protein p53 transactivates genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, cellular stress and some oncogenic proteins. The wild type polypeptide chain of p53 has four distinct domains, including the sequence specific DNA binding core domain and the C terminal tetramerization domain. p53 must retain its ability to oligomerize and bind DNA targets in vivo to fulfill its function. Using X-ray crystallography and a crosslinking strategy, the structure of a wild type tetrameric p53 core domain bound to its consensus sequence was solved. This structure gives insight into DNA bend, core domain-DNA ...


A Study Of Molecular Adsorption And Transport At Cell Membrane And Biologically Relevant Surfaces By Second Harmonic Generation, Jia Zeng 2010 University of Pennsylvania

A Study Of Molecular Adsorption And Transport At Cell Membrane And Biologically Relevant Surfaces By Second Harmonic Generation, Jia Zeng

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Most of the biological processes in living systems involve molecular adsorption and transport at biomembranes. It is highly desired to study the time-resolved transport kinetics through living cell membranes. In this thesis, an experimental means based on a nonlinear optical phenomenon, Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) has been demonstrated to detect the molecular adsorption and transport through living cell membranes in real time and to evaluate the salt ion effects on adsorption processes in biologically relevant colloidal systems. In the case of gram-negative bacteria, E.coli, a hydrophobic cation, Malachite Green (MG) has been observed to adsorb onto the cell surface ...


Characterization Of Thap10 And Thap11 As Transcriptional Repressors In Dna Damage And Colon Cancer Progression, James B. Parker 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Characterization Of Thap10 And Thap11 As Transcriptional Repressors In Dna Damage And Colon Cancer Progression, James B. Parker

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The THAP (Thanatos associated protein) domain is an evolutionarily conserved zinc-finger motif highly similar to the sequence specific DNA binding domain of Drosophila P element transposase. Emerging data suggest THAP proteins may function in DNA and chromatin dependent processes, including transcription. However, the transcriptional regulatory function, mechanisms of action, and role of most THAP proteins in normal and aberrant cellular processes remain largely unknown.

In this thesis, we demonstrate that several human THAP proteins contain transcriptional repressor activity and specifically identify THAP10 and THAP11 as differentially expressed in human DNA damage and colon cancer progression, respectively. THAP10 and THAP11 repressed ...


Utilizing Genetically Engineered Mouse Models Of Pancreatic Cancer: Evaluating The Role Of Cathepsin B And The Efficacy Of Farnesyl Thiosalicylic Acid, Aarthi Gopinathan 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Utilizing Genetically Engineered Mouse Models Of Pancreatic Cancer: Evaluating The Role Of Cathepsin B And The Efficacy Of Farnesyl Thiosalicylic Acid, Aarthi Gopinathan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

I have utilized genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic cancer to identify a potential new therapeutic target, and to test the efficacy of a putative ras inhibitor. In the first part, I show that cathepsin B is upregulated during disease progression in the mouse pancreas, as is overall cathepsin activity. Loss of cathepsin B decreases preinvasive disease burden and imparts a significant survival benefit, with a consistent decrease in proliferation. In addition, lack of cathepsin B also decreases the burden of liver metastasis. Phospho-Erk localization appears to be affected by cathepsin B loss, which may account for the defect in ...


Ku Can Contribute To Telomere Lengthening In Yeast At Multiple Positions In The Telomerase Rnp, David C. Zappulla, Karen J. Goodrich, Julian R. Arthur, Lisa A. Gurski, Elizabeth M. Denham, Anne E. Stellwagen, Thomas R. Cech 2010 Johns Hopkins University

Ku Can Contribute To Telomere Lengthening In Yeast At Multiple Positions In The Telomerase Rnp, David C. Zappulla, Karen J. Goodrich, Julian R. Arthur, Lisa A. Gurski, Elizabeth M. Denham, Anne E. Stellwagen, Thomas R. Cech

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Contributions (1986-2018)

Unlike ribonucleoprotein complexes that have a highly ordered overall architecture, such as the ribosome, yeast telomerase appears to be much more loosely constrained. Here, we investigate the importance of positioning of the Ku subunit within the 1157-nt yeast telomerase RNA (TLC1). Deletion of the 48-nt Ku-binding hairpin in TLC1 RNA (tlc1Δ48) reduces telomere length, survival of cells with gross chromosomal rearrangements, and de novo telomere addition at a broken chromosome end. To test the function of Ku at novel positions in the telomerase RNP, we reintroduced its binding site into tlc1Δ48 RNA at position 446 or 1029. We found that ...


Molecular Characterisation Of Canine Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Activated Gene (Nag-1), K Yamaguchi, Nichelle Whitlock, Jason Liggett, Alfred Legendre, Michael Fry, Seung Baek 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Molecular Characterisation Of Canine Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Activated Gene (Nag-1), K Yamaguchi, Nichelle Whitlock, Jason Liggett, Alfred Legendre, Michael Fry, Seung Baek

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1), a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, was previously identified as a gene induced by several anti-tumorigenic compounds, including NSAIDs and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands in humans. In this study, canine NAG-1 was characterised from a canine genomic database. Gene induction by some NSAIDs and PPARgamma ligands was demonstrated in canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that canine NAG-1 is more homologous with the corresponding mouse and rat genes than with human NAG-1. Expression of canine NAG-1 was increased by treatment with piroxicam and SC-560 (NSAIDs) and ...


Distinct Functions For The Drosophila Pirna Pathway In Genome Maintenance And Telomere Protection, Jaspreet S. Khurana, Jia Xu, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Distinct Functions For The Drosophila Pirna Pathway In Genome Maintenance And Telomere Protection, Jaspreet S. Khurana, Jia Xu, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf

Open Access Articles

Transposons and other selfish DNA elements can be found in all phyla, and mobilization of these elements can compromise genome integrity. The piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) pathway silences transposons in the germline, but it is unclear if this pathway has additional functions during development. Here we show that mutations in the Drosophila piRNA pathway genes, armi, aub, ago3, and rhi, lead to extensive fragmentation of the zygotic genome during the cleavage stage of embryonic divisions. Additionally, aub and armi show defects in telomere resolution during meiosis and the cleavage divisions; and mutations in lig-IV, which disrupt non-homologous end joining, suppress these ...


Isolation Of Class Ii Shsp 17.0 From Zea Maize For Future Studies In Chaperone Activity And Subunit Exchange, Michele Schleich, Hannah Tims 2010 Messiah College

Isolation Of Class Ii Shsp 17.0 From Zea Maize For Future Studies In Chaperone Activity And Subunit Exchange, Michele Schleich, Hannah Tims

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous proteins that act as molecular chaperones under heat stress in a vast range of organisms. These proteins bind and hold in a stable conformation partially unfolded or heat-denatured intracellular proteins. Under non-stressful conditions, sHsps can be found in oligomeric assemblies with the oligomers acting as storage units for dimers and monomers. As temperatures increase to stressful levels, these oligomers dissociate into suboligomeric species, the dimer being the preferred species, to permit binding of substrate. Following substrate binding, oligomeric species may reform, and contain a variable number of sHsp:substrate complexes depending on the ...


Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Silanes And Patterning On Silicon, Feng Zhang 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Silanes And Patterning On Silicon, Feng Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) are widely used for surface modification. Alkylsilane monolayers are one of the most widely deposited and studied SAMs. My work focuses on the preparation, patterning, and application of alkysilane monolayers. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) is one of the most popular silanes used to make active surfaces for surface modification. To possibly improve the surface physical properties and increase options for processing this material, I prepared and studied a series of amino silane surfaces on silicon/silicon dioxide from APTES and two other related silanes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). I also explored CVD of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane on silicon and ...


The Role Of The Mcm2 Subunit In Regulating The Activities Of The Mcm2-7 Helicase, Brent E. Stead 2010 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of The Mcm2 Subunit In Regulating The Activities Of The Mcm2-7 Helicase, Brent E. Stead

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The transmission of genetic information from parental to daughter cells requires the faithful duplication of an organism’s genome. Uncontrolled DNA replication can result in proliferative diseases, such as cancer. DNA replication requires a single-stranded DNA template to be produced from duplex DNA. In eukaryotes, DNA unwinding for replication is performed by the heterohexameric replicative helicase complex comprised of the minichromosome maintenance proteins 2 through 7.

Each of the Mcm2-7 subunits likely has a unique role in DNA binding and unwinding by the Mcm2-7 complex. The present study examines the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm2 subunit in regulating the ...


Identification Of Regions Responsible For The Open Conformation Of S100a10 Using Chimaeric S100a11/S100a10 Proteins, Liliana Santamaria-Kisiel 2010 The University of Western Ontario

Identification Of Regions Responsible For The Open Conformation Of S100a10 Using Chimaeric S100a11/S100a10 Proteins, Liliana Santamaria-Kisiel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

S100A11 is a dimeric, EF-hand calcium-binding protein. Calcium binding to S100A11 results in a large conformational change that uncovers a broad hydrophobic surface used to interact with phospholipid-binding proteins (annexins A1 and A2), and facilitate membrane vesiculation events. In contrast to other S100 proteins, S100A10 is unable to bind calcium due to deletion and substitution of calcium-ligating residues. Despite this, calcium-free S100A10 assumes an “open” conformation that is very similar to S100A11 in its calcium-bound state (Ca2+-S100A11). To understand how S100A10 is able to adopt an open conformation in the absence of calcium, seven chimeric proteins were constructed where ...


10th Annual Senior Research Symposium Of The Department Of Biological Sciences, Chemistry And Biochemistry, Messiah College 2010 Messiah College

10th Annual Senior Research Symposium Of The Department Of Biological Sciences, Chemistry And Biochemistry, Messiah College

School of Science, Engineering & Health (SEH) Symposium

No abstract provided.


Structural Insights Into Dna Replication And Lesion Bypass By Y Family Dna Polymerases, Kevin N. Kirouac 2010 The University of Western Ontario

Structural Insights Into Dna Replication And Lesion Bypass By Y Family Dna Polymerases, Kevin N. Kirouac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Y family DNA polymerases are specialized enzymes for replication through sites of DNA damage in the genome. Although the DNA damage bypass activity of these enzymes is important for genome maintenance and integrity, it is also responsible for DNA mutagenesis due to the error-prone nature of the Y family. Understanding how these enzymes select incoming nucleotides during DNA replication will give insight into their role in cancer formation, aging, and evolution. This work attempts to mechanistically explain, primarily through X-ray crystallography and enzymatic activity assays, how Y family polymerases select incoming nucleotides in various DNA replication contexts. Initially, we sought ...


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