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Plasticity Of Acquired Secondary Metabolites In Clathria Prolifera (Demospongia: Poecilosclerida): Putative Photoprotective Role Of Carotenoids In A Temperate Intertidal Sponge, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Drew Sieg, Malcolm Hill, Chris M. Manieri, Giles Thomson 2010 University of Richmond

Plasticity Of Acquired Secondary Metabolites In Clathria Prolifera (Demospongia: Poecilosclerida): Putative Photoprotective Role Of Carotenoids In A Temperate Intertidal Sponge, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Drew Sieg, Malcolm Hill, Chris M. Manieri, Giles Thomson

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Several marine sponges sequester high concentrations of carotenoids in their tissues. The diversity of carotenoid compounds has been described in detail for a handful of species, but to date, little attention has been paid to natural variability in the concentration and constituency of carotenoid pools. Also lacking are experimental tests of some of the proposed adaptive benefits of carotenoids to the sponge. To address some of these deficits in our understanding of sponge ecology, we used a combination of analytic chemistry, field surveys, and manipulative experiments to determine what function these compounds might play. Attention was focused on the common ...


Hydrogenase-3 Contributes To Anaerobic Acid Resistance Of Escherichia Coli, Joan Slonczewski, Ken Noguchi, Daniel P. Riggins, Khalid C. Eldahan, Ryan D. Kitko 2010 Kenyon College

Hydrogenase-3 Contributes To Anaerobic Acid Resistance Of Escherichia Coli, Joan Slonczewski, Ken Noguchi, Daniel P. Riggins, Khalid C. Eldahan, Ryan D. Kitko

Faculty Publications

Background: Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H2 production involves consumption of 2H+ , hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2–2.5) that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5–6). Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using ...


Osmolytes Contribute To Ph Homeostasis Of Escherichia Coli, Joan Slonczewski, Ryan D. Kitko, Jessica C. Wilks, Gian M. Garduque 2010 Kenyon College

Osmolytes Contribute To Ph Homeostasis Of Escherichia Coli, Joan Slonczewski, Ryan D. Kitko, Jessica C. Wilks, Gian M. Garduque

Faculty Publications

Background: Cytoplasmic pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli includes numerous mechanisms involving pH-dependent catabolism and ion fluxes. An important contributor is transmembrane K+ flux, but the actual basis of K+ compensation for pH stress remains unclear. Osmoprotection could mediate the pH protection afforded by K+ and other osmolytes. Methods and Principal Findings: The cytoplasmic pH of E. coli K-12 strains was measured by GFPmut3 fluorimetry. The wild-type strain Frag1 was exposed to rapid external acidification by HCl addition. Recovery of cytoplasmic pH was enhanced equally by supplementation with NaCl, KCl, proline, or sucrose. A triple mutant strain TK2420 defective for the ...


On The Mechanism Of Protein Fold-Switching By A Molecular Sensor, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

On The Mechanism Of Protein Fold-Switching By A Molecular Sensor, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

Alternate frame folding (AFF) is a mechanism by which conformational change can be engineered into a protein. The protein structure switches from the wild-type fold (N) to a circularly-permuted fold (N'), or vice versa, in response to a signaling event such as ligand binding. Despite the fact that the two native states have similar structures, their interconversion involves folding and unfolding of large parts of the molecule. This rearrangement is reported by fluorescent groups whose relative proximities change as a result of the order-disorder transition. The nature of the conformational change is expected to be similar from protein to protein ...


New Cyclophanes As Supramolecular Scaffolds: The Synthesis Of Tribenzo-1,4,7-Triazacyclononatriene., Andria M. Panagopoulos 2010 Loyola University Chicago

New Cyclophanes As Supramolecular Scaffolds: The Synthesis Of Tribenzo-1,4,7-Triazacyclononatriene., Andria M. Panagopoulos

Dissertations

Supramolecular chemistry involves the formation of complex molecular entities that have the capacity to participate in specific molecular recognition of guest molecules. A commonly employed scaffold in supramolecular chemistry is the trimeric crown-shaped molecule cyclotriveratrylene (CTV). CTV has been studied extensively for its capability of binding a number of smaller organic and organometallic guests within its bowl-shaped cleft and has been used as a building block enabling the construction of more complex cryptophanes. The goal of this research is the synthesis and characterization of a novel cyclophane, tribenzo-1,4,7-triazacyclononene and derivatives thereof. These new cyclophanes should have greater versatility ...


Molecular Analysis Of Primary Vapor And Char Products During Stepwise Pyrolysis Of Poplar Biomass, Roger W. Jones, Tonu Reinot, John Frederick McClelland 2010 Iowa State University

Molecular Analysis Of Primary Vapor And Char Products During Stepwise Pyrolysis Of Poplar Biomass, Roger W. Jones, Tonu Reinot, John Frederick Mcclelland

Ames Laboratory Publications

Pyrolysis of biomass produces both pyrolysis oil and solid char. In this study, poplar has been pyrolyzed in a stepwise fashion over a series of temperatures from 200 to 500 °C, and both the primary products contributing to pyrolysis oil and the changes in the pyrolyzing poplar surface leading toward char have been characterized at each step. The primary products were identified by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry, and the changes in the poplar surface were monitored using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) photoacoustic spectroscopy, with a sampling depth of a few micrometers. The primary products from pyrolyzing ...


Low Cost Production Of Proinsulin In Tobacco And Lettuce Chloroplasts For Injectable Or Oral Delivery Of Functional Insulin And, Diane Burberry 2010 University of Central Florida

Low Cost Production Of Proinsulin In Tobacco And Lettuce Chloroplasts For Injectable Or Oral Delivery Of Functional Insulin And, Diane Burberry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Current treatment for type I diabetes includes delivery of insulin via injection or pump, which is highly invasive and expensive. The production of chloroplast-derived proinsulin should reduce cost and facilitate oral delivery. Therefore, tobacco and lettuce chloroplasts were transformed with the cholera toxin B subunit fused with human proinsulin (A, B, and C peptides) containing three furin cleavage sites (CTB-PFx3). Transplastomic lines were confirmed for site-specific integration of transgene and homoplasmy. Old tobacco leaves accumulated proinsulin up to 47% of total leaf protein (TLP). Old lettuce leaves accumulated proinsulin up to 53% TLP. Accumulation was so stable that up to ...


Stream Invertebrate Responses To A Catastrophic Decline In Consumer Diversity, J. Checo Colón-Gaud, Matt R. Whiles, Karen R. Lips, Catherine M. Pringle, Susan Kilham, Roberto Brenes, Scot D. Peterson 2010 Georgia Southern University

Stream Invertebrate Responses To A Catastrophic Decline In Consumer Diversity, J. Checo Colón-Gaud, Matt R. Whiles, Karen R. Lips, Catherine M. Pringle, Susan Kilham, Roberto Brenes, Scot D. Peterson

Biology Faculty Publications

Tadpoles are often abundant and diverse consumers in headwater streams in the Neotropics. However, their populations are declining catastrophically in many regions, in part because of a chytrid fungal pathogen. These declines are occurring along a moving disease front in Central America and offer the rare opportunity to quantify the consequences of a sudden, dramatic decline in consumer diversity in a natural system. As part of the Tropical Amphibian Declines in Streams (TADS) project, we examined stream macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and production for 2 y in 4 stream reaches at 2 sites in Panama. One site initially had healthy amphibians ...


Polyomavirus Enhancer Activator 3 (Pea3), A Member Of The Ets Family Of Transcription Factors, Is A Transcriptional Activator Of Notch-1 And Notch-4 In Breast Cancer: An Opportunity For Novel Combinational Therapy, Anthony George Clementz 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Polyomavirus Enhancer Activator 3 (Pea3), A Member Of The Ets Family Of Transcription Factors, Is A Transcriptional Activator Of Notch-1 And Notch-4 In Breast Cancer: An Opportunity For Novel Combinational Therapy, Anthony George Clementz

Dissertations

Women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer have the worst overall prognosis and frequently present with metastatic tumors. To date, there are no targeted therapies available to combat this aggressive form of breast cancer due to the lack of expression of well-known targets such as ER-alpha, PR, or HER2/neu. Therefore, there is an immediate need to identify novel targets that are responsible for the proliferation, survival, and invasive phenotype. Notch-1 and Notch-4, both potent breast oncogenes, are overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancers-associated with the poorest overall survival. PEA3 (polyomavirus enhancer activator 3), a member of the Ets family of transcription ...


Inhibition Of Cell Invasion By Targeting Pld, Terry C. Farkaly 2010 Wright State University

Inhibition Of Cell Invasion By Targeting Pld, Terry C. Farkaly

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Phospholipase D (PLD) is a crucial signaling enzyme involved in many cellular processes. The catalytic activity of PLD is essential for the production of Phosphatidic Acid (PA), a critical second messenger in cell signaling cascades downstream. Using the highly invasive rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line mTLn3 as a metastatic model, we investigated the proficiency of these cells to invade using matrigels that mimic the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix (ECM), their activity through PLD enzymatic assays, as well as the potency of our potential inhibitors to inhibit PLD-mediated cell invasion and lipase activity. This study reveals that PLD-mediated cell ...


Biochemical Characterization Of Human Mismatch Recognition Proteins Mutsα And Mutsβ, Lei Tian 2010 University of Kentucky

Biochemical Characterization Of Human Mismatch Recognition Proteins Mutsα And Mutsβ, Lei Tian

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The integrity of an organism's genome depends on the fidelity of DNA replication and the efficiency of DNA repair. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system, which is highly conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, plays an important role in maintaining genome stability by correcting base-base mismatches and insertion/deletion (ID) mispairs generated during DNA replication and other DNA transactions. Mismatch recognition is a critical step in MMR. Two mismatch recognition proteins, MutSα (MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer) and MutSβ (MSH2-MSH3 heterodimer), have been identified in eukaryotic cells. MutSα and MutSβ have partially overlapping functions, with MutSα recognizing primarily base-base mismatches and 1-2 nt ...


15N Solid-State Nmr Detection Of Flavin Perturbation By H-Bonding In Models And Enzyme Active Sites, Dongtao Cui 2010 University of Kentucky

15N Solid-State Nmr Detection Of Flavin Perturbation By H-Bonding In Models And Enzyme Active Sites, Dongtao Cui

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Massey and Hemmerich proposed that the different reactivities displayed by different flavoenzymes could be achieved as a result of dominance of different flavin ring resonance structures in different binding sites. Thus, the FMN cofactor would engage in different reactions when it had different electronic structures. To test this proposal and understand how different protein sites could produce different flavin electronic structures, we are developing solid-state NMR as a means of characterizing the electronic state of the flavin ring, via the 15N chemical shift tensors of the ring N atoms. These provide information on the frontier orbitals. We propose that ...


Explorations In Homeoviscous Adaptation And Mass Spectral Analysis Of Membrane Lipids, Michael Douglas Timmons 2010 University of Kentucky

Explorations In Homeoviscous Adaptation And Mass Spectral Analysis Of Membrane Lipids, Michael Douglas Timmons

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The focus of this dissertation is centered on the mass spectral analysis of lipids and changes occurring in keeping with the concept of homeoviscous adaptation [1]. Homeoviscous adaptation is the process of modification of membrane lipids in response to environmental stimuli [1]. Dissertation investigations applied this concept to prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and expanded the perception of environmental factors from exogenous organic solvents to intracellular environment.

The field of lipidomics deals with the analysis of phospholipid and fatty acid components of membranes the changes that occur due to environmental stimuli and their biological significance [2-6]. The high sensitivity of mass ...


Dissecting The Biosyntheses Of Gilvocarcins And Ravidomycins, Madan Kumar Kharel 2010 University of Kentucky

Dissecting The Biosyntheses Of Gilvocarcins And Ravidomycins, Madan Kumar Kharel

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Gilvocarcin V (GV) and ravidomycin (RMV) exhibit excellent antitumor activities in the presence of near-UV light at low concentration maintaining a low in vivo cytotoxicity. Although, the exact molecular mechanism for in vivo actions of these antibiotics has yet to be determined, a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction of the vinyl side chain with DNA thymidine residues in addition to the inhibition of topoisomerase II and DNAhistone H3 cross-linking are reported for the GV’s mechanism of action. Such activities have made these molecules interesting candidates for the biosynthetic investigation to generate analogues with improved activity/solubility. Previous biosynthetic studies have ...


Analysis Of The Crmp Gene In Drosophila: Determining The Regulatory Role Of Crmp In Signaling And Behavior, Deanna Hardt Morris 2010 University of Kentucky

Analysis Of The Crmp Gene In Drosophila: Determining The Regulatory Role Of Crmp In Signaling And Behavior, Deanna Hardt Morris

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The mammalian genome encodes five collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) isoforms. Cell culture studies have shown that the CRMPs mediate growth cone dynamics and neuron polarity through associations with a variety of signal transduction components and cytoskeletal elements. CRMP is also a member of a protein family including the presumably ancestral dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) protein that catalyzes the second step in pyrimidine degradation. In Drosophila, CRMP and DHP proteins are produced by alternatively spliced transcripts of the CRMP gene. The alternative protein forms have a 91% sequence identity, but unique expression patterns. CRMP is found exclusively in neuronal tissues and DHP ...


In Vivo Oxidative Stress In Alzheimer Disease Brain And A Mouse Model Thereof: Effects Of Lipid Asymmetry And The Single Methionine Residue Of Amyloid-Β Peptide, Miranda Lu Bader Lange 2010 University of Kentucky

In Vivo Oxidative Stress In Alzheimer Disease Brain And A Mouse Model Thereof: Effects Of Lipid Asymmetry And The Single Methionine Residue Of Amyloid-Β Peptide, Miranda Lu Bader Lange

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Studies presented in this dissertation were conducted to gain more insight into the role of phospholipid asymmetry and amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress in brain of subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). AD is a largely sporadic, age-associated neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by the vast, progressive loss of memory and cognition commonly in populations over the age of ~65 years, with the exception of those with familial AD, which develop AD symptoms as early as ~30 years-old. Neuropathologically, both AD and FAD can be characterized by synapse and neuronal cell loss in conjunction with accumulation ...


Determining The Rate Of Transcription Of T7 Rna Polymerase Using Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging, Dawn Renee Nichola 2010 Marshall University

Determining The Rate Of Transcription Of T7 Rna Polymerase Using Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging, Dawn Renee Nichola

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

It is important to understand the many factors impacting the rate at which an RNA polymerase incorporates nucleotides. The transcription rate of T7 RNA polymerase has been determined using single molecule fluorescence microscopy. A Cy3 labeled circular 45nt ssDNA molecule was used to monitor the transcription process. T7 RNA polymerase was used because it is a single subunit polymerase that does not need any cofactors and will transcribe single-stranded DNA circles that do not contain a promoter. The transcription was monitored by measuring the quasi-periodic change in intensity associated with the transit of the probe through the polymerase as the ...


Enrichment Of Echinacea Angustifolia With Bauer Alkylamide 11 And Bauer Ketone 23 Increased Anti-Inflammatory Potential Through Interference With Cox-2 Enzyme Activity, Carlie A. LaLone, Nan Huang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Man-Yu Yum, Navrozedeep Singh, Cathy Hauck, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Marian L. Kohut, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt 2010 Iowa State University

Enrichment Of Echinacea Angustifolia With Bauer Alkylamide 11 And Bauer Ketone 23 Increased Anti-Inflammatory Potential Through Interference With Cox-2 Enzyme Activity, Carlie A. Lalone, Nan Huang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Man-Yu Yum, Navrozedeep Singh, Cathy Hauck, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Marian L. Kohut, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 were previously found to be partially responsible forEchinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS-induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with ...


Tracking Profiles Of Genomic Instability In Spontaneous Transformation And Tumorigenesis, Lesley Lawrenson 2010 Wayne State University

Tracking Profiles Of Genomic Instability In Spontaneous Transformation And Tumorigenesis, Lesley Lawrenson

Wayne State University Dissertations

The dominant paradigm for cancer research focuses on the identification of specific genes for cancer causation and for the discovery of therapeutic targets. Alternatively, the current data emphasize the significance of karyotype heterogeneity in cancer progression over specific gene-based causes of cancer. Variability of a magnitude significant to shift cell populations from homogeneous diploid cells to a mosaic of structural and numerical chromosome alterations reflects the characteristic low-fidelity genome transfer of cancer cell populations. This transition marks the departure from micro-evolutionary gene-level change to macro-evolutionary change that facilitates the generation of many unique karyotypes within a cell population. Considering cancer ...


Single Molecule Studies Of Spliceosomal Snrnas U2-U6, Zhuojun Guo 2010 Wayne State University

Single Molecule Studies Of Spliceosomal Snrnas U2-U6, Zhuojun Guo

Wayne State University Dissertations

Spliceosomes catalyze the maturation of precursor mRNAs in organisms ranging

from yeast to humans. Their catalytic core comprises three small nuclear RNAs (U2, U5

and U6) involved in substrate positioning and catalysis. It has been postulated, but never

shown experimentally, that the U2-U6 complex adopts at least two conformations that

reflect different activation states. We have used single-molecule fluorescence to probe the

structural dynamics of a protein-free RNA complex modeling U2-U6 from yeast and

mutants of highly conserved regions of U2-U6. Our data show the presence of at least

three distinct conformations in equilibrium. The minimal folding pathway consists of ...


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