Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

12,633 Full-Text Articles 26,510 Authors 1,658,542 Downloads 251 Institutions

All Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Faceted Search

12,633 full-text articles. Page 407 of 435.

Effects Of Dietary Fat Saturation On Lipoprotein Metabolism In Rodents And Humans, Deepinder Kaur 2011 Wayne State University

Effects Of Dietary Fat Saturation On Lipoprotein Metabolism In Rodents And Humans, Deepinder Kaur

Wayne State University Dissertations

Consumption of trans-fatty acids (tFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) have been associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease. Experimental and observational data suggests that consumption of PHVO containing tFA, like SFA leads to increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) but compared to tFA, SFA raises HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). An attempt to eliminate PHVO from the food supply has resulted in the need to find alternatives which despite their higher dietary fat saturation as compared to naturally occurring vegetable oils, may be preferable to PHVO. However, amongst SFA, the effects on plasma lipoproteins are variable. Thus, we hypothesized that specific ...


Identification Of The Role Of The Sal Locus In Streptococcus Pyogenes Virulence During Host-Pathogen Interactions, Phanramphoei Namprachan-Frantz 2011 Wayne State University

Identification Of The Role Of The Sal Locus In Streptococcus Pyogenes Virulence During Host-Pathogen Interactions, Phanramphoei Namprachan-Frantz

Wayne State University Dissertations

The pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes is due to its ability to overcome and adapt to the harsh environment created by the host immune response. The focus of this project was the SalKR two-component regulatory system, which facilitates bacterial adaptation by responding to environmental signals during host pathogen-interactions. The first goal of this project was to determine a role in virulence for the SalKR regulatory system. The complete deletion of the salKR genes in the wild type S. pyogenes strain HSC5 produced a highly attenuated mutant in a Zebrafish infection model. The ΔsalKR mutant appeared to lose the ability to survive ...


Palmitoylation And The Yeast Casein Kinase Yck2, Irene Papanayotou 2011 Wayne State University

Palmitoylation And The Yeast Casein Kinase Yck2, Irene Papanayotou

Wayne State University Dissertations

Palmitoylation is a post-translational lipid modification that allows proteins to interact with membranes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the casein kinase Yck2 is palmitoylated twice at its two C-terminal palmitoyl-accepting cysteine residues, by the palmitoyl-transferring enzyme Akr1. Once palmitoylated, Yck2 traffics through the well characterized secretory pathway to the plasma membrane where it participates in many cellular functions, including bud morphogenesis, cytokinesis, nutrient sensing, and receptor internalization. While the hydrophilic Yck2 is presumably synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, it gains access to the membrane system by interaction with the six transmembrane-spanning Golgi-localized Akr1. Since palmitoylation occurs at membranes and the palmitoyl-transferases ...


Exploring Potential Drug Target Sites In The Ribosome Using Cisplatin And Its Analogues, Keshab Rijal 2011 Wayne State University

Exploring Potential Drug Target Sites In The Ribosome Using Cisplatin And Its Analogues, Keshab Rijal

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cis-diamminodichloridoplatinum (II), cisplatin, is an antitumor drug that has been used to treat several types of cancers. The reaction of cisplatin with DNA has been studied and discussed extensively in the literature; however, the effects of cisplatin on RNA function are poorly understood. In this thesis, two aspects of cisplatin, its preferred sites of interaction with RNA and its use as a chemical probe to gain accessibility information, were explored.

To understand the site-selectivity of cisplatin with RNA, model RNA constructs and full-length 16S rRNA were employed. The binding studies revealed a cisplatin preference for guanosine-rich sequences. Primer extensions in ...


Study Of Protein-Rna Interactions Using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (Fret) And Single-Molecule Fret, Rajan Lamichhane 2011 Wayne State University

Study Of Protein-Rna Interactions Using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (Fret) And Single-Molecule Fret, Rajan Lamichhane

Wayne State University Dissertations

In the cell, RNA and protein, interact to form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) that have vital structural, catalytic and regulatory roles. Despite their functional importance, the mechanistic details and dynamics of RNPs are poorly understood. Single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) techniques that provide information about heterogeneity and dynamic behaviors of molecules have been developed to investigate inter- and intra-molecular interactions. Here we have used FRET in combination with smFRET to study three very different RNP systems.

Alternative splicing is a highly regulated biological process that plays a crucial role in proteomic diversity in eukaryotes. One splicing regulator, PTB, has been ...


Crystallographic, Molecular Dynamics, And Enzymatic Studies Of Multi-Drug Resistant Hiv-1 Protease And Implications For Structure Based Drug Design (Project 1); Crystallographic Studies Of Human Myelin Protein Zero (Project 2), Zhigang Liu 2011 Wayne State University

Crystallographic, Molecular Dynamics, And Enzymatic Studies Of Multi-Drug Resistant Hiv-1 Protease And Implications For Structure Based Drug Design (Project 1); Crystallographic Studies Of Human Myelin Protein Zero (Project 2), Zhigang Liu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Under drug selection pressure, emerging mutations render HIV-1 protease drug resistance, leading to the therapy failure in anti-HIV treatment.Tthe multidrug-resistant 769 (MDR) HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) is selected for the present study to understand drug resistance issue.

Ten additional mutations are introduced to MDR769 HIV-1 protease to study the structural influences brought by these mutations. We get crystal structures of four variants (I10V, A82F, A82S and A82T) of MDR769 HIV-1 protease. All these mutations fail to further open the flaps and expand the active site cavity of ...


Molecular Details Of The Mitochondrial Iron Sulfur Cluster Assembly Pathway, Swati Rawat 2011 Wayne State University

Molecular Details Of The Mitochondrial Iron Sulfur Cluster Assembly Pathway, Swati Rawat

Wayne State University Dissertations

MOLECULAR DETAILS OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL IRON SULFUR CLUSTER ASSEMBLY PATHWAY

Iron-sulfur clusters are an important class of prosthetic group involved in electron transfer, enzyme catalysis, and regulation of gene expression. Their biosynthesis requires complex machinery located within the mitochondrion since free iron and sulfide are extremely toxic to the cell. Defects in this pathway results in several diseases such as Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA), Sideroblastic Anemia and ISCU Myopathy. Therefore molecular details of the biogenesis pathway will provide deep insight in the pathway and treatment options for these diseases. FRDA is caused by deficiency of a single protein called as ...


A Novel In Vivo Protein Refolding Technique, Yuefei Huang 2011 Wayne State University

A Novel In Vivo Protein Refolding Technique, Yuefei Huang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Proteins perform their functions in their native folded states and misfolding of proteins may cause severe diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion disease and diabetes. Understanding protein folding is important for us to engineer proteins to treat these diseases. For protein therapeutics, large quantities of properly folded and functional proteins are required. The current technology produces recombinant proteins using either eukaryotic or prokaryotic expression system, both of them have major problems that prevent production of large quantities of properly folded and functional human proteins for protein therapeutics.

Although the eukaryotic cells have comprehensive folding machinery that contains ...


Hedgehog Signaling: A Potential Therapeutic Target For Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ma'in Yehya Maitah 2011 Wayne State University

Hedgehog Signaling: A Potential Therapeutic Target For Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ma'in Yehya Maitah

Wayne State University Dissertations

The American Cancer Society estimated that 222,520 Americans were diagnosed with lung cancer and 157,300 died of lung cancer in 2010 (Jemal et al. 2009, 225-249;Jemal et al. 2011, 69-90). The clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the major lung cancer sub-types, is very poor, which calls for innovative research for finding novel therapeutic targets and agents for better treatment outcome.

Emerging evidences have suggested that a phenomenon called Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), which shares similar molecular characteristics with cancer stem-like cells, contributes to lung cancer treatment failure. In view of the fact ...


Destruction Of Biological Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles By Hypochlorous Acid And Its Scavenging By Lycopene, Dhiman Maitra 2011 Wayne State University

Destruction Of Biological Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles By Hypochlorous Acid And Its Scavenging By Lycopene, Dhiman Maitra

Wayne State University Dissertations

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent oxidant generated by the hemoprotein myeloperoxidase. Although HOCl plays an important role in the innate immune response,sustained high levels of HOCl has been implicated to play a harmful role. In several pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, endometriosis and sickle cell disease where HOCl is elevated there are reports of significant free iron accumulation. Free iron is toxic since it can lead to the generation of other secondary free radicals such as hydroxyl radical by Fenton reaction. The exact source and mechanism by which the free iron is generated is not clearly understood. This ...


The Role Of Mdm2 In Estrogen-Mediated Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angelika Brekman 2011 Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Mdm2 In Estrogen-Mediated Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angelika Brekman

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Estrogen signaling is important in breast cancer development and progression. Mdm2, a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor, is often over-expressed in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers. To study the role of Mdm2 in the estrogen-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation, we examined the effect of estrogen on the p53-Mdm2 pathway in estrogen receptor positive and p53 wild-type MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Estrogen-mediated increase in cell proliferation correlated with increased Mdm2, but no concomitant decrease in the p53 protein level. Blocking Mdm2 expression with inducible shRNA inhibited estrogen-mediated cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar. Mdm2 knockdown in the ...


Conformation And Ion Transport Of Neuronal Uncoupling Proteins: Ucp2, Ucp4, And Ucp5, Tuan Hoang 2011 Wilfrid Laurier University

Conformation And Ion Transport Of Neuronal Uncoupling Proteins: Ucp2, Ucp4, And Ucp5, Tuan Hoang

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipose tissue, uncoupling protein -1 (UCP1) dissipates the proton electrochemical gradient, causing reduction in the rate of ATP synthesis, and generates heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. Three other UCP homologs (UCP2, UCP4 and UCP5), expressed in neurons, are suggested to have potential roles in the function and protection of the central nervous system (CNS). Up to date, structural information for UCPs still remains limited. Extensive biochemical studies on UCP2 have provided adequate evidence for its participation in proton and anion transport. So far, no functional studies in proteoliposome systems have been performed on ...


Role Of Non-Coding Rna Nc4 In Mll And Cyp33 Mediated Regulation Of Hoxc8, Jessica Arvindbhai Solanki 2011 Loyola University Chicago

Role Of Non-Coding Rna Nc4 In Mll And Cyp33 Mediated Regulation Of Hoxc8, Jessica Arvindbhai Solanki

Dissertations

MLL or Mixed Lineage Leukemia gene is clinically known for its involvement in genetic translocation with more than 70 different partners identified each giving rise to a highly leukemogenic fusion protein. With a poor prognosis of MLL related leukemia, an investigation into its role during hematopoiesis has been a very active field of research. In order to design strategies to combat the MLL leukemia, it becomes essential to delineate the molecular mechanisms behind the function of MLL wild type protein. Wild type MLL is a transcriptional maintenance protein from the Trithorax Group (TrxG) that resides in complex with other chromatin ...


Molecular Marker Development For The Discrimination Of Atlantic And Pacific Blue Marlin (Makaira Nigricans), Laurie Sorenson 2011 College of William and Mary - Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Molecular Marker Development For The Discrimination Of Atlantic And Pacific Blue Marlin (Makaira Nigricans), Laurie Sorenson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Role Of Notch Signaling In T Cell Polarization, Shilpa Keerthivasan 2011 Loyola University Chicago

Role Of Notch Signaling In T Cell Polarization, Shilpa Keerthivasan

Dissertations

The differentiation of CD4+ T cells to different effector lineages in response to pathogenic stimuli is the core of the adaptive immune system. One of the effector subsets recently discovered is Thelper 17 (Th17) and it plays a predominant role in autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders.

In my thesis, I aimed to study the role of Notch cell surface receptors in Th17 differentiation. Using in vitro Th17 differentiation assays of human naïve CD4+ T cells, I have shown that Notch signaling, particularly Notch1, plays a crucial role in Th17 polarization. By using pharmacological inhibitors and specific knockdown of Notch1, I ...


Sumo-Dependent Substrate Targeting Of The Sumo Protease Ulp1, Zachary Cole Elmore 2011 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

Sumo-Dependent Substrate Targeting Of The Sumo Protease Ulp1, Zachary Cole Elmore

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


The Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase Subunit Slx5 Functional Interacts With The Sumo E3 Ligase Siz1, Jason William Westerbeck 2011 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

The Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase Subunit Slx5 Functional Interacts With The Sumo E3 Ligase Siz1, Jason William Westerbeck

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


An Investigation Of The Polymorphic Arss Gene Of Helicobacter Pylori, Daniel Ross Hallinger 2011 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

An Investigation Of The Polymorphic Arss Gene Of Helicobacter Pylori, Daniel Ross Hallinger

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Reactive Sulfur: Redox Reactions Of Cysteines And Methionines In The Cytoskeletal Protein Tubulin, Tara Dawn Hagedorn 2011 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

Reactive Sulfur: Redox Reactions Of Cysteines And Methionines In The Cytoskeletal Protein Tubulin, Tara Dawn Hagedorn

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda 2011 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress