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Transient Kinetic Analysis Of Swr1c-Catalyzed H2a.Z Deposition Unravels The Impact Of Nucleosome Dynamics And The Asymmetry Of Histone Exchange, Raushan K. Singh, Jiayi Fan, Nathan Gioacchini, Shinya Watanabe, Osman Bilsel, Craig L. Peterson 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transient Kinetic Analysis Of Swr1c-Catalyzed H2a.Z Deposition Unravels The Impact Of Nucleosome Dynamics And The Asymmetry Of Histone Exchange, Raushan K. Singh, Jiayi Fan, Nathan Gioacchini, Shinya Watanabe, Osman Bilsel, Craig L. Peterson

Open Access Articles

The SWR1C chromatin remodeling enzyme catalyzes ATP-dependent replacement of nucleosomal H2A with the H2A.Z variant, regulating key DNA-mediated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. Here, we investigate the transient kinetic mechanism of the histone exchange reaction, employing ensemble FRET, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), and the steady-state kinetics of ATP hydrolysis. Our studies indicate that SWR1C modulates nucleosome dynamics on both the millisecond and microsecond timescales, poising the nucleosome for the dimer exchange reaction. The transient kinetic analysis of the remodeling reaction performed under single turnover conditions unraveled a striking asymmetry in the ATP-dependent replacement of nucleosomal dimers, promoted ...


The Er-Localized Protein Dfcp1 Modulates Er-Lipid Droplet Contact Formation, Dongfang Li, Yan G. Zhao, Di Li, Hongyu Zhao, Jie Huang, Guangyan Miao, Du Feng, Pingsheng Liu, Dong Li, Hong Zhang 2019 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Er-Localized Protein Dfcp1 Modulates Er-Lipid Droplet Contact Formation, Dongfang Li, Yan G. Zhao, Di Li, Hongyu Zhao, Jie Huang, Guangyan Miao, Du Feng, Pingsheng Liu, Dong Li, Hong Zhang

Open Access Articles

Very little is known about the spatiotemporal generation of lipid droplets (LDs) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the factors that mediate ER-LD contacts for LD growth. Using super-resolution grazing incidence structured illumination microscopy (GI-SIM) live-cell imaging, we reveal that upon LD induction, the ER-localized protein DFCP1 redistributes to nascent puncta on the ER, whose formation depends on triglyceride synthesis. These structures move along the ER and fuse to form expanding LDs. Fusion and expansion of DFCP1-labeled nascent structures is controlled by BSCL2. BSCL2 depletion causes accumulation of nascent DFCP1 structures. DFCP1 overexpression increases LD size and enhances ER-LD contacts ...


Peptide Conjugation Of Branched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules, Baltazar Claro-Martinez 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Peptide Conjugation Of Branched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules, Baltazar Claro-Martinez

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

In recent years, nanocarrier cellular therapy has been a rapidly growing area for research in the treatment of malignant and infectious diseases – most notably cancer. Conventional cancer treatment has consisted of highly toxic, highly insoluble, untargeted delivery of drugs that kill both cancerous and healthy cells. Research in the Tomich lab consists of the synthesis of Branched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules (BAPCs), which are self-assembling peptide nanospheres composed of one or both of these branched peptide sequences: h5 and h9. These peptides possess similar molecular characteristics of phosphoglycerides but are synthesized chemically within the lab. Previous publications by the Tomich group ...


Characterization Of A Membrane-Bound Insect Transferrin, Diana Najera 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Characterization Of A Membrane-Bound Insect Transferrin, Diana Najera

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Characterization of a Membrane-Bound Insect Transferrin

Diana G. Najera, Michelle E. Coca, Kayla E. Nutsch, and Maureen J. Gorman

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Kansas State University

Transferrins are extracellular proteins that bind iron. Vertebrate transferrins have well-characterized roles in iron transport and immunity, but the functions of transferrins in most other animals are poorly understood. The goals of this study are to identify the functions of transferrin-3 (Tsf3) from Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), and to determine whether Tsf3 is conserved in other species of insects. Our experimental approach has been to predict important features of the protein, analyze ...


Pilot Studies Of Two Possible Iron Uptake Mechanisms In Insect Cells, Michelle Coca 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Pilot Studies Of Two Possible Iron Uptake Mechanisms In Insect Cells, Michelle Coca

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Pilot Studies of Two Possible Iron Uptake Mechanisms in Insect Cells

Michelle E. Coca, Diana G. Najera, and Dr. Maureen J. Gorman

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics

College of Arts and Sciences

Iron plays an important role in energy metabolism and other essential physiological processes; however, because iron can also be toxic, its uptake by cells must be strictly regulated. In humans, there is a well-understood pathway of iron uptake and multiple poorly understood pathways. How iron is transported into insect cells is unknown. The goal of this study was to test two models of iron uptake by cultured ...


Boron Uptake In Salt Cedars Via Aquaporins, Alexcis Barnes 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Boron Uptake In Salt Cedars Via Aquaporins, Alexcis Barnes

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Salt Cedar (Tamarix) is a dicot plant highly tolerant to the chemical boron. This is interesting because for most plants boron is an essential yet toxic metalloid. Plants have a hard time excluding it. The goal of the project is to identify a potential protein sequence (order of amino acids forming a protein) for an aquaporin that allows the transport of boron, moving through a pore. In addition to selecting the sequences, a 3D model of the protein has been constructed to see how boron is entering the cells through the channels of these proteins. A dynamic model is being ...


Characterizing Protein Aggregates In Drosophila Muscle Tissue, Marta Stetsiv 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Characterizing Protein Aggregates In Drosophila Muscle Tissue, Marta Stetsiv

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

NUAK is a conserved protein kinase that can phosphorylate multiple target substrates within a cell. NUAK is expressed in numerous tissues, including skeletal muscle, and has known function in regulating cytoskeletal motors. Humans possess two copies of NUAK—NUAK1/ARK5 and NUAK2/SNARK. NUAK1-/-; NUAK2-/- double mutants are embryonic lethal in mice. However, mutation of a single Drosophila NUAK gene is viable throughout larval stages, allowing for the in vivo examination of genes that function with NUAK. NUAK mutants show muscle degeneration, partially caused by the inability to clear protein aggregates. Based upon our preliminary data from bioinformatics analysis and ...


Design And Synthesis Of A Novel Lsoxazoline As A Potential Pam-Agonist, Josselyn Roosenberg 2019 Andrews University

Design And Synthesis Of A Novel Lsoxazoline As A Potential Pam-Agonist, Josselyn Roosenberg

Honors Theses

Progression of Alzheimer's disease is associated with a loss of Ml receptor activation in the brain. However, a lack of clinical success following attempts to activate the Ml receptor at the orthosteric site has contributed to a transition towards the allosteric pocket of the receptor. Here, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) interact to potentiate the acetylcholine response. Recent research proposes that optimization of PAM activity at the expense of intrinsic agonism may posit a means to limit adverse side effects. Therefore, this project proposes a design and synthesis of a novel isoxazoline as a potent PAM agent with weak intrinsic ...


Netrin-3 And Netrin-4-Like Proteins Are Secreted From Tetrahymena Thermophila, Leah C. Anderton, Nicholas Bradley, Sorrel Paris, Aaron T. VanGeest, Reese Watkins, Kassie E. Young, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2019 Cedarville University

Netrin-3 And Netrin-4-Like Proteins Are Secreted From Tetrahymena Thermophila, Leah C. Anderton, Nicholas Bradley, Sorrel Paris, Aaron T. Vangeest, Reese Watkins, Kassie E. Young, Heather G. Kuruvilla

Heather G. Kuruvilla, Ph.D.

Netrins are signaling proteins, acting as chemorepellants or chemoattractants, and their role is especially important in early growth in organisms. In studies involving Tetrahymena thermophila, netrin proteins often act as chemorepellants, so research centered around verifying if this was also true for Netrin-4 protein. Since Netrin-1 and Netrin-3 have been shown to influence neurological and developmental growth in organisms, the implications for discovering the cellular effects of Netrin-4 are significant for human health and research. Through behavioral assays, we were able to confirm that Netrin4 does act as a chemorepellant. In addition, our ELISA and Western blots also helped substantiate ...


You Are What You Eat At Any Age: Carbon And Nitrogen Analysis Of Mummies From An Ancient Egyptian Necropolis, Stephen Funk, R. Paul Evans 2019 Brigham Young University - Provo

You Are What You Eat At Any Age: Carbon And Nitrogen Analysis Of Mummies From An Ancient Egyptian Necropolis, Stephen Funk, R. Paul Evans

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2019

The BYU Egypt Project at Fag el-Gamus necropolis and adjacent Seila Pyramid has studied over 700 mummies excavated over the past 30 years. The necropolis includes an open area with densely located vertical burial shafts and a hill with horizontal burial shafts. The chronological and dietary history of the mummies was assessed using stable isotopy and 14C analysis of accessible biological samples.


Analysis Of Dl-Amino Acid Ratios In Eggshells Using Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, Gergana Milkova 2019 Andrews University

Analysis Of Dl-Amino Acid Ratios In Eggshells Using Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, Gergana Milkova

Honors Theses

HPLC methodology was developed to determine the concentrations and ratios of D to L amino acids in emu and ostrich eggshells treated with heat at different temperatures . We aimed to determine an internal standard and how ratios were affected under different conditions. An HPLC method was determined that gave consistent retention times and satisfactory enantioseparation . Calibration curves for each amino acid were developed from single and multi-amino acid containing dilution series producing a model that most closely replicates the eggshell-extracted amino acids.


Isolation And Characterization Of Novel Arginine-Derived Heterocyclic Amines, Nathaniel Srikureja 2019 Andrews University

Isolation And Characterization Of Novel Arginine-Derived Heterocyclic Amines, Nathaniel Srikureja

Honors Theses

Most known heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are potent mutagens present at significant concentrations in cooked meats, and can be synthesized from burned mixtures of L-creatin(in)e with various amino acids. We hypothesize that novel mutagenic HCAs may be synthesized from a heated plant-based food simulating binary amino acid mL'\:ture: L-arginine and L-threonine. A two-part solid phase extraction was used to separate nitrogen heterocycles from byproducts followed by prep­ HPLC and the Ames mutagenicity assay using Salmonella TA98 to determine the mutagenicity of various isolates. The results indicate that this binary amino acid mixture does not yield a mutagenic sample.


Netrin-3 And Netrin-4-Like Proteins Are Secreted From Tetrahymena Thermophila, Leah C. Anderton, Nicholas Bradley, Sorrel Paris, Aaron T. VanGeest, Reese Watkins, Kassie E. Young, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2019 Cedarville University

Netrin-3 And Netrin-4-Like Proteins Are Secreted From Tetrahymena Thermophila, Leah C. Anderton, Nicholas Bradley, Sorrel Paris, Aaron T. Vangeest, Reese Watkins, Kassie E. Young, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Netrins are signaling proteins, acting as chemorepellants or chemoattractants, and their role is especially important in early growth in organisms. In studies involving Tetrahymena thermophila, netrin proteins often act as chemorepellants, so research centered around verifying if this was also true for Netrin-4 protein. Since Netrin-1 and Netrin-3 have been shown to influence neurological and developmental growth in organisms, the implications for discovering the cellular effects of Netrin-4 are significant for human health and research. Through behavioral assays, we were able to confirm that Netrin4 does act as a chemorepellant. In addition, our ELISA and Western blots also helped substantiate ...


Characterization Of A Netrin-4 Like Protein In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Leah Anderton, Nicholas Bradley, Bryce Childers, Levi Fox, Kirstyn Kelley, Lauren Lightbody, Allison McClean, Estelle Viaud-Murat, Lydia Watson, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2019 Cedarville University

Characterization Of A Netrin-4 Like Protein In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Leah Anderton, Nicholas Bradley, Bryce Childers, Levi Fox, Kirstyn Kelley, Lauren Lightbody, Allison Mcclean, Estelle Viaud-Murat, Lydia Watson, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The netrin family of proteins has homeostatic roles in vertebrate development and angiogenesis, and pathophysiological roles in the progression and metastasis of cancer. We have previously characterized a netrin-1-like protein in Tetrahymena thermophila, and have shown that vertebrate netrin-1, netrin-3, and netrin-4 all serve as chemorepellents in this organism. We are currently using Western blotting and immunofluorescence to further characterize the netrin-like proteins in Tetrahymena. Western blotting with our anti-netrin-4 antibody shows a band that is clearly visible in whole cell extract, but shows little reactivity with secreted protein, indicating that most of our netrin-4-like protein remains within the cell ...


Synthesis Of An Ideal Inhibitor For The Lpxc Enzyme, Taejun Lee 2019 Andrews University

Synthesis Of An Ideal Inhibitor For The Lpxc Enzyme, Taejun Lee

Honors Theses

Due to the growing need of antibiotics in modern day medicine, this study attempts to apply a method of medicinal chemistry that would create a novel inhibitor for a lesser known target of gram negative bacteria, the LpxC enzyme. This study proposes that a synthetic plan which consists of combining components of different molecules would create a more effective inhibitor. These components include a binding group for the active site of the enzyme, a hydrophobic chain which has been shown to interact with an allosteric site on the LpxC enzyme, and the isoxazoline ring which interacts with the zinc ion ...


Transfer Rna Genes Affect Chromosome Structure And Function Via Local Effects, Omar Hamdani, Tsung-Han S. Hsieh, Oliver J. Rando, Rohinton T. Kamakaka 2019 University of California, Santa Cruz

Transfer Rna Genes Affect Chromosome Structure And Function Via Local Effects, Omar Hamdani, Tsung-Han S. Hsieh, Oliver J. Rando, Rohinton T. Kamakaka

Open Access Articles

The genome is packaged and organized in an ordered, non-random manner and specific chromatin segments contact nuclear substructures to mediate this organization. Transfer RNA genes (tDNAs) are binding sites for transcription factors and architectural proteins and are thought to play an important role in the organization of the genome. In this study, we investigate the role of tDNAs in genomic organization and chromosome function by editing a chromosome so that it lacks any tDNAs. Surprisingly our analyses of this tDNA-less chromosome show that loss of tDNAs does not grossly affect chromatin architecture or chromosome tethering and mobility. However, loss of ...


Characterization Of Psychromonas Aquimarina, A New Model Organism For Climate Change, Carrie Carpenter 2019 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

Characterization Of Psychromonas Aquimarina, A New Model Organism For Climate Change, Carrie Carpenter

Experiential Learning Projects

The current increase of average global temperature puts 25 to 35 percent of plant and animal species at an increased risk of extinction (Climate Change, 2018). Changing any environmental factor, such as increasing growth temperature, can significantly impact any organisms’ ability to survive. Because of the diversity of organisms on the planet, it is not feasible to study how each individually might adapt, but rather it is more efficient to study select organisms. This research focuses on a psychrophilic bacterium, Psychromonas aquimarina, which can survive in colder regions where most bacteria would not. This bacterium was chosen because climate change ...


Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers 2019 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers

Senior Theses

Iron dysregulation has been linked to a variety of human diseases, such as anemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia, sideroblastic-like microcytic anemia, and myopathy. Thus, it is vitally important to understand the mechanisms for regulating intracellular iron. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy techniques in live cells to study interactions of the yeast proteins Grx3/4, Aft1/2, and Bol2, which have been shown to be involved in turning off iron import when the cell has adequate iron. Modified versions of genes encoding these proteins have been incorporated into several yeast backgrounds to use fluorescence to monitor interactions under varying ...


The Mechanism Of The Enzymatic Synthesis Of 2,4-Hydroxymethfufural Phosphate, Caroline Brown 2019 University of North Georgia

The Mechanism Of The Enzymatic Synthesis Of 2,4-Hydroxymethfufural Phosphate, Caroline Brown

Honors Theses

This project stems from the desire to explore and eventually harness the enzymatic mechanism of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furan-carboxaldehyde-phosphate synthase (MfnB). The enzyme of interest, MfnB, is found most prominently in methanogens and some bacteria and can catalyze five or more separate chemical transformations in a single active site. This singular enzyme takes two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and creates a furan-containing compound, 4- (hydroxymethyl)-2-furan-carboxaldehyde-phosphate (4-HMF-P). Furan-containing compounds have been highlighted for their high potential in the production of biofuels and biomaterial compounds; thus, research efforts seek to create a more efficient synthesis process for furan compounds. The broad industrial applications ...


Study Of The Effects Of Silver Ions And Silver Nanoparticles On Embryonic Development, Martha Sharisha Johnson 2019 Old Dominion University

Study Of The Effects Of Silver Ions And Silver Nanoparticles On Embryonic Development, Martha Sharisha Johnson

Biomedical Sciences Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the study of the toxicity of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and their ions on the development of zebrafish embryos, aiming to understand unique biological effects of NPs and ions, and design new in vivo assays to characterize the toxicity of these metal NPs and metal ions. Currently, the underlying molecular mechanisms of biological effects of nanomaterials are partially understood. Some studies assume that the toxic effects of NPs can be attributed to the release of their ions. We investigate the effects of silver NPs (Ag NPs) and silver ions (Ag+ ions) on the embryonic development of zebrafish ...


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