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Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


The Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) On Brown Adipogenesis In Stem Cell Culture, Darynne Dahlem 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) On Brown Adipogenesis In Stem Cell Culture, Darynne Dahlem

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are major maternal dietary supplements due to their positive benefits on neurological tissue growth during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Previous studies show that EPA and DHA inhibit muscle formation but promote adipogenesis. However, no research has addressed the question whether high intake of EPA and DHA affects brown fat development during gestation. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of EPA and DHA supplement on brown adipogenesis and potential pathways related to mitochondrial biosynthesis using fibroblasts as in vitro model. Using Oil-Red-O staining ...


Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Ipomoeassin F is a flagship congener of a resin glycoside family that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with only single-digital nanomolar IC50 values. However, biological and pharmacological mechanisms of ipomoeassin F have been undefined. To facilitate exploration of the biological and pharmacological properties, we performed sophisticate SAR (Structure–activity relationship) studies of ipomoeassin F to understand its pharmacophore and structure properties so that we can design favorable probes for further biological investigation. By applying appropriate deviates that possess fluorescent groups and similar bio-activity, the target protein was found to be localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Through biotin affinity ...


Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani

Open Access Articles

Adhesion is a crucial characteristic of epithelial cells to form barriers to pathogens and toxic substances from the environment. Epithelial cells attach to each other using intercellular junctions on the lateral membrane, including tight and adherent junctions, as well as the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our group has shown that non-adherent chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the canine beta1 subunit become adhesive, and those homotypic interactions amongst beta1 subunits of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase occur between neighboring epithelial cells. Ouabain, a cardiotonic steroid, binds to the alpha subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, inhibits the pump activity and induces ...


The Effects Of Ultraviolet Light Exposure On The Activity Of Catalase In The Coelomocytes Of Sea Urchins Lytechinus Variegatus And Arbacia Punctulata, Kandis Arlinghaus 2019 Bellarmine University

The Effects Of Ultraviolet Light Exposure On The Activity Of Catalase In The Coelomocytes Of Sea Urchins Lytechinus Variegatus And Arbacia Punctulata, Kandis Arlinghaus

Undergraduate Theses

Many sea urchins play important ecological roles in their environments, and it is important to study the impacts of environmental stressors on their physiology. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure has significant negative impacts on marine organisms including an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative damage by ROS at the cellular level can cause lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and even cell death that may result in inflammation or disease. To prevent this cellular damage, organisms generate enzymes, such as catalase, that breakdown ROS into harmless substances. Elevated catalase activities under UVB, a range of UVR from 280–315 nm, exposure have ...


Sir3-Dependent Assembly Of Supramolecular Chromatin Structures In Vitro, Philippe T. Georgel, Madeleine A. Palacios DeBeer, Gregory Pietz, Catherine A. Fox, Jeffrey C. Hansen 2019 Marshall University

Sir3-Dependent Assembly Of Supramolecular Chromatin Structures In Vitro, Philippe T. Georgel, Madeleine A. Palacios Debeer, Gregory Pietz, Catherine A. Fox, Jeffrey C. Hansen

Philippe T. Georgel

Baculovirus-expressed recombinant Sir3p (rSir3p) has been purified to near homogeneity, and its binding to naked DNA, mononucleosomes, and nucleosomal arrays has been characterized in vitro. At stoichiometric levels rSir3p interacts with intact nucleosomal arrays, mononucleosomes, and naked DNA, as evidenced by formation of supershifted species on native agarose gels. Proteolytic removal of the core histone tail domains inhibits but does not completely abolish rSir3p binding to nucleosomal arrays. The linker DNA in the supershifted complexes remains freely accessible to restriction endonuclease digestion, suggesting that both the tail domains and nucleosomal DNA contribute to rSir3p–chromatin interactions. Together these data indicate ...


Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech 2019 Carroll College

Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The purpose of our experiment was to answer the question: Does exposure to aerosols expelled from an electronic cigarette affect the APN2 gene expression in Tetrahymena thermophila? It was hypothesized that the expression of APN2 would increase in Tetrahymena that were exposed to aerosol from a vape and that their growth rate would decrease. The mechanism and function of the APN2 gene is known as base excision repair. To test the hypothesis, Tetrahymena were randomly assigned to either a control group or a test group. A contraption was created to extract 12mL of aerosol from a Smok Baby Beast vape ...


Effect Of Lead On Vma1 Atpase Gene Expression And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Sarah Butler, Jazmine E. Townsend 2019 Carroll College

Effect Of Lead On Vma1 Atpase Gene Expression And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Sarah Butler, Jazmine E. Townsend

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Lead is an environmental toxin that has been sown to have deleterious effects on human health, including neurological defects, developmental delays, and bodily pain. The purpose of this experiment was to test whether prolonged exposure to lead altered expression of the VMA1 gene and feeding behavior in the model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. The VMA1 gene encodes the protein VMA1 (Vacuolar Membrane ATPase) which assists in regulating active transport systems on the vacuolar membrane. We hypothesized that exposure of T. thermophila to lead would result in altered expression of the VMA1 gene and in the feeding behavior of these organisms. For ...


Investigating The Effect Of Phytosterol Concentration On The Des7 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nate Burman, Dylan Jones 2019 Carroll College

Investigating The Effect Of Phytosterol Concentration On The Des7 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nate Burman, Dylan Jones

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This study examined the impact of phytosterols on DES7 gene expression and feeding behavior in Tetrahymena thermophila. Tetrahymena thermophila are single-celled protists that are often used as model organisms for studying basic processes of Molecular Biology. One major topic in Molecular Biology that has been extensively studied in Tetrahymena is the concept of gene regulation. Gene regulation helps determine whether a certain protein is produced, and this often depends on both the internal and external conditions of the organism. This project took a closer look at the way Tetrahymena process exogenous cholesterol molecules through the production of the DES7 enzyme ...


Effects Of Ethanol On The Gene Expression Of Uracil Dna N-Glycosylase 1 (Ung1) And Growth Rate In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Samantha Mundel, Seth Berkowitz 2019 Carroll College

Effects Of Ethanol On The Gene Expression Of Uracil Dna N-Glycosylase 1 (Ung1) And Growth Rate In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Samantha Mundel, Seth Berkowitz

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Alcohol (ethanol) interferes with human health in a variety of ways such as heart damage, liver damage, and specifically, DNA damage. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of ethanol on the growth rate and expression of the uracil DNA N-Glycosylase (UNG1 ) gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. It was hypothesized that expression of UNG1, the gene that codes for the enzyme uracil DNA N-Glycosylase, would increase and that growth rate would decrease in Tetrahymena cells exposed to ethanol. Previous studies suggest that UNG1 expression is increased when DNA is damaged. This enzyme is involved in base excision repair ...


Csx3: A Crispr-Related Protein W/Rnase Activity, Nate Burman 2019 Carroll College

Csx3: A Crispr-Related Protein W/Rnase Activity, Nate Burman

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Csx3 is a CRIPSR related RNase of unknown purpse obtained from the Archaeal strain Archaeoglobus fulgidus. However, previous literature demonstrates that this thermostable protein dimer is capable of binding small RNA’s. The Lawrence Lab hypothesizes that this activity is due to the presence of a secondary binding domain. In order to investigate this proposed function, Csx3 has been expressed and purified in preparation for enzyme assays and crystallization that will demonstrate the activation of RNase activity by allosteric binding of a nucleic acid oligomer.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas, RNAse, Csx3


Effect Of Turmeric On Oxidatively Stressed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cells, Logan Meeks, Luke R. McEntee 2019 Carroll College

Effect Of Turmeric On Oxidatively Stressed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cells, Logan Meeks, Luke R. Mcentee

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are chemically reactive forms of oxygen that, within a cellular environment, form free radicals that interfere with cellular processes and damage DNA. ROSs are routinely produced during oxidative metabolic processes that occur within the mitochondria and their presence in the cell must be tightly regulated. The OXR1 gene encodes a protein that is essential to the degradation of ROSs primarily in the nucleus and in the mitochondria. In this study, we wanted to determine whether turmeric had a protective effect on ROS-induced oxidative stress through regulation of the OXR1 gene in the model organism Tetrahymena thermophila ...


Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete 2019 Carroll College

Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Phthalates, often referred to as plasticizers, are a group of chemicals used in hundreds of products including detergents, food packaging, and nail polish. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (DEHP) have recently been shown to disrupt endocrine chemical balances, thereby causing reproductive strain. For this project, we wanted to explore how DEHP influences conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila and to determine how DEHP exposure affects expression of the DCL-1 gene. The DCL-1 gene encodes the protein DCL-1 which is essential for transmitting genetic information during the process of conjugation in T. thermophila. We hypothesized that DEHP will act as a repressor of conjugation resulting ...


Pesticides And Parkinson's: An Investigation Of The Effect Of Roundup Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster, Siobhan O'Neill 2019 Carroll College

Pesticides And Parkinson's: An Investigation Of The Effect Of Roundup Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster, Siobhan O'Neill

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

From commercial farms to private households, Roundup is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States. In recent years, exposure to Roundup has been correlated with a variety of health problems including Celiac Disease, birth defects, kidney and liver diseases, Alzheimer's Disease, and Parkinson's Disease. To date, the use of Roundup has been banned or restricted in several foreign countries, including the Netherlands, Portugal, Germany and Italy, because it has been classified as a possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization. The goal of this research was to determine the effects of Roundup exposure on dopaminergic neurons ...


The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker 2019 Carroll College

The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Roundup is a very common herbicide in the United States, but has been linked to many detrimental health effects and was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic’ by the World Health Organization in 1994. Not much research has been done to elucidate the possible effects on non-cancer gene pathways.The goal of this project was to research the influence that exposure to Roundup has on the growth of Tetrahymena thermophila and the expression of the cytochrome p450 gene. It was hypothesized that Roundup exposure would change the expression of cytochrome p450 gene and would decrease the growth rate of Tetrahymena thermophila. Background ...


Interactions Of (My) 6 (M = Zn, Cd; Y = O, S, Se) Quantum Dots With N-Bases, Mariusz Michalczyk, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Steve Scheiner 2019 Wrocław University of Science and Technology

Interactions Of (My) 6 (M = Zn, Cd; Y = O, S, Se) Quantum Dots With N-Bases, Mariusz Michalczyk, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

(MY)6 clusters, with M = Zn and Cd and Y = O, S, Se, form double-layer drum-like structures containing M–Y covalent bonds. The positive regions near the M atoms attract the N atom of both NH3 and NMe3 so as to form a noncovalent M···N bond. This bond is quite strong, with interaction energies exceeding 35 kcal/mol. The bond strength diminishes with reduced electronegativity of the Y atom (O > S > Se) and is stronger for M = Zn than for Cd. Trimethylation of the base enhances the bond strength. The interaction is dominated by the electrostatic component ...


Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany DeSouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Desouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige

Open Access Articles

Exercise mitigates chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms governing protection from these diseases are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that exercise rescues metabolically compromised high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and reprograms subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Using transcriptomic profiling, scWAT was analyzed for HFD gene expression changes that were rescued by exercise. Gene networks involved in vascularization were identified as prominent targets of exercise, which led us to investigate the vasculature architecture and endothelial phenotype. Vascular density in scWAT was found to be compromised in HFD, and exercise rescued this defect ...


Investigating The Rotary Mechanism Of Atp Synthase Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Angela Marcela Murcia Rios 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Rotary Mechanism Of Atp Synthase Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Angela Marcela Murcia Rios

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

F1-ATPase is a motor protein that can use ATP hydrolysis to drive rotation of the central subunit. The γ C-terminal helix constitutes of the rotor tip that is seated in an apical bearing formed by the α3β3 head. It remains uncertain to what extent the γ conformation during rotation differs from that seen in rigid crystal structures. Existing models assume that the entire γ subunit participates in every rotation. Here we develop a molecular dynamics (MD) strategy to model the off-axis forces acting on γ in F1-ATPase. MD runs showed stalling of the ...


Department Of Chemistry And Biochemistry 24th Departmental Symposium In Conjunction With The Petersheim Academic Exposition, Seton Hall University 2019 Seton Hall University

Department Of Chemistry And Biochemistry 24th Departmental Symposium In Conjunction With The Petersheim Academic Exposition, Seton Hall University

Petersheim Academic Exposition

No abstract provided.


The Nifz Accessory Protein Has An Equivalent Function In Maturation Of Both Nitrogenase Mofe Protein P-Clusters, Emilio Jimenez-Vicente, Zhi-Yong Yang, Julia S. Martin del Campo, Valarie L. Cash, Lance C. Seefeldt, Dennis R. Dean 2019 Virginia Polytechnic Institute

The Nifz Accessory Protein Has An Equivalent Function In Maturation Of Both Nitrogenase Mofe Protein P-Clusters, Emilio Jimenez-Vicente, Zhi-Yong Yang, Julia S. Martin Del Campo, Valarie L. Cash, Lance C. Seefeldt, Dennis R. Dean

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The Mo-dependent nitrogenase comprises two interacting components called the Fe protein and the MoFe protein. The MoFe protein is an α2β2 heterotetramer that harbors two types of complex metalloclusters, both of which are necessary for N2reduction. One type is a 7Fe-9S-Mo-C-homocitrate species designated FeMo-cofactor, which provides the N2-binding catalytic site, and the other is an 8Fe-7S species designated the P-cluster, involved in mediating intercomponent electron transfer to FeMo-cofactor. The MoFe protein's catalytic partner, Fe protein, is also required for both FeMo-cofactor formation and the conversion of an immature form of P-clusters to ...


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