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The Potential Of Achiral Sponge-Derived And Synthetic Bromoindoles As Selective Cytotoxins Against Panc-1 Tumor Cells., Nicholas Lorig-Roach, Frances Hamkins-Indik, Tyler A. Johnson, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Phillip Crews 2019 University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA

The Potential Of Achiral Sponge-Derived And Synthetic Bromoindoles As Selective Cytotoxins Against Panc-1 Tumor Cells., Nicholas Lorig-Roach, Frances Hamkins-Indik, Tyler A. Johnson, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

Our quest to isolate and characterize natural products with in vitro solid tumor selectivity is driven by access to repositories of Indo-Pacific sponge extracts. In this project an extract of a species of Haplosclerida sponge obtained from the US NCI Natural Products Repository displayed, by in vitro disk diffusion assay (DDA) and IC


Mass Stranding Of Marine Birds Caused By A Surfactant-Producing Red Tide., David A. Jessup, Melissa A. Miller, John P. Ryan, Hannah M Nevins, Heather A. Kerkering, Abdou Mekebri, David B. Crane, Tyler A. Johnson, Raphael M. Kudela 2019 California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, California, USA

Mass Stranding Of Marine Birds Caused By A Surfactant-Producing Red Tide., David A. Jessup, Melissa A. Miller, John P. Ryan, Hannah M Nevins, Heather A. Kerkering, Abdou Mekebri, David B. Crane, Tyler A. Johnson, Raphael M. Kudela

Tyler Johnson

In November-December 2007 a widespread seabird mortality event occurred in Monterey Bay, California, USA, coincident with a massive red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. Affected birds had a slimy yellow-green material on their feathers, which were saturated with water, and they were severely hypothermic. We determined that foam containing surfactant-like proteins, derived from organic matter of the red tide, coated their feathers and neutralized natural water repellency and insulation. No evidence of exposure to petroleum or other oils or biotoxins were found. This is the first documented case of its kind, but previous similar events may have gone ...


Rapid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay For Detection Of The Algal Toxin Domoic Acid, R Wayne Litaker, Thomas N. Stewart, Bich-Thuy L. Eberhart, John C. Wekell, Vera L. Trainer, Raphael M. Kudela, Peter E. Miller, Alice Roberts, Cassandra Hertz, Tyler A. Johnson, Greg Frankfurter, G. Jason Smith, Astrid Schnetzer, Joe Schumacker, Jonnette L. Bastian, Anthony Odell, Patrick Gentien, Dominique Le Gal, D Ransom Hardison, Patricia A. Tester 2019 National Ocean Service, NOAA, North Carolina, USA

Rapid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay For Detection Of The Algal Toxin Domoic Acid, R Wayne Litaker, Thomas N. Stewart, Bich-Thuy L. Eberhart, John C. Wekell, Vera L. Trainer, Raphael M. Kudela, Peter E. Miller, Alice Roberts, Cassandra Hertz, Tyler A. Johnson, Greg Frankfurter, G. Jason Smith, Astrid Schnetzer, Joe Schumacker, Jonnette L. Bastian, Anthony Odell, Patrick Gentien, Dominique Le Gal, D Ransom Hardison, Patricia A. Tester

Tyler Johnson

Domoic acid (DA) is a potent toxin produced by bloom-forming phytoplankton in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, which is responsible for causing amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans. ASP symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, and in more severe cases confusion, loss of memory, disorientation, and even coma or death. This paper describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test kit for detecting DA using a monoclonal antibody. The assay gives equivalent results to those obtained using standard high performance liquid chromatography, fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl high performance liquid chromatography, or liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry methods. It has a linear range ...


Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews 2019 University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

A nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase assay has been employed to identify the bengamides, previously known for their anti-tumor activity, as a new class of immune modulators. A unique element of this study was that the bengamide analogs were isolated from two disparate sources, Myxococcus virescens (bacterium) and Jaspis coriacea (sponge). Comparative LC-MS/ELSD and NMR analysis facilitated the isolation of M. viriscens derived samples of bengamide E (8) and two congeners, bengamide E' (13) and F' (14) each isolated as an insperable mixture of diastereomers. Additional compounds drawn from the UC, Santa Cruz repository allowed expansion of the structure activity ...


The Marine Sponge Metabolite Mycothiazole: A Novel Prototype Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor., J Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Yang Liu, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Mika B Jekabsons, Tyler A. Johnson, Koneni V Sashidhara, Phillip Crews, Dale G Nagle, Yu-Dong Zhou 2019 University of Mississippi, Mississippi, USA

The Marine Sponge Metabolite Mycothiazole: A Novel Prototype Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor., J Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Yang Liu, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Mika B Jekabsons, Tyler A. Johnson, Koneni V Sashidhara, Phillip Crews, Dale G Nagle, Yu-Dong Zhou

Tyler Johnson

A natural product chemistry-based approach was applied to discover small-molecule inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). A Petrosaspongia mycofijiensis marine sponge extract yielded mycothiazole (1), a solid tumor selective compound with no known mechanism for its cell line-dependent cytotoxic activity. Compound 1 inhibited hypoxic HIF-1 signaling in tumor cells (IC(50) 1nM) that correlated with the suppression of hypoxia-stimulated tumor angiogenesis in vitro. However, 1 exhibited pronounced neurotoxicity in vitro. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 selectively suppresses mitochondrial respiration at complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Unlike rotenone, MPP(+), annonaceous acetogenins, piericidin A, and other complex I inhibitors, mycothiazole is a mixed polyketide ...


Lipophilic Stinging Nettle Extracts Possess Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Are Not Cytotoxic And May Be Superior To Traditional Tinctures For Treating Inflammatory Disorders., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Wayne D Inman, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Keith Rayburn 2019 University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

Lipophilic Stinging Nettle Extracts Possess Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Are Not Cytotoxic And May Be Superior To Traditional Tinctures For Treating Inflammatory Disorders., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Wayne D Inman, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Keith Rayburn

Tyler Johnson

Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed ...


Another Look At Pyrroloiminoquinone Alkaloids-Perspectives On Their Therapeutic Potential From Known Structures And Semisynthetic Analogues., Sheng Lin, Erin P McCauley, Nicholas Lorig-Roach, Karen Tenney, Cassandra N Naphen, Ai-Mei Yang, Tyler A. Johnson, Thalia Hernadez, Ramandeep Rattan, Frederick A Valeriote, Phillip Crews 2019 University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA

Another Look At Pyrroloiminoquinone Alkaloids-Perspectives On Their Therapeutic Potential From Known Structures And Semisynthetic Analogues., Sheng Lin, Erin P Mccauley, Nicholas Lorig-Roach, Karen Tenney, Cassandra N Naphen, Ai-Mei Yang, Tyler A. Johnson, Thalia Hernadez, Ramandeep Rattan, Frederick A Valeriote, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

This study began with the goal of identifying constituents from Zyzzya fuliginosa extracts that showed selectivity in our primary cytotoxicity screen against the PANC-1 tumor cell line. During the course of this project, which focused on six Z. fuliginosa samples collected from various regions of the Indo-Pacific, known compounds were obtained consisting of nine makaluvamine and three damirone analogues. Four new acetylated derivatives were also prepared. High-accuracy electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HAESI-MS) m/z ions produced through MS2 runs were obtained and interpreted to provide a rapid way for dereplicating isomers containing a pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline core ...


Chemically Diverse Microtubule Stabilizing Agents Initiate Distinct Mitotic Defects And Dysregulated Expression Of Key Mitotic Kinases., Cristina C Rohena, Jiangnan Peng, Tyler A. Johnson, Phillip Crews, Susan L Mooberry 2019 University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Chemically Diverse Microtubule Stabilizing Agents Initiate Distinct Mitotic Defects And Dysregulated Expression Of Key Mitotic Kinases., Cristina C Rohena, Jiangnan Peng, Tyler A. Johnson, Phillip Crews, Susan L Mooberry

Tyler Johnson

Microtubule stabilizers are some of the most successful drugs used in the treatment of adult solid tumors and yet the molecular events responsible for their antimitotic actions are not well defined. The mitotic events initiated by three structurally and biologically diverse microtubule stabilizers; taccalonolide AJ, laulimalide/fijianolide B and paclitaxel were studied. These microtubule stabilizers cause the formation of aberrant, but structurally distinct mitotic spindles leading to the hypothesis that they differentially affect mitotic signaling. Each microtubule stabilizer initiated different patterns of expression of key mitotic signaling proteins. Taccalonolide AJ causes centrosome separation and disjunction failure to a much greater ...


Discovery Of Platelet-Type 12-Human Lipoxygenase Selective Inhibitors By High-Throughput Screening Of Structurally Diverse Libraries., Joshua D. Deschamps, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Stephanie Whitman, Tyler A. Johnson, Nadine C. Gassner, Phillip Crews, Theodore R. Holman 2019 University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA

Discovery Of Platelet-Type 12-Human Lipoxygenase Selective Inhibitors By High-Throughput Screening Of Structurally Diverse Libraries., Joshua D. Deschamps, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Stephanie Whitman, Tyler A. Johnson, Nadine C. Gassner, Phillip Crews, Theodore R. Holman

Tyler Johnson

Human lipoxygenases (hLO) have been implicated in a variety of diseases and cancers and each hLO isozyme appears to have distinct roles in cellular biology. This fact emphasizes the need for discovering selective hLO inhibitors for both understanding the role of specific lipoxygenases in the cell and developing pharmaceutical therapeutics. To this end, we have modified a known lipoxygenase assay for high-throughput (HTP) screening of both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the UC Santa Cruz marine extract library (UCSC-MEL) in search of platelet-type 12-hLO (12-hLO) selective inhibitors. The HTP screen led to the characterization of five novel 12-hLO inhibitors ...


Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe 2019 York College of Pennslyvania

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe

Poroi

The nucleic acid DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic information, consists of a four-letter alphabet that has until recently been characterized as a read-only text. The development of a quick, inexpensive DNA targeting and manipulation technique called CRISPR, pronounced “crisper,” though, has changed DNA from this arhetorical, read-only data set, as it has been characterized in the rhetoric literature to date, to a fully rhetorical text—one that can be not only read but created, interpreted, copied, altered, and stored as well. The Book of Nature, an idea with roots in antiquity but popularized during the nineteenth century, provides ...


Mutations In The Glycosyltransferase Domain Of Glt8d1 Are Associated With Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Johnathan Cooper-Knock, John E. Landers, Pamela J. Shaw 2019 University of Sheffield

Mutations In The Glycosyltransferase Domain Of Glt8d1 Are Associated With Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Johnathan Cooper-Knock, John E. Landers, Pamela J. Shaw

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective neuroprotective therapy. Known genetic variants impair pathways, including RNA processing, axonal transport, and protein homeostasis. We report ALS-causing mutations within the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase GLT8D1. Exome sequencing in an autosomal-dominant ALS pedigree identified p.R92C mutations in GLT8D1, which co-segregate with disease. Sequencing of local and international cohorts demonstrated significant ALS association in the same exon, including additional rare deleterious mutations in conserved amino acids. Mutations are associated with the substrate binding site, and both R92C and G78W changes impair GLT8D1 enzyme activity. Mutated GLT8D1 exhibits in vitro ...


Long-Term, Super-Resolution Imaging Of Amyloid Structures Using Transient Amyloid Binding Microscopy, Tianben Ding, Kevin Spehar, Jan Bieschke, Matthew D. Lew 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Long-Term, Super-Resolution Imaging Of Amyloid Structures Using Transient Amyloid Binding Microscopy, Tianben Ding, Kevin Spehar, Jan Bieschke, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Amyloid fibrils and tangles are signatures of Alzheimer disease, but nanometer-sized aggregation intermediates are hypothesized to be the structures most toxic to neurons. The structures of these oligomers are too small to be resolved by conventional light microscopy. We have developed a simple and versatile method, called transient amyloid binding (TAB), to image amyloid structures with nanoscale resolution using amyloidophilic dyes, such as Thioflavin T, without the need for covalent labeling or immunostaining of the amyloid protein. Transient binding of ThT molecules to amyloid structures over time generates photon bursts that are used to localize single fluorophores with nanometer precision ...


Diverse Lipid Conjugates For Functional Extra-Hepatic Sirna Delivery In Vivo, Annabelle Biscans, Andrew H. Coles, Reka A. Haraszti, Dimas Echeverria, Matthew R. Hassler, Maire F. Osborn, Anastasia Khvorova 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Diverse Lipid Conjugates For Functional Extra-Hepatic Sirna Delivery In Vivo, Annabelle Biscans, Andrew H. Coles, Reka A. Haraszti, Dimas Echeverria, Matthew R. Hassler, Maire F. Osborn, Anastasia Khvorova

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapies are proving to be efficient for treating liver-associated disorders. However, extra-hepatic delivery remains challenging, limiting therapeutic siRNA utility. We synthesized a panel of fifteen lipid-conjugated siRNAs and systematically evaluated the impact of conjugate on siRNA tissue distribution and efficacy. Generally, conjugate hydrophobicity defines the degree of clearance and the liver-to-kidney distribution profile. In addition to primary clearance tissues, several conjugates achieve significant siRNA accumulation in muscle, lung, heart, adrenal glands and fat. Oligonucleotide distribution to extra-hepatic tissues with some conjugates was significantly higher than with cholesterol, a well studied conjugate, suggesting that altering conjugate ...


Hydrophobicity Drives The Systemic Distribution Of Lipid-Conjugated Sirnas Via Lipid Transport Pathways, Maire F. Osborn, Andrew H. Coles, Annabelle Biscans, Reka A. Haraszti, Loic Roux, Sarah M. Davis, Socheata Ly, Dimas Echeverria, Matthew R. Hassler, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Mehran Nikan, Anastasia Khvorova 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hydrophobicity Drives The Systemic Distribution Of Lipid-Conjugated Sirnas Via Lipid Transport Pathways, Maire F. Osborn, Andrew H. Coles, Annabelle Biscans, Reka A. Haraszti, Loic Roux, Sarah M. Davis, Socheata Ly, Dimas Echeverria, Matthew R. Hassler, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Mehran Nikan, Anastasia Khvorova

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

Efficient delivery of therapeutic RNA beyond the liver is the fundamental obstacle preventing its clinical utility. Lipid conjugation increases plasma half-life and enhances tissue accumulation and cellular uptake of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, the mechanism relating lipid hydrophobicity, structure, and siRNA pharmacokinetics is unclear. Here, using a diverse panel of biologically occurring lipids, we show that lipid conjugation directly modulates siRNA hydrophobicity. When administered in vivo, highly hydrophobic lipid-siRNAs preferentially and spontaneously associate with circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL), while less lipophilic lipid-siRNAs bind to high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Lipid-siRNAs are targeted to lipoprotein receptor-enriched tissues, eliciting significant mRNA silencing in ...


Thioredoxin Modulates Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (Pad4)-Catalyzed Citrullination, Mitesh Nagar, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Thioredoxin Modulates Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (Pad4)-Catalyzed Citrullination, Mitesh Nagar, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson

Open Access Articles

Protein citrullination is a post-translational modification catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs). This modification plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of numerous autoimmune disorders including RA. Recently, there has been a growing interest in investigating physiological regulators of PAD activity to understand the primary cause of the associated disorders. Apart from calcium, it is well-documented that a reducing environment activates the PADs. Although the concentration of thioredoxin (hTRX), an oxidoreductase that maintains the cellular reducing environment, is elevated in RA patients, its contribution toward RA progression or PAD activity has not been explored. Herein, we demonstrate that hTRX ...


Allosteric Mechanism Of The Circadian Protein Vivid Resolved Through Markov State Model And Machine Learning Analysis, Hongyu Zhou, Zheng Dong, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao 2019 Southern Methodist University

Allosteric Mechanism Of The Circadian Protein Vivid Resolved Through Markov State Model And Machine Learning Analysis, Hongyu Zhou, Zheng Dong, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The fungal circadian clock photoreceptor Vivid (VVD) contains a photosensitive allosteric light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domain that undergoes a large N-terminal conformational change. The mechanism by which a blue-light driven covalent bond formation leads to a global conformational change remains unclear, which hinders the further development of VVD as an optogenetic tool. We answered this question through a novel computational platform integrating Markov state models, machine learning methods, and newly developed community analysis algorithms. Applying this new integrative approach, we provided a quantitative evaluation of the contribution from the covalent bond to the protein global conformational change, and proposed an ...


Rna Sequencing, Selection Of Reference Genes And Demonstration Of Feeding Rnai In Thrips Tabaci (Lind.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Satnam Singh, Mridula Gupta, Suneet Pandher, Gurmeet Kaur, Neha Goel, Pankaj Rathore, Subba Reddy Palli 2019 Punjab Agricultural University, India

Rna Sequencing, Selection Of Reference Genes And Demonstration Of Feeding Rnai In Thrips Tabaci (Lind.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Satnam Singh, Mridula Gupta, Suneet Pandher, Gurmeet Kaur, Neha Goel, Pankaj Rathore, Subba Reddy Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Background: Thrips tabaci is a severe pest of onion and cotton. Due to lack of information on its genome or transcriptome, not much is known about this insect at the molecular level. To initiate molecular studies in this insect, RNA was sequenced; de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis were performed. The RNAseq data was used to identify reference and RNAi pathway genes in this insect. Additionally, feeding RNAi was demonstrated in T. tabaci for the first time.

Results: From the assembled transcriptome, 27,836 coding sequence (CDS) with an average size of 1236 bp per CDS were identified. About 85 ...


Using Publicly Available Genbank Data To Teach Plant Phylogeny In High School Classrooms, Madhav P. Nepal, Ethan J. Andersen 2019 South Dakota State University

Using Publicly Available Genbank Data To Teach Plant Phylogeny In High School Classrooms, Madhav P. Nepal, Ethan J. Andersen

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this teaching module, students will learn about NCBI GenBank, search for DNA/protein sequences from multiple plant species of a gene that encodes Rubisco enzyme, construct and interpret a phylogenetic tree, and discuss traits that allowed plants to adapt their life on land.


Coupling Of Parp1-Mediated Chromatin Structural Changes To Transcriptional Rna Polymerase Ii Elongation And Cotranscriptional Splicing, Elena A. Matveeva, Qamar M. H. Al-Tinawi, Eric C. Rouchka, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf 2019 University of Kentucky

Coupling Of Parp1-Mediated Chromatin Structural Changes To Transcriptional Rna Polymerase Ii Elongation And Cotranscriptional Splicing, Elena A. Matveeva, Qamar M. H. Al-Tinawi, Eric C. Rouchka, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Background: Recently, we showed that PARP1 is involved in cotranscriptional splicing, possibly by bridging chromatin to RNA and recruiting splicing factors. It also can influence alternative splicing decisions through the regulation of RNAPII elongation. In this study, we investigated the effect of PARP1-mediated chromatin changes on RNAPII movement, during transcription and alternative splicing.

Results: We show that RNAPII pauses at PARP1–chromatin structures within the gene body. Knockdown of PARP1 abolishes this RNAPII pausing, suggesting that PARP1 may regulate RNAPII elongation. Additionally, PARP1 alters nucleosome deposition and histone post-translational modifications at specific exon–intron boundaries, thereby affecting RNAPII movement. Lastly ...


A H2ax–Carp-1 Interaction Regulates Apoptosis Signaling Following Dna Damage, Sreeja C. Sekhar, Jaganathan Venkatesh, Vino T. Cheriyan, Magesh Muthu, Edi Levi, Hadeel Assad, Paul Meister, Vishnu V. Undyala, James W. Gauld, Arun K. Rishi 2019 John D. Dingell Veterans Administration Medical Center, Karmanos Cancer Institute

A H2ax–Carp-1 Interaction Regulates Apoptosis Signaling Following Dna Damage, Sreeja C. Sekhar, Jaganathan Venkatesh, Vino T. Cheriyan, Magesh Muthu, Edi Levi, Hadeel Assad, Paul Meister, Vishnu V. Undyala, James W. Gauld, Arun K. Rishi

Chemistry and Biochemistry Publications

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP-1/CCAR1) is a peri-nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates apoptosis via chemotherapeutic Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and a novel class of CARP-1 functional mimetic (CFM) compounds. Although Adriamycin causes DNA damage, data from Comet assays revealed that CFM-4.16 also induced DNA damage. Phosphorylation of histone 2AX (γH2AX) protein is involved in regulating DNA damage repair and apoptosis signaling. Adriamycin or CFM-4.16 treatments inhibited cell growth and caused elevated CARP-1 and γH2AX in human breast (HBC) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. In fact, a robust nuclear or peri-nuclear co-localization of CARP-1 and γH2AX occurred in cells ...


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