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Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping In Computer Aided Drug Design, Steven Ramsey 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping In Computer Aided Drug Design, Steven Ramsey

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The displacement of water from surfaces upon biomolecular recognition and association makes a significant contribution to the free energy changes of these processes. We therefore posit that accurate characterization of local structural and thermodynamic molecular water properties can improve computational model accuracy and predictivity of recognition and association processes. In this thesis, we discuss Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping (STM) methods that we have developed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IST) to better characterize active site water structural and thermodynamic properties on protein surfaces and the open source tools that we have developed, GIST-CPPTRAJ and SSTMap, which implement these methods which we ...


Multiple Variables At The Leukocyte Cell Surface Impact Fc Γ Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms, Kashyap R. Patel, Jacob T. Roberts, Adam W. Barb 2019 Iowa State University

Multiple Variables At The Leukocyte Cell Surface Impact Fc Γ Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms, Kashyap R. Patel, Jacob T. Roberts, Adam W. Barb

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Fc γ receptors (FcγR) expressed on the surface of human leukocytes bind clusters of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to induce a variety of responses. Many therapeutic antibodies and vaccine-elicited antibodies prevent or treat infectious diseases, cancers and autoimmune disorders by binding FcγRs, thus there is a need to fully define the variables that impact antibody-induced mechanisms to properly evaluate candidate therapies and design new intervention strategies. A multitude of factors influence the IgG-FcγR interaction; one well-described factor is the differential affinity of the six distinct FcγRs for the four human IgG subclasses. However, there are several other recently described factors that ...


Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interactions between proteins play a key role in nearly all cellular process, and therefore, disruption of such interactions may lead to many different types of cellular dysfunctions. Hence, pathologic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute highly attractive drug targets and hold great potential for developing novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of incurable human diseases. Unfortunately, the identification of PPI inhibitors is an extremely challenging task, since traditionally used small molecule ligands are mostly unable to cover and anchor on the extensive flat surfaces that define those binary protein complexes. In contrast, large biomolecules such as proteins or peptides are ideal fits ...


Rapid Evolution And Conserved Function Of The Pirna Pathway, Swapnil S. Parhad, William E. Theurkauf 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rapid Evolution And Conserved Function Of The Pirna Pathway, Swapnil S. Parhad, William E. Theurkauf

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Transposons are major genome constituents that can mobilize and trigger mutations, DNA breaks and chromosome rearrangements. Transposon silencing is particularly important in the germline, which is dedicated to transmission of the inherited genome. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) guide a host defence system that transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally silences transposons during germline development. While germline control of transposons by the piRNA pathway is conserved, many piRNA pathway genes are evolving rapidly under positive selection, and the piRNA biogenesis machinery shows remarkable phylogenetic diversity. Conservation of core function combined with rapid gene evolution is characteristic of a host-pathogen arms race, suggesting that transposons and ...


Itch Nuclear Translocation And H1.2 Polyubiquitination Negatively Regulate The Dna Damage Response, Lufen Chang, Lei Shen, Hu Zhou, Jing Gao, Hangyi Pan, Li Zheng, Brian Armstrong, Yang Peng, Guang Peng, Binhua P. Zhou, Steven T. Rosen, Binghui Shen 2019 Beckman Research Institute

Itch Nuclear Translocation And H1.2 Polyubiquitination Negatively Regulate The Dna Damage Response, Lufen Chang, Lei Shen, Hu Zhou, Jing Gao, Hangyi Pan, Li Zheng, Brian Armstrong, Yang Peng, Guang Peng, Binhua P. Zhou, Steven T. Rosen, Binghui Shen

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The downregulation of the DNA damage response (DDR) enables aggressive tumors to achieve uncontrolled proliferation against replication stress, but the mechanisms underlying this process in tumors are relatively complex. Here, we demonstrate a mechanism through which a distinct E3 ubiquitin ligase, ITCH, modulates DDR machinery in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We found that expression of a nuclear form of ITCH was significantly increased in human TNBC cell lines and tumor specimens. Phosphorylation of ITCH at Ser257 by AKT led to the nuclear localization of ITCH and ubiquitination of H1.2. The ITCH-mediated polyubiquitination of H1.2 suppressed RNF8/RNF168-dependent formation ...


Chemistry & Biochemistry Guest Lecture Series, Desmond Murray 2019 Andrews University

Chemistry & Biochemistry Guest Lecture Series, Desmond Murray

Andrews Agenda: Campus News

No abstract provided.


Dual Geometry Schemes In Tetrel Bonds: Complexes Between Tf4(T = Si, Ge, Sn) And Pyridine Derivatives, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Mariusz Michalczyk, Rafał Wysokiński, Steve Scheiner 2019 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology

Dual Geometry Schemes In Tetrel Bonds: Complexes Between Tf4(T = Si, Ge, Sn) And Pyridine Derivatives, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Mariusz Michalczyk, Rafał Wysokiński, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

When an N-base approaches the tetrel atom of TF4(T = Si, Ge, Sn) the latter moleculedeforms from a tetrahedral structure in the monomer to a trigonal bipyramid. The base can situateitself at either an axial or equatorial position, leading to two different equilibrium geometries.The interaction energies are considerably larger for the equatorial structures, up around 50 kcal/mol,which also have a shorter R(T··N) separation. On the other hand, the energy needed to deform thetetrahedral monomer into the equatorial structure is much higher than the equivalent deformationenergy in the axial dimer. When these two opposite trends are ...


Analyzing Neuronal Dendritic Trees With Convolutional Neural Networks, Olivier Trottier, Jonathon Howard 2019 Yale University

Analyzing Neuronal Dendritic Trees With Convolutional Neural Networks, Olivier Trottier, Jonathon Howard

Yale Day of Data

In the biological sciences, image analysis software are used to detect, segment or classify a variety of features encountered in living matter. However, the algorithms that accomplish these tasks are often designed for a specific dataset, making them hardly portable to accomplish the same tasks on images of different biological structures. Recently, convolutional neural networks have been used to perform complex image analysis on a multitude of datasets. While applications of these networks abound in the technology industry and computer science, use cases are not as common in the academic sciences. Motivated by the generalizability of neural networks, we aim ...


A Three State Model Can Explain The Dynamics Of Class Iv Drosophila Dendritic Tips, Sabyasachi Sutradhar 2019 Yale University

A Three State Model Can Explain The Dynamics Of Class Iv Drosophila Dendritic Tips, Sabyasachi Sutradhar

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald

Open Access Articles

Single-molecule binding assays enable the study of how molecular machines assemble and function. Current algorithms can identify and locate individual molecules, but require tedious manual validation of each spot. Moreover, no solution for high-throughput analysis of single-molecule binding data exists. Here, we describe an automated pipeline to analyze single-molecule data over a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, our method enables state estimation on multivariate Gaussian signals. We validate our approach using simulated data, and benchmark the pipeline by measuring the binding properties of the well-studied, DNA-guided DNA endonuclease, TtAgo, an Argonaute protein from the Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. We ...


Ninjurin1 Positively Regulates Osteoclast Development By Enhancing The Survival Of Prefusion Osteoclasts, Sung-Jin Bae, Min Wook Shin, Taekwon Son, Hye Shin. Lee, Ji Soo Chae, Sejin Jeon, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyu-Won Kim 2019 Seoul National University

Ninjurin1 Positively Regulates Osteoclast Development By Enhancing The Survival Of Prefusion Osteoclasts, Sung-Jin Bae, Min Wook Shin, Taekwon Son, Hye Shin. Lee, Ji Soo Chae, Sejin Jeon, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyu-Won Kim

Open Access Articles

Osteoclasts (OCs) are bone-resorbing cells that originate from hematopoietic stem cells and develop through the fusion of mononuclear myeloid precursors. Dysregulation of OC development causes bone disorders such as osteopetrosis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying osteoclastogenesis have been well established, the means by which OCs maintain their survival during OC development remain unknown. We found that Ninjurin1 (Ninj1) expression is dynamically regulated during osteoclastogenesis and that Ninj1(-/-) mice exhibit increased trabecular bone volume owing to impaired OC development. Ninj1 deficiency did not alter OC differentiation, transmigration, fusion, or actin ring formation but increased Caspase-9-dependent intrinsic apoptosis ...


Co-Cultures Of Oophila Amblystomatis Between Ambystoma Maculatum And Ambystoma Gracile Hosts Show Host-Symbiont Fidelity, Ryan R. Kerney, Jasper S. Leavitt, Elizabeth M. Hill, Huanjia Zhang, Eunsoo Kim, John Burns 2019 Gettysburg College

Co-Cultures Of Oophila Amblystomatis Between Ambystoma Maculatum And Ambystoma Gracile Hosts Show Host-Symbiont Fidelity, Ryan R. Kerney, Jasper S. Leavitt, Elizabeth M. Hill, Huanjia Zhang, Eunsoo Kim, John Burns

Biology Faculty Publications

A unique symbiosis occurs between embryos of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and a green alga (Oophila amblystomatis). Unlike most vertebrate host-symbiont relationships, which are ectosymbiotic, A. maculatum exhibits both an ecto- and an endo-symbiosis, where some of the green algal cells living inside egg capsules enter embryonic tissues as well as individual salamander cells. Past research has consistently categorized this symbiosis as a mutualism, making this the first example of a “beneficial” microbe entering vertebrate cells. Another closely related species of salamander, Ambystoma gracile, also harbors beneficial Oophila algae in its egg capsules. However, our sampling within the A ...


Senp3-Mediated Host Defense Response Contains Hbv Replication And Restores Protein Synthesis, Rui Xi, Botao Liu, Yan Han, Xiling Shen 2019 Duke University

Senp3-Mediated Host Defense Response Contains Hbv Replication And Restores Protein Synthesis, Rui Xi, Botao Liu, Yan Han, Xiling Shen

Open Access Articles

Certain organs are capable of containing the replication of various types of viruses. In the liver, infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the etiological factor of Hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), often remains asymptomatic and leads to a chronic carrier state. Here we investigated how hepatocytes contain HBV replication and promote their own survival by orchestrating a translational defense mechanism via the stress-sensitive SUMO-2/3-specific peptidase SENP3. We found that SENP3 expression level decreased in HBV-infected hepatocytes in various models including HepG2-NTCP cell lines and a humanized mouse model. Downregulation of SENP3 reduced HBV replication and boosted host protein ...


Fabrication Of Miniaturized Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices (Micropads), E. Brandon Strong, Spencer A. Schultz, Andres Martinez, Nathaniel W. Martinez 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Fabrication Of Miniaturized Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices (Micropads), E. Brandon Strong, Spencer A. Schultz, Andres Martinez, Nathaniel W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs) are emerging as cost-effective and portable platforms for point-of-care assays. A fundamental limitation of microPAD fabrication is the imprecise nature of most methods for patterning paper. The present work demonstrates that paper patterned via wax printing can be miniaturized by treating it with periodate to produce higher-resolution, high-fidelity microPADs. The optimal miniaturization parameters were determined by immersing microPADs in various concentrations of aqueous sodium periodate (NaIO4) for varying lengths of time. This treatment miniaturized microPADs by up to 80% in surface area, depending on the concentration of periodate and length of the reaction time ...


Radiation Dose Estimation By Completely Automated Interpretation Of The Dicentric Chromosome Assay, Peter Rogan, Yanxin Li, Ben Shirley, Ruth Wilkins, Farrah Norton, Joan Knoll 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Radiation Dose Estimation By Completely Automated Interpretation Of The Dicentric Chromosome Assay, Peter Rogan, Yanxin Li, Ben Shirley, Ruth Wilkins, Farrah Norton, Joan Knoll

Biochemistry Publications

Accuracy of the automated dicentric chromosome (DC) assay relies on metaphase image selection. This study validates a software framework to find the best image selection models that mitigate inter-sample variability. Evaluation methods to determine model quality include the Poisson goodness-of-fit of DC distributions for each sample, residuals after calibration curve fitting and leave-one-out dose estimation errors. The process iteratively searches a pool of selection model candidates by modifying statistical and filter cut-offs to rank the best candidates according to their respective evaluation scores. Evaluation scores minimize the sum of squared errors relative to the actual radiation dose of the calibration ...


Differential Binding Of Tetrel-Bonding Bipodal Receptors To Monatomic And Polyatomic Anions, Steve Scheiner 2019 Utah State University

Differential Binding Of Tetrel-Bonding Bipodal Receptors To Monatomic And Polyatomic Anions, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Previous work has demonstrated that a bidentate receptor containing a pair of Sn atoms can engage in very strong interactions with halide ions via tetrel bonds. The question that is addressed here concerns the possibility that a receptor of this type might be designed that would preferentially bind a polyatomic over a monatomic anion since the former might better span the distance between the two Sn atoms. The binding of Cl was thus compared to that of HCOO, HSO4, and H2PO4 with a wide variety of bidentate receptors. A pair of SnFH2 groups, as strong ...


A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout

Open Access Articles

Biological systems must possess mechanisms that prevent inappropriate responses to spurious environmental inputs. Caenorhabditis elegans has two breakdown pathways for the short-chain fatty acid propionate: a canonical, vitamin B12-dependent pathway and a propionate shunt that is used when vitamin B12 levels are low. The shunt pathway is kept off when there is sufficient flux through the canonical pathway, likely to avoid generating shunt-specific toxic intermediates. Here, we discovered a transcriptional regulatory circuit that activates shunt gene expression upon propionate buildup. Nuclear hormone receptor 10 (NHR-10) and NHR-68 function together as a "persistence detector" in a type 1, coherent feed-forward loop ...


Debrowser: Interactive Differential Expression Analysis And Visualization Tool For Count Data, Alper Kucukural, Onur Yukselen, Deniz M. Ozata, Melissa J. Moore, Manuel Garber 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Debrowser: Interactive Differential Expression Analysis And Visualization Tool For Count Data, Alper Kucukural, Onur Yukselen, Deniz M. Ozata, Melissa J. Moore, Manuel Garber

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Sequencing data has become a standard measure of diverse cellular activities. For example, gene expression is accurately measured by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) libraries, protein-DNA interactions are captured by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq), protein-RNA interactions by crosslinking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-Seq) or RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP-Seq) sequencing, DNA accessibility by assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC-Seq), DNase or MNase sequencing libraries. The processing of these sequencing techniques involves library-specific approaches. However, in all cases, once the sequencing libraries are processed, the result is a count table specifying the estimated number of reads originating from each genomic locus. Differential analysis to determine which loci ...


Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The capsids of double-stranded DNA viruses protect the viral genome from the harsh extracellular environment, while maintaining stability against the high internal pressure of packaged DNA. To elucidate how capsids maintain stability in an extreme environment, we used cryoelectron microscopy to determine the capsid structure of the thermostable phage P74-26. We find the P74-26 capsid exhibits an overall architecture that is very similar to those of other tailed bacteriophages, allowing us to directly compare structures to derive the structural basis for enhanced stability. Our structure reveals lasso-like interactions that appear to function like catch bonds. This architecture allows the capsid ...


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