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P-20 Characterization Of Cgx Tautomerase And Mutants With Acetylenecarboxylic Acid, Daniel Chi, Karen Draths, Amaya Sirinimal 2019 Andrews University

P-20 Characterization Of Cgx Tautomerase And Mutants With Acetylenecarboxylic Acid, Daniel Chi, Karen Draths, Amaya Sirinimal

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

In the production of commodity chemicals through microbial synthesis, the use of renewable sugars as a raw material is increasingly common. However, this generates competition between its use in the chemical industry and the food industry. Therefore, developing alternative biosynthetic pathways involving other renewable feedstocks to replace starch-derived feedstocks is crucial. CgX, a tautomerase native to Corynebacterium glutamicum, catalyzes the hydration and subsequent decarboxylation of acetylenecarboxylic acid (ACA), a compound that can be produced from methane gas and carbon dioxide, both abundant greenhouse gases. The products formed from the CgX (wild-type)-catalyzed reaction of ACA results in a mixture of ...


Characterization Of The Role Of Alpha-Arylphorin In The Heliothis Virescens Midgut Response To Cry1ac Toxin From Bacillus Thuringiensis, Jerreme Jamael Jackson 2019 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Characterization Of The Role Of Alpha-Arylphorin In The Heliothis Virescens Midgut Response To Cry1ac Toxin From Bacillus Thuringiensis, Jerreme Jamael Jackson

Jerreme Jackson

Homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium in Heliothis virescens is mediated by the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that lie adjacent to the basal lamina. In response to extrinsic and intrinsic signals, ISC proliferation and differentiation promotes epithelial growth and regeneration following the loss of integrity. We tested the in vivo effects of the ISC mitogen, a [alpha]-arylphorin, on ISC proliferation and the morphological changes of the midgut during larval development. Additionally, we examined how these changes affected the intestinal epithelium response to Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis. Histological and in vitro evidence supported two distinct ...


Immediate-Early Genes And Delayed Primary Response Genes Regulated By Nmu In Skbr3 Her-2 Positive Breast Cancer Cell Line, Jessica Murphy, Sweta Rani 2019 Waterford Institute of Technology

Immediate-Early Genes And Delayed Primary Response Genes Regulated By Nmu In Skbr3 Her-2 Positive Breast Cancer Cell Line, Jessica Murphy, Sweta Rani

Sure-J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Background
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that consists of varying genetic, cellular and molecular subtypes with unique characteristics. Due to the multiple subtypes and molecular markers of breast cancer, successful clinical treatment is hampered by the lack of reliable biomarkers. HER2-positive breast cancer is an aggressive subtype associated with poor patient prognosis. Although survival rates have dramatically increased due to the development of Trastuzumab in 1997, many patients develop a resistance to this therapeutic treatment and relapse over time. Rani et al. (2014), have associated the acquirement of resistance to HER2-treatment with Neuromedin U, but the mechanisms by which ...


Creating A Molecular Map Of The Pediatric Lung, Quinlen F. Marshall 2019 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Creating A Molecular Map Of The Pediatric Lung, Quinlen F. Marshall

Forum Lectures

The newborn lung undergoes vast biochemical and physiological changes during adaptation from the intrauterine to the extrauterine environment. Lung morphogenesis continues from birth into early childhood, mediated by dynamic gene expression and a diversity of pulmonary cell types that exhibit remarkable heterogeneity. (Whitsett, JA. et al. Physiol. Rev, 2019). Surprisingly, few studies have solely focused on human lung development during this critical period, and many current studies of lung maturation rely on adult, murine, or diseased samples, limiting their insights and applicability to longitudinal pediatric lung development. Understanding the molecular and physiological nuances of pulmonary development has important clinical relevance ...


Gene Pyramids And The Balancing Act Of Keeping Pests At Bay, Gustavo C. Macintosh 2019 Iowa State University

Gene Pyramids And The Balancing Act Of Keeping Pests At Bay, Gustavo C. Macintosh

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Pyramiding R genes is a common strategy used by breeders to enhance resistance and increase durability of resistance in crops. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate R gene interactions are not known. Kamphuis et al. (2019) analyzed Medicago truncatula plants carrying two genes that confer resistance to bluegreen aphids. They identified a potential phytohormone crosstalk triggered by the combined R gene action in response to aphid feeding that enhances resistance and minimizes R gene-associated fitness costs to the plant.


The Central Role Of The Tail In Switching Off 10s Myosin Ii Activity, Shixin Yang, Kyounghwan Lee, John L. Woodhead, Osamu Sato, Mitsuo Ikebe, Roger Craig 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Central Role Of The Tail In Switching Off 10s Myosin Ii Activity, Shixin Yang, Kyounghwan Lee, John L. Woodhead, Osamu Sato, Mitsuo Ikebe, Roger Craig

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Myosin II is a motor protein with two heads and an extended tail that plays an essential role in cell motility. Its active form is a polymer (myosin filament) that pulls on actin to generate motion. Its inactive form is a monomer with a compact structure (10S sedimentation coefficient), in which the tail is folded and the two heads interact with each other, inhibiting activity. This conformation is thought to function in cells as an energy-conserving form of the molecule suitable for storage as well as transport to sites of filament assembly. The mechanism of inhibition of the compact molecule ...


Engineering Of Escherichia Coli 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex With Mechanistic And Synthetic Goals, Joydeep Chakraborty 2019 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Engineering Of Escherichia Coli 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex With Mechanistic And Synthetic Goals, Joydeep Chakraborty

Dissertations

The Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) compromises multiple copies of three enzymes - 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1o), dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2o), and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3). OGDHc is found in the Krebs cycle and catalyzes the formation of the all-important succinyl-Coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA). OGDHc was engineered to understand the catalytic mechanism and optimized for chemical synthetic goals.

Succinyl-CoA formation takes place within the catalytic domain of E2o via a transesterification reaction. The succinyl group from the thiol ester of S8-succinyldihydrolipoyl-E2o is transferred to the thiol group of CoA. Mechanistic studies were designed to investigate enzymatic transthioesterification. His375 and Asp374 was shown to be ...


A Unified Encyclopedia Of Human Functional Dna Elements Through Fully Automated Annotation Of 164 Human Cell Types, Maxwell W. Libbrecht, Oscar L. Rodriguez, Zhiping Weng, Jeffrey A. Bilmes, Michael M. Hoffman, William Stafford Noble 2019 Simon Fraser University

A Unified Encyclopedia Of Human Functional Dna Elements Through Fully Automated Annotation Of 164 Human Cell Types, Maxwell W. Libbrecht, Oscar L. Rodriguez, Zhiping Weng, Jeffrey A. Bilmes, Michael M. Hoffman, William Stafford Noble

Open Access Articles

Semi-automated genome annotation methods such as Segway take as input a set of genome-wide measurements such as of histone modification or DNA accessibility and output an annotation of genomic activity in the target cell type. Here we present annotations of 164 human cell types using 1615 data sets. To produce these annotations, we automated the label interpretation step to produce a fully automated annotation strategy. Using these annotations, we developed a measure of the importance of each genomic position called the "conservation-associated activity score." We further combined all annotations into a single, cell type-agnostic encyclopedia that catalogs all human regulatory ...


Mechanism For Apobec3g Catalytic Exclusion Of Rna And Non-Substrate Dna, William C. Solomon, Wazo Myint, Shurong Hou, Tapan Kanai, Rashmi Tripathi, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Hiroshi Matsuo 2019 University of Minnesota

Mechanism For Apobec3g Catalytic Exclusion Of Rna And Non-Substrate Dna, William C. Solomon, Wazo Myint, Shurong Hou, Tapan Kanai, Rashmi Tripathi, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Hiroshi Matsuo

Schiffer Lab Publications

The potent antiretroviral protein APOBEC3G (A3G) specifically targets and deaminates deoxycytidine nucleotides, generating deoxyuridine, in single stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates produced during HIV replication. A non-catalytic domain in A3G binds strongly to RNA, an interaction crucial for recruitment of A3G to the virion; yet, A3G displays no deamination activity for cytidines in viral RNA. Here, we report NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis for interactions between A3Gctd and multiple substrate or non-substrate DNA and RNA, in combination with deamination assays. NMR ssDNA-binding experiments revealed that the interaction with residues in helix1 and loop1 (T201-L220) distinguishes the binding mode of ...


Promotion Of Adipogenesis By Jmjd6 Requires The At Hook-Like Domain And Is Independent Of Its Catalytic Function, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Jake W. Carrasquillo-Rodriguez, Anthony N. Imbalzano 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Promotion Of Adipogenesis By Jmjd6 Requires The At Hook-Like Domain And Is Independent Of Its Catalytic Function, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Jake W. Carrasquillo-Rodriguez, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Open Access Articles

JMJD6 is a member of the Jumonji C domain containing enzymes that demethylate and/or hydroxylate substrate proteins. It is a multi-functional protein that has been implicated in disparate aspects of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of gene expression, including but not limited to enhancer and promoter binding, release of paused RNA polymerase II, control of splicing, and interaction with the translation machinery. JMJD6 contributes to multiple aspects of animal development, including adipogenesis modeled in culture. We mutated proposed or characterized domains in the JMJD6 protein to better understand the requirement for JMJD6 in adipogenic differentiation. Mutation of JMJD6 amino acids ...


Assessing The Structure-Function Relationships Of The Apolipoprotein(A) Kringle Iv Sub-Type 10 Domain, Matthew J. Borrelli 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Assessing The Structure-Function Relationships Of The Apolipoprotein(A) Kringle Iv Sub-Type 10 Domain, Matthew J. Borrelli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is the most prevalent heritable risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) component of Lp(a) is strongly implicated in the pathogenicity of Lp(a). It is hypothesized that the inflammatory potential of Lp(a)/apo(a) is mediated by the lysine binding ability of the apo(a) kringle IV10 (KIV10) domain, along with its covalently bound oxidized phospholipid (oxPL). Using targeted mutagenesis, two novel null alleles for the LPA gene that generate non-secretable apo(a) species have been identified, resulting from amino acid substitutions in the KIV10 ...


Janani Subramaniam Thesis.Pdf, Janani Subramaniam 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Janani Subramaniam Thesis.Pdf, Janani Subramaniam

Janani Subramaniam

Distinctly organized domains of receptors, ion channels, transporters, signaling molecules, cell adhesion molecules, and contractile proteins are crucial to cardiac function. Interactions between adaptor proteins such as ankyrins and cytoskeletal proteins such as obscurin play a pivotal role in organizing these functional domains in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, dysfunction of both ankyrin as well as obscurin lead to a host of cardiovascular diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies. Alternative splicing of ankyrin yields numerous isoforms that interact with obscurin at various sub-cellular domains. And while some of these obscurin-ankyrin complexes have been studied, many others have not been characterized. Further, previous studies ...


Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Expression Levels Are Associated With Prognosis In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc), Andrew J. Piper, Jennifer L. Clark, Jose R. Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Ali Akalin, Leslie M. Shaw 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Expression Levels Are Associated With Prognosis In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc), Andrew J. Piper, Jennifer L. Clark, Jose R. Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Ali Akalin, Leslie M. Shaw

Open Access Articles

The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway has been implicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) outcomes and resistance to targeted therapies. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which this pathway contributes to the biology of NSCLC. The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that signal downstream of the IGF-1R and determine the functional outcomes of this signaling pathway. In this study, we assessed the expression patterns of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in NSCLC to identify associations between IRS-1 and IRS-2 expression levels and survival outcomes in the two major histological subtypes of NSCLC, adenocarcinoma ...


Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly; In Vivo Analysis Of The Methanogenic Suf System, Evan Dunkle 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly; In Vivo Analysis Of The Methanogenic Suf System, Evan Dunkle

LSU Master's Theses

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are among the most ancient and prevalent of all biological cofactors. Their assembly into associated proteins is a tightly regulated process with many organisms employing multiple cluster assembly pathways. Much is known about Fe-S cluster assembly in aerobic organisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) but little is known in regards to cluster assembly in more ancient organisms such as methanogens. Methanogens are members of the domain of Archaea and are defined by their ability to generate methane as a byproduct of their main energy generating pathway. Methanogens also have significantly higher Fe-S cluster content compared to ...


Does Thermotolerance In Daphnia Depend On The Mitochondrial Function?, Rajib Hasan 2019 East Tennessee State University

Does Thermotolerance In Daphnia Depend On The Mitochondrial Function?, Rajib Hasan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Thermotolerance limit in aquatic organism is set by the ability to sustain aerobic scope to sudden temperature shifts. This study tested the genetic and plastic differences in thermotolerance of Daphnia that can be explained by the differences in the ability to retain mitochondrial integrity at high temperatures. Five genotypes with different biogeographic origins were acclimated to 18C and 25C. We developed a rhodamine 123 in-vivo assay to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and observed higher fluorescent in heat damaged tissues as the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Significant effects on temperature tolerance were observed with CCCP ...


Temporal Gene Expression Of Mesenchymal Cells In The Pediatric Lung, Quinlen F. Marshall, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Ravi Misra, Thomas Mariani, Gloria Pryhuber 2019 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Temporal Gene Expression Of Mesenchymal Cells In The Pediatric Lung, Quinlen F. Marshall, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Ravi Misra, Thomas Mariani, Gloria Pryhuber

Chemistry Student Work

INTRODUCTION: The newborn lung undergoes vast biochemical and physiological changes during adaptation from the intrauterine to the extrauterine environment. Lung morphogenesis continues from birth into early childhood, mediated by dynamic gene expression and a diversity of pulmonary cell types (Whitsett, JA. et al. Physiol. Rev, 2019). Murine models demonstrate that pulmonary mesenchymal cells exhibit remarkable heterogeneity in function and morphology during development, however, confirmation of their role is lacking in human neonates and early childhood (Guo, M. et al. Nat. Comm, 2019). In addition, many current human genomic studies of lung maturation suffer from limited sample size, limiting their applicability ...


Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recently, a novel class of muscular dystrophy has been discovered in a family due to autosomal recessive missense mutation in POGLUT1. Mutation of this enzyme leads to decreased O-glucosyltransferase activity and impaired Notch signaling, the pathways important for skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) quiescence and activation. We hypothesize that reduced POGLUT1 activity and impaired Notch signaling is causative of this limb girdle muscular dystrophy through dysfunction of muscle stem cells and myogenic progenitors.

To test this, we have used iPSCs for disease modeling and rescue experiments. Using a CRISPR based gene targeting method, we aimed to correct the point ...


High-Fat Diet In A Mouse Insulin-Resistant Model Induces Widespread Rewiring Of The Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network, Antje Dittmann, Norman J. Kennedy, Nina L. Soltero, Nader Morshed, Miyeko D. Mana, Omer H. Yilmaz, Roger J. Davis, Forest M. White 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

High-Fat Diet In A Mouse Insulin-Resistant Model Induces Widespread Rewiring Of The Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network, Antje Dittmann, Norman J. Kennedy, Nina L. Soltero, Nader Morshed, Miyeko D. Mana, Omer H. Yilmaz, Roger J. Davis, Forest M. White

Open Access Articles

Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and accompanying diseases have developed into a leading human health risk across industrialized and developing countries. The complex molecular underpinnings of how lipid overload and lipid metabolites lead to the deregulation of metabolic processes are incompletely understood. We assessed hepatic post-translational alterations in response to treatment of cells with saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids and the consumption of a high-fat diet by mice. These data revealed widespread tyrosine phosphorylation changes affecting a large number of enzymes involved in metabolic processes as well as canonical receptor-mediated signal transduction networks. Targeting two of the most prominently affected ...


Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

RNA molecules are diverse in form and function. They include messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are templates for proteins, splice products such as introns that can generate functional noncoding RNAs, and a slew of smaller RNAs such as transfer RNAs (tRNAs) that help decode mRNAs into proteins. RNAs can show distinct patterns of subcellular localization that play an important role in protein localization. However, RNA distribution in cells is incompletely understood, with prior studies focusing primarily on RNAs that are long (>200 nucleotides), fully processed, and polyadenylated. We examined the distribution of RNAs in neurons. Neuronal compartments can be separated by ...


Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating 2019 Iowa State University

Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating

Aileen Keating

Insulin, elevated during obesity, regulates xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, potentially through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, in extraovarian tissues. PI3K regulates oocyte viability, follicular activation, and ovarian chemical biotransformation. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen and ovotoxicant, destroys all stages of follicles, leading to premature ovarian failure. Obesity has been reported to promote DMBA-induced tumors, but it remains unknown whether obesity affects ovarian xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, we investigated ovarian expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes—microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) class Pi (Gstp1) and class mu 1 (Gstm1), and PI3K-signaling members (protein kinase B [AKT] alpha [Akt1], beta [Akt2], and ...


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