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Gαi And Gɣ30a Act Downstream Of Tre1 In Drosophila Courtship, Emily Mu 2019 San Jose State University

Gαi And Gɣ30a Act Downstream Of Tre1 In Drosophila Courtship, Emily Mu

McNair Research Journal SJSU

The role of genes in morphological development is well understood for a variety of model organisms, but there remains a gap in our understanding of how genetics mediate behavior. Are there master genes that regulate behavior? Answering this question will lead to a better understanding of the development and function of the central nervous system, eventually allowing us to map out the pathways that regulate specific behaviors. We are using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism and the male courtship ritual as the behavior of interest to study the relationships between genes, neural development, and behavior. Trapped in endoderm 1 ...


Insulin Signal Transduction Mediates Ethanol-Induced Feeding Dysfunction In A Fly Model Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Manae Matsubara 2019 San Jose State University

Insulin Signal Transduction Mediates Ethanol-Induced Feeding Dysfunction In A Fly Model Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Manae Matsubara

McNair Research Journal SJSU

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the leading cause of congenital intellectual disabilities in the Western World, with a worldwide prevalence of 2-11% of all births. FASD is preventable but recent epidemiological studies suggest that public awareness campaigns have reached the limits of their effectiveness. Therefore, research is shifting from prevention to treatment and mitigation of symptoms. No biological treatments for FASD exist, due in part to the fact the cellular mechanisms of alcohol toxicity are not well-understood. Developmental alcohol exposure (DAE) causes a variety of deleterious effects in both vertebrates and invertebrates, including increased mortality, slow growth, learning and ...


Regulation Of The Drosophila Imd Pathway By Signaling Amyloids, Anni Kleino, Neal S. Silverman 2019 Aarhus University

Regulation Of The Drosophila Imd Pathway By Signaling Amyloids, Anni Kleino, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

Fruit flies elicit effective defense responses against numerous microbes. The responses against Gram-negative bacteria are mediated by the Imd pathway, an evolutionarily conserved NF-kappaB pathway recognizing meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan from bacterial cell walls. Several reviews already provide a detailed view of ligand recognition and signal transduction during Imd signaling, but the formation and regulation of the signaling complex immediately downstream of the peptidoglycan-sensing receptors is still elusive. In this review, we focus on the formation of the Imd amyloidal signaling center and post-translational modifications in the assembly and disassembly of the Imd signaling complex.


Nf-Κb In Biomphalaria Glabrata: A Genetic Fluke?, Paige Stocker 2019 Lawrence University

Nf-Κb In Biomphalaria Glabrata: A Genetic Fluke?, Paige Stocker

Lawrence University Honors Projects

Biomphalaria glabrata is the intermediate host to the disease causing parasitic worm, Schistosoma mansoni. Previous work has identified homologs of NF-κB, a known immune related transcription factor, in B. glabrata and work has also been done to establish putative κB sites. It has also been observed that the p65 homologous subunit has an extended N-terminal region not present in other homologs. The goal of the present study is twofold: investigate DNA binding affinity of two NF-κB subunits, Bg-p65 and Bg-p50, and characterize the nature of the N-terminal extension of Bg-p65. In the current work, it is shown through the use ...


Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond III 2019 Clark Atlanta University

Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development and advancement of prostate cancer is supported by a plethora of genetic and proteomic abnormalities, including events of post-translational modifications. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme regulates epigenetic events of histone modifications and protein post-translational modifications within protein signaling pathways. PRMT5 functions by catalyzing the symmetric dimethylation of terminal arginine residues on target protein substrates. Under abnormal conditions of overexpression and upregulation, PRMT5 methyltransferase activity constitutively drives the growth and proliferation of dysregulated cells. Overexpression or upregulation of PRMT5 correlates with disease progression as observed among numerous cancer types, including breast, colorectal, leukemia, lung, melanoma and prostate ...


Stochastic Modeling Of Neuronal Transport In Various Cellular Geometries, Abhishek Choudhary Mr., Peter Kramer 2019 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Stochastic Modeling Of Neuronal Transport In Various Cellular Geometries, Abhishek Choudhary Mr., Peter Kramer

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Bridging From Intramuscular To Limb Perfusion Delivery Of Raav: Optimization In A Non-Human Primate Study, Alisha Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Qiushi Tang, Guo-Jie Ye, Dave R. Knop, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Kristen E. Coleman, Allison M. Keeler, Christian Mueller, Louis G. Chicoine, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Terence R. Flotte 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Bridging From Intramuscular To Limb Perfusion Delivery Of Raav: Optimization In A Non-Human Primate Study, Alisha Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Qiushi Tang, Guo-Jie Ye, Dave R. Knop, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Kristen E. Coleman, Allison M. Keeler, Christian Mueller, Louis G. Chicoine, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

Phase 1 and phase 2 gene therapy trials using intramuscular (IM) administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (rAAV1) for replacement of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency have shown long-term (5-year) stable transgene expression at approximately 2% to 3% of therapeutic levels, arguing for the long-term viability of this approach to gene replacement of secreted serum protein deficiencies. However, achieving these levels required 100 IM injections to deliver 135 mL of vector, and further dose escalation is limited by the scalability of direct IM injection. To further advance the dose escalation, we sought to bridge the rAAV-AAT clinical development ...


Subcellular-Level Resolution Maldi-Ms Imaging Of Maize Leaf Metabolites By Maldi-Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee 2019 Iowa State University

Subcellular-Level Resolution Maldi-Ms Imaging Of Maize Leaf Metabolites By Maldi-Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee

Marna Yandeau-Nelson

A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. Here, we present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling ...


Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar 2019 Duquesne University

Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomembranes are permeable barriers that enclose the cell and the intracellular organelles in a cell. The selective nature of these robust barriers acts as the first line of defense towards the harsh factors that can compromise cell survival. Biomembranes primarily consist of membrane lipids that are organized into layers to form a dynamic bilayer structure. The dynamic nature of the membrane requires the synchronized modulation of lipid composition through de novo synthesis, degradation, intracellular movement, and remodeling. Phospholipids are the major membrane lipid class, and phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in most eukaryotic biomembranes.

PC is primarily produced ...


Circular Dichroism And Molecular Modeling Yield A Structure For The Complex Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Trans-Activation Response Rna And The Binding Region Of Tat, The Trans-Acting Transcriptional Activator, Erwann P. Loret, Philippe T. Georgel, W. Curtis Johnson Jr., Pui Shing Ho 2019 Marshall University

Circular Dichroism And Molecular Modeling Yield A Structure For The Complex Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Trans-Activation Response Rna And The Binding Region Of Tat, The Trans-Acting Transcriptional Activator, Erwann P. Loret, Philippe T. Georgel, W. Curtis Johnson Jr., Pui Shing Ho

Philippe T. Georgel

Transcription in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) retrovirus is regulated by binding the viral Tat protein (trans-acting transcriptional activator) to the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA sequence. Here, vacuum UV circular dichroism (VUV-CD) is used to study the structure of TAR and its complex with two peptide fragments that are important for Tat binding to TAR. The VUV-CD spectrum of TAR is typical of A-form RNA and is minimally perturbed when bound to either the short or the long Tat peptide. The CD spectra ofthe complexes indicate an extended structure in the argnine-rich region of Tat from amino acid ...


Spatial Reorganization Of Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Proteins Caused By Silver Nanoparticles, Meaad Alqahtany 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Spatial Reorganization Of Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Proteins Caused By Silver Nanoparticles, Meaad Alqahtany

Theses and Dissertations

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ions (Ag+) can be the new generation of antibiotics due to their antimicrobial effects against bacteria and other microbes. Many studies have shown that AgNPs and suppress the growth of bacteria and damage the cell walls of the microbes; therefore, treating bacterial cells with AgNPs may be a promising method to terminate multi-resistant bacteria. In this work, the effect of AgNPs with two different surface coatings on the spatial reorganization of histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) proteins in Escherichia coli bacteria was investigated using quantitative super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to understand the toxicity and antimicrobial mechanism of AgNPs ...


Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) development is relevant to understanding energy homeostasis and obesity. The AKT kinases are insulin effectors with critical in vivo functions in adipocytes; however, their role in adipocyte development remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate AKT function in BAT development.

METHODS: We conditionally deleted Akt1 and Akt2 either individually or together with Myf5-Cre, which targets early mesenchymal precursors that give rise to brown adipocytes. Because Myf5-Cre also targets skeletal muscle and some white adipocyte lineages, comparisons were made between AKT function in BAT versus white ...


Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


Pre-Administration Of Medium Chain Triglycerides In Vivo Can Attenuate Or Block The Effects Of Recurrent Hypoglycemia, Dhanisha Nandigama 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Pre-Administration Of Medium Chain Triglycerides In Vivo Can Attenuate Or Block The Effects Of Recurrent Hypoglycemia, Dhanisha Nandigama

Biological Sciences

Hypoglycemia is a state of abnormally low blood glucose. Many patients who use insulin, primarily for the treatment of diabetes, experience multiple bouts of hypoglycemia, termed recurrent hypoglycemia (RH). Because RH impairs cognitive function and ability to appropriately respond to a subsequent episode of hypoglycemia, it is critical to develop treatments. One approach, which we have taken here, is to attempt to preserve neuronal fuel supply during a hypoglycemic episode. Medium-chain triglycerides are medium-chain fatty acid (MCT) esters of glycerol that can provide an alternative fuel source to the brain via ketones; the hippocampus is known to express transporters for ...


Regulation Of The Drosophila Imd Pathway By Signaling Amyloids, Anni Kleino, Neal S. Silverman 2019 Aarhus University

Regulation Of The Drosophila Imd Pathway By Signaling Amyloids, Anni Kleino, Neal S. Silverman

Open Access Articles

Fruit flies elicit effective defense responses against numerous microbes. The responses against Gram-negative bacteria are mediated by the Imd pathway, an evolutionarily conserved NF-kappaB pathway recognizing meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan from bacterial cell walls. Several reviews already provide a detailed view of ligand recognition and signal transduction during Imd signaling, but the formation and regulation of the signaling complex immediately downstream of the peptidoglycan-sensing receptors is still elusive. In this review, we focus on the formation of the Imd amyloidal signaling center and post-translational modifications in the assembly and disassembly of the Imd signaling complex.


Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ouabain Enhances Cell-Cell Adhesion Mediated By Beta1 Subunits Of The Na(+),K(+)-Atpase In Cho Fibroblasts, Claudia Andrea Vilchis-Nestor, Maria Luisa Roldan, Angelina Leonardi, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Liora Shoshani

Open Access Articles

Adhesion is a crucial characteristic of epithelial cells to form barriers to pathogens and toxic substances from the environment. Epithelial cells attach to each other using intercellular junctions on the lateral membrane, including tight and adherent junctions, as well as the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our group has shown that non-adherent chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the canine beta1 subunit become adhesive, and those homotypic interactions amongst beta1 subunits of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase occur between neighboring epithelial cells. Ouabain, a cardiotonic steroid, binds to the alpha subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, inhibits the pump activity and induces ...


Sir3-Dependent Assembly Of Supramolecular Chromatin Structures In Vitro, Philippe T. Georgel, Madeleine A. Palacios DeBeer, Gregory Pietz, Catherine A. Fox, Jeffrey C. Hansen 2019 Marshall University

Sir3-Dependent Assembly Of Supramolecular Chromatin Structures In Vitro, Philippe T. Georgel, Madeleine A. Palacios Debeer, Gregory Pietz, Catherine A. Fox, Jeffrey C. Hansen

Philippe T. Georgel

Baculovirus-expressed recombinant Sir3p (rSir3p) has been purified to near homogeneity, and its binding to naked DNA, mononucleosomes, and nucleosomal arrays has been characterized in vitro. At stoichiometric levels rSir3p interacts with intact nucleosomal arrays, mononucleosomes, and naked DNA, as evidenced by formation of supershifted species on native agarose gels. Proteolytic removal of the core histone tail domains inhibits but does not completely abolish rSir3p binding to nucleosomal arrays. The linker DNA in the supershifted complexes remains freely accessible to restriction endonuclease digestion, suggesting that both the tail domains and nucleosomal DNA contribute to rSir3p–chromatin interactions. Together these data indicate ...


Effect Of Lead On Vma1 Atpase Gene Expression And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Sarah Butler, Jazmine E. Townsend 2019 Carroll College

Effect Of Lead On Vma1 Atpase Gene Expression And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Sarah Butler, Jazmine E. Townsend

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Lead is an environmental toxin that has been sown to have deleterious effects on human health, including neurological defects, developmental delays, and bodily pain. The purpose of this experiment was to test whether prolonged exposure to lead altered expression of the VMA1 gene and feeding behavior in the model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. The VMA1 gene encodes the protein VMA1 (Vacuolar Membrane ATPase) which assists in regulating active transport systems on the vacuolar membrane. We hypothesized that exposure of T. thermophila to lead would result in altered expression of the VMA1 gene and in the feeding behavior of these organisms. For ...


Investigating The Effect Of Phytosterol Concentration On The Des7 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nate Burman, Dylan Jones 2019 Carroll College

Investigating The Effect Of Phytosterol Concentration On The Des7 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nate Burman, Dylan Jones

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This study examined the impact of phytosterols on DES7 gene expression and feeding behavior in Tetrahymena thermophila. Tetrahymena thermophila are single-celled protists that are often used as model organisms for studying basic processes of Molecular Biology. One major topic in Molecular Biology that has been extensively studied in Tetrahymena is the concept of gene regulation. Gene regulation helps determine whether a certain protein is produced, and this often depends on both the internal and external conditions of the organism. This project took a closer look at the way Tetrahymena process exogenous cholesterol molecules through the production of the DES7 enzyme ...


Effects Of Ethanol On The Gene Expression Of Uracil Dna N-Glycosylase 1 (Ung1) And Growth Rate In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Samantha Mundel, Seth Berkowitz 2019 Carroll College

Effects Of Ethanol On The Gene Expression Of Uracil Dna N-Glycosylase 1 (Ung1) And Growth Rate In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Samantha Mundel, Seth Berkowitz

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Alcohol (ethanol) interferes with human health in a variety of ways such as heart damage, liver damage, and specifically, DNA damage. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of ethanol on the growth rate and expression of the uracil DNA N-Glycosylase (UNG1 ) gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. It was hypothesized that expression of UNG1, the gene that codes for the enzyme uracil DNA N-Glycosylase, would increase and that growth rate would decrease in Tetrahymena cells exposed to ethanol. Previous studies suggest that UNG1 expression is increased when DNA is damaged. This enzyme is involved in base excision repair ...


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