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11,930 full-text articles. Page 1 of 407.

Titus Thesis Figures.Docx, Titus Hou 2020 University of Iowa

Titus Thesis Figures.Docx, Titus Hou

Titus Hou

No abstract provided.


Titus Thesis.Docx, Titus Hou 2020 University of Iowa

Titus Thesis.Docx, Titus Hou

Titus Hou

No abstract provided.


Electronic Transmutation: An Aid For The Rational Design Of New Chemical Materials Using The Knowledge Of Bonding And Structure Of Neighboring Elements, Katie A. Lundell 2019 Utah State University

Electronic Transmutation: An Aid For The Rational Design Of New Chemical Materials Using The Knowledge Of Bonding And Structure Of Neighboring Elements, Katie A. Lundell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Everything in the universe is made up of elements from the periodic table. Each element has its own role that it plays in the formation of things it makes up. For instance, pencil lead is graphite. A series of honeycomb-like structures made up of carbon stacked on top of one another. Carbon’s neighbor to the left, boron doesn’t like to form such stacked honeycomb-like structures. But, what if there was a way to make boron act like carbon so it did like to form such structures? That question is the basis of the electronic transmutation concept presented in ...


Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte

Honors Program Projects

Hexavalent chromium, or Cr(VI), is a potent oxidizer and known carcinogen, that is found at varying levels in the water sources of more than 200 million Americans. However, the exact mechanism of carcinogenicity remains unknown, and though the government currently regulates total chromium levels, they have yet to determine a permissible exposure limit for Cr(VI). Moreover, there is currently no preventative treatment for Cr(VI). Because of Cr(VI)’s strong oxidative power, we hypothesized that it causes DNA mutation and cell death via oxidation and that antioxidants could prevent this from occurring. To test this, we first ...


Applications Of Sirna For Cancer Gene Therapy, Christopher Nicholas Cultrara 2019 Seton Hall University

Applications Of Sirna For Cancer Gene Therapy, Christopher Nicholas Cultrara

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Gene therapy is a potent and versatile nano-medicine strategy in the treatment of cancer. Of the many tools currently used in this application, short-interfering RNA (siRNA) are among the most commonly employed due to their ability to silence oncogenic mRNA with high precision through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway potentially leading to cancer cell death. Our work revolves around silencing the Glucose-Regulated Proteins (GRPs) whose expressions are upregulated in cancerous tissues and are implicated in the proliferative, pro-survival, and anti-apoptotic pathways that govern tumor biology. Here we present a variety of applications to improve the potency and functionality of GRP-targeting ...


Stochastic Modeling Of Neuronal Transport In Various Cellular Geometries, Abhishek Choudhary Mr., Peter Kramer 2019 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Stochastic Modeling Of Neuronal Transport In Various Cellular Geometries, Abhishek Choudhary Mr., Peter Kramer

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Bridging From Intramuscular To Limb Perfusion Delivery Of Raav: Optimization In A Non-Human Primate Study, Alisha Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Qiushi Tang, Guo-Jie Ye, Dave R. Knop, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Kristen E. Coleman, Allison M. Keeler, Christian Mueller, Louis G. Chicoine, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Terence R. Flotte 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Bridging From Intramuscular To Limb Perfusion Delivery Of Raav: Optimization In A Non-Human Primate Study, Alisha Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Qiushi Tang, Guo-Jie Ye, Dave R. Knop, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Kristen E. Coleman, Allison M. Keeler, Christian Mueller, Louis G. Chicoine, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

Phase 1 and phase 2 gene therapy trials using intramuscular (IM) administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (rAAV1) for replacement of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency have shown long-term (5-year) stable transgene expression at approximately 2% to 3% of therapeutic levels, arguing for the long-term viability of this approach to gene replacement of secreted serum protein deficiencies. However, achieving these levels required 100 IM injections to deliver 135 mL of vector, and further dose escalation is limited by the scalability of direct IM injection. To further advance the dose escalation, we sought to bridge the rAAV-AAT clinical development ...


Subcellular-Level Resolution Maldi-Ms Imaging Of Maize Leaf Metabolites By Maldi-Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee 2019 Iowa State University

Subcellular-Level Resolution Maldi-Ms Imaging Of Maize Leaf Metabolites By Maldi-Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee

Marna Yandeau-Nelson

A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. Here, we present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling ...


Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar 2019 Duquesne University

Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomembranes are permeable barriers that enclose the cell and the intracellular organelles in a cell. The selective nature of these robust barriers acts as the first line of defense towards the harsh factors that can compromise cell survival. Biomembranes primarily consist of membrane lipids that are organized into layers to form a dynamic bilayer structure. The dynamic nature of the membrane requires the synchronized modulation of lipid composition through de novo synthesis, degradation, intracellular movement, and remodeling. Phospholipids are the major membrane lipid class, and phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in most eukaryotic biomembranes.

PC is primarily produced ...


Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan 2019 Collin College

Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan

Quest

Independent Research Paper

Research in progress for PHYS 2426: University Physics II

Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.

The following paper represents research work done by students in a University Physics 2426 class, the second half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus-based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or ...


Circular Dichroism And Molecular Modeling Yield A Structure For The Complex Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Trans-Activation Response Rna And The Binding Region Of Tat, The Trans-Acting Transcriptional Activator, Erwann P. Loret, Philippe T. Georgel, W. Curtis Johnson Jr., Pui Shing Ho 2019 Marshall University

Circular Dichroism And Molecular Modeling Yield A Structure For The Complex Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Trans-Activation Response Rna And The Binding Region Of Tat, The Trans-Acting Transcriptional Activator, Erwann P. Loret, Philippe T. Georgel, W. Curtis Johnson Jr., Pui Shing Ho

Philippe T. Georgel

Transcription in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) retrovirus is regulated by binding the viral Tat protein (trans-acting transcriptional activator) to the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA sequence. Here, vacuum UV circular dichroism (VUV-CD) is used to study the structure of TAR and its complex with two peptide fragments that are important for Tat binding to TAR. The VUV-CD spectrum of TAR is typical of A-form RNA and is minimally perturbed when bound to either the short or the long Tat peptide. The CD spectra ofthe complexes indicate an extended structure in the argnine-rich region of Tat from amino acid ...


Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers 2019 University of the Incarnate Word

Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers

Samuel Chivers

No abstract provided.


Patterns Of Metabolite Changes Identified From Large-Scale Gene Perturbations In Arabidopsis Using A Genome-Scale Metabolic Network, Taehyong Kim, Kate Dreher, Ricardo Nilo-Poyanco, Insuk Lee, Oliver Fiehn, Bernd Markus Lange, Basil J. Nikolau, Lloyd Sumner, Ruth Welti, Eve S. Wurtele, Seung Y. Rhee 2019 Carnegie Institution for Science

Patterns Of Metabolite Changes Identified From Large-Scale Gene Perturbations In Arabidopsis Using A Genome-Scale Metabolic Network, Taehyong Kim, Kate Dreher, Ricardo Nilo-Poyanco, Insuk Lee, Oliver Fiehn, Bernd Markus Lange, Basil J. Nikolau, Lloyd Sumner, Ruth Welti, Eve S. Wurtele, Seung Y. Rhee

Eve Wurtele

Metabolomics enables quantitative evaluation of metabolic changes caused by genetic or environmental perturbations. However, little is known about how perturbing a single gene changes the metabolic system as a whole and which network and functional properties are involved in this response. To answer this question, we investigated the metabolite profiles from 136 mutants with single gene perturbations of functionally diverse Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes. Fewer than 10 metabolites were changed significantly relative to the wild type in most of the mutants, indicating that the metabolic network was robust to perturbations of single metabolic genes. These changed metabolites were closer to ...


The Worlds Of Splicing And Chromatin Collide, J. Adam Hall, Philippe T. Georgel 2019 Marshall University

The Worlds Of Splicing And Chromatin Collide, J. Adam Hall, Philippe T. Georgel

Philippe T. Georgel

Both transcription and splicing take place in a nuclear environment which, at face value, may seem refractory to the efficiency afforded by the coupling of both processes. This environment, chromatin, was once viewed as only a passive packaging system for genetic material, with very little contribution to the variety of nuclear activities occurring within and around it. However, overwhelming evidence now points to the chromatin environment as being highly dynamic, and an active player in nuclear activities.


Optical Stability Of 1,1′-Binaphthyl Derivatives, Nikolay V. Tkachenko, Steve Scheiner 2019 Utah State University

Optical Stability Of 1,1′-Binaphthyl Derivatives, Nikolay V. Tkachenko, Steve Scheiner

Steve Scheiner

The racemization process of various 1,1′-binaphthyl derivatives is studied by quantum calculations. The preferred racemization pathway passes through a transition state belonging to the Ci symmetry group. The energy barrier for this process is independent of solvation, the electron-withdrawing/releasing power of substituents, or their ability to engage in H-bonds within the molecule. The primary factor is instead the substituent size. The barrier is thus reduced when the −OH groups of 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol are replaced by H. There is a drop in the barrier also when the substituents are moved from the 2,2′ positions to ...


The Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) On Brown Adipogenesis In Stem Cell Culture, Darynne Dahlem 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) On Brown Adipogenesis In Stem Cell Culture, Darynne Dahlem

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are major maternal dietary supplements due to their positive benefits on neurological tissue growth during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Previous studies show that EPA and DHA inhibit muscle formation but promote adipogenesis. However, no research has addressed the question whether high intake of EPA and DHA affects brown fat development during gestation. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of EPA and DHA supplement on brown adipogenesis and potential pathways related to mitochondrial biosynthesis using fibroblasts as in vitro model. Using Oil-Red-O staining ...


Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) development is relevant to understanding energy homeostasis and obesity. The AKT kinases are insulin effectors with critical in vivo functions in adipocytes; however, their role in adipocyte development remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate AKT function in BAT development.

METHODS: We conditionally deleted Akt1 and Akt2 either individually or together with Myf5-Cre, which targets early mesenchymal precursors that give rise to brown adipocytes. Because Myf5-Cre also targets skeletal muscle and some white adipocyte lineages, comparisons were made between AKT function in BAT versus white ...


Effect Of Turmeric On The Promoter Activity Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Alexa Stroh 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effect Of Turmeric On The Promoter Activity Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Alexa Stroh

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Cysteine-Reactive Catechol Antioxidants On Alcohol Dehydrogenase As A Model For Oxidative Stress In Neurodegenerative Disease, Rachel Smith 2019 College of William and Mary

The Effect Of Cysteine-Reactive Catechol Antioxidants On Alcohol Dehydrogenase As A Model For Oxidative Stress In Neurodegenerative Disease, Rachel Smith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The cellular mechanisms underlying age-related neurodegeneration, especially in disease states, are poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been heavily implicated as one factor both produced by and contributing to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In particular, it can destroy a cell’s ability to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic respiration, thus leading to the death of individual cells and brain tissues as a whole. This study focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and energy production in disease states. In particular, we examine the ability of catechol molecules to take on pro-oxidative properties and modify ...


The Sumo-Stress Response (Ssr) In Normal And Cancerous Cells, Rui Yin 2019 College of William and Mary

The Sumo-Stress Response (Ssr) In Normal And Cancerous Cells, Rui Yin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) is a small protein that becomes reversibly attached to a large number of proteins. While research has firmly established SUMO’s importance in modulating protein interactions, activation, targeting, and half-life, little is known about its role in the SUMO-Stress Response (SSR), a phenomenon that involves a rapid increase in SUMOylation in response to cellular stress. Here I describe the use of kmUTAG-fl, a novel fluorescent SUMO trapping UTAG protein, to characterize and study how the SSR unfolds in normal and carcinogenic tissue culture cells. Specifically, fixed cells were stained with the SUMO-conjugate specific kmUTAG-fl reagent to ...


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