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Experimental Infections Of Norway Rats With Avian‑Derived Low‑Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses, Kaci K. VanDalen, Nicole M. Nemeth, Nicholas O. Thomas, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Heather J. Sullivan, Alan B. Franklin, Susan A. Shriner 2019 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Experimental Infections Of Norway Rats With Avian‑Derived Low‑Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses, Kaci K. Vandalen, Nicole M. Nemeth, Nicholas O. Thomas, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Heather J. Sullivan, Alan B. Franklin, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are a public-health, veterinary, and agricultural concern. Although wild birds are considered the primary reservoir hosts for most IAVs, wild-bird IAV strains are known to spill over into poultry, domestic or wild mammals, and humans. Occasionally, spillover events may result in adaptation or reassortment with other strains. Moreover, some IAV strains found in wild waterfowl mutate into highly pathogenic forms in poultry, causing tremendous economic losses. When domestic animals, wildlife, and humans dwell in close proximity to each other, such as may be the case with agricultural operations, wildlife may represent a potential risk for interspecies ...


Potential Role Of Wildlife In The Usa In The Event Of A Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Incursion, Vienna R. Brown, Sarah N. Bevins 2019 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

Potential Role Of Wildlife In The Usa In The Event Of A Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Incursion, Vienna R. Brown, Sarah N. Bevins

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) which affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed species. The FMD-free status of the USA and the tremendous economic impact of a virus incursion motivated the development of this evaluation of the potential role of wildlife in the event of a virus introduction. Additionally, this manuscript contains a summary of US vulnerabilities for viral incursion and persistence which focuses specifically on the possible role of wildlife. The legal movement of susceptible live animals, animal products, by-products and animal feed containing animal products pose a risk of virus introduction and spread. Additionally, the ...


Movement Responses Inform Effectiveness And Consequences Of Baiting Wild Pigs For Population Control, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2019 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services NWRC

Movement Responses Inform Effectiveness And Consequences Of Baiting Wild Pigs For Population Control, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) damage agricultural and natural resources throughout their nearly global distribution. Subsequently, population control activities (e.g., trapping, shooting, or toxic baiting) frequently involve the deployment of bait to attract wild pigs. A better understanding of how wild pigs respond to bait sites can help maximize efficiency of baiting programs and identify any potential pitfalls. We examined the movement behaviors of 68 wild pigs during three stages of intensive baiting programs (i.e., 15 days each: prior, during, and post baiting) spread across two distinct study areas in southern and northern Texas, USA. We found that bait ...


A Bioeconomic Model For The Optimization Of Local Canine Rabies Control, Aaron Anderson, Johann Kotze, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Brody Hatch, Chris Slootmaker, Anne Conan, Darryn Knobel, Louis H. Nel 2019 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

A Bioeconomic Model For The Optimization Of Local Canine Rabies Control, Aaron Anderson, Johann Kotze, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Brody Hatch, Chris Slootmaker, Anne Conan, Darryn Knobel, Louis H. Nel

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We present a new modeling tool that can be used to maximize the impact of canine rabies management resources that are available at the local level. The model is accessible through a web-based interface that allows for flexibility in the management strategies that can be investigated. Rabies vaccination, sterilization, chemo-contraception, and euthanasia can be specified and limited to specific demographic groups. Additionally, we allowed for considerable complexity in the specification of management costs. In many areas, the costs of contacting additional dogs increases as management effort increases, and this can have important strategic implications. We illustrated the application of the ...


Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. McAlister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers 2019 NWRC

Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine are among the world's most destructive invasive species wherever they are found, with translocations figuring prominently in their range expansions. In contrast, sea turtles are beloved species that are listed as threatened or endangered throughout the world and are the focus of intense conservation efforts. Nest predation by feral swine severely harms sea turtle reproduction in many locations around the world. Here we quantify and economically assess feral swine nest predation at North Island, South Carolina, an important loggerhead sea turtle nesting beach. Feral swine depredation of North Island sea turtle nests was first detected in 2005 ...


Analysis Of Iophenoxic Acid Analogues In Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus) Sera For Use As An Oral Rabies Vaccination Biological Marker, Are R. Berentsen, Robert T. Sugihara, Cynthia G. Payne, Israel Leinbach, Steven F. Volker, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, Amy T. Gilbert 2019 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services NWRC

Analysis Of Iophenoxic Acid Analogues In Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus) Sera For Use As An Oral Rabies Vaccination Biological Marker, Are R. Berentsen, Robert T. Sugihara, Cynthia G. Payne, Israel Leinbach, Steven F. Volker, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, Amy T. Gilbert

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) is a reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in Puerto Rico and comprises over 70% of animal rabies cases reported annually. The control of RABV circulation in wildlife reservoirs is typically accomplished by a strategy of oral rabies vaccination (ORV). Currently no wildlife ORV program exists in Puerto Rico. Research into oral rabies vaccines and various bait types for mongooses has been conducted with promising results. Monitoring the success of ORV relies on estimating bait uptake by target species, which typically involves evaluating a change in RABV neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) post vaccination. This strategy may ...


Persistence And Conspecific Observations Improve Problem-Solving Abilities Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, Stacey P. Brummer 2019 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Persistence And Conspecific Observations Improve Problem-Solving Abilities Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, Stacey P. Brummer

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Social learning has important ecological and evolutionary consequences but the role of certain factors, such as social rank, neophobia (i.e., avoidance of novel stimuli), persistence, and task-reward association, remain less understood. We examined the role of these factors in social learning by captive coyotes (Canis latrans) via three studies. Study 1 involved individual animals and eliminated object neophobia by familiarizing the subjects to the testing apparatus prior to testing. Studies 2 and 3 used mated pairs to assess social rank, and included object neophobia, but differed in that study 3 decoupled the food reward from the testing apparatus (i ...


Mind The Gap: Experimental Tests To Improve Efficacy Of Fladry For Nonlethal Management Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, John Draper, Stewart Breck 2019 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Mind The Gap: Experimental Tests To Improve Efficacy Of Fladry For Nonlethal Management Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, John Draper, Stewart Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are the top predator of livestock in the contiguous United States. Developing more effective nonlethal tools to prevent coyote depredation will facilitate coexistence between livestock producers and coyotes. Fladry is a nonlethal deterrent designed to defend livestock by creating a visual barrier to wolves (C. lupus). Fladry may also be effective with coyotes, but large gap spacing between flags may reduce its efficacy. To address this issue, we performed 2 experiments on captive coyotes using fladry modified to reduce gap spacing at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Predator Research Facility in Millville, Utah, USA, during 2015 ...


Additional Information On A Nonnative Whiptail Population (Aspidoscelis Flagellicauda/Sonorae Complex) In Suburban Orange County, California, Richard A. Erickson, Weston G. Burt 2019 San Diego Natural History Museum

Additional Information On A Nonnative Whiptail Population (Aspidoscelis Flagellicauda/Sonorae Complex) In Suburban Orange County, California, Richard A. Erickson, Weston G. Burt

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

A nonnative population of all-female spotted whiptails from the Asidoscelis flagellicauda/sonorae complex was reported from suburban Irvine, Orange County in 2015 and 2016. We report additional suburban observations dating back to 2010 from Laguna Woods and extending the range south ~6 km southwest to Aliso Viejo. We hope that this and other exotic reptile species will remain restricted to highly altered urban environments and not threaten native species in natural habitats.


Expression Of Alternative Oxidase In The Copepod T. Californicus When Exposed To Environmental Stressors, Carly Tward 2019 Wilfrid Laurier University

Expression Of Alternative Oxidase In The Copepod T. Californicus When Exposed To Environmental Stressors, Carly Tward

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In addition to the typical electron transport system in animal mitochondria responsible for oxidative phosphorylation, some species possess an alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway, which causes electrons to bypass proton pumping complexes. Although AOX appears to be energetically wasteful, studies have revealed its wide taxonomic distribution, and indicate it plays a role in environmental stress tolerance. AOX discovery in animals is recent, and further research into its expression, regulation, and physiological role has been impeded by the lack of an experimental model organism. DNA database searches using bioinformatics revealed an AOX sequence present in the arthropod Tigriopus californicus. Multiple sequence alignments ...


Population Viability And Connectivity Of The Federally Threatened Eastern Indigo Snake In Central Peninsular Florida, Javan Bauder 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Population Viability And Connectivity Of The Federally Threatened Eastern Indigo Snake In Central Peninsular Florida, Javan Bauder

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the factors influencing the likelihood of persistence of real-world populations requires both an accurate understanding of the traits and behaviors of individuals within those populations (e.g., movement, habitat selection, survival, fecundity, dispersal) but also an understanding of how those traits and behaviors are influenced by landscape features. The federally threatened eastern indigo snake (EIS, Drymarchon couperi) has declined throughout its range primarily due to anthropogenically-induced habitat loss and fragmentation making spatially-explicit assessments of population viability and connectivity essential for understanding its current status and directing future conservation efforts.

The primary goal of my dissertation was to understand how ...


Exploration Of Hair Cortisol Concentrations And Implications Of Stress In Hunting Dogs On The Bosawas Biosphere Reserve, Nicaragua, Grace Bowland 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Exploration Of Hair Cortisol Concentrations And Implications Of Stress In Hunting Dogs On The Bosawas Biosphere Reserve, Nicaragua, Grace Bowland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines the relationships between physiological factors of hair color, sex, nutritional health, and body size (mass) with measures of hair cortisol in domesticated Nicaraguan hunting dogs on the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve. Prior research on cortisol in dogs has been relatively limited to small, homogenous population samples under restricted environmental conditions. This leaves a gap in current knowledge, and a need for larger-scale studies to assess whether current understandings of how cortisol acts in dogs is applicable to dogs within dynamic and heterogeneous environments. The population of hunting dogs examined in this study live in an unpredictable environment in ...


Distance Gradient Of Vocalization Discrimination And Aggression In Neighborhoods Of Rufous-And-White Wrens (Thryophilus Rufalbus), Andrew P. Newgard 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Distance Gradient Of Vocalization Discrimination And Aggression In Neighborhoods Of Rufous-And-White Wrens (Thryophilus Rufalbus), Andrew P. Newgard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Vocalization-based communication networks have been observed in multiple animal taxa. Many territorial animals in these communication networks tend to act differentially towards their neighbors compared to farther-removed strangers given competitive pressure in habitats. My study investigated communication among rufous-and-white wrens (Thryophilus rufalbus), and whether this involves greater aggression towards neighbors or towards strangers. T. rufalbus vocally defend territories year-round and have been shown to exhibit ability to discriminate between vocalizations of neighbors versus strangers (neighbor-stranger discrimination, NSD). I quantified whether T. rufalbus demonstrates different levels of aggression upon hearing played-back vocalizations from close-by neighbors, neighbors of adjacent neighbors, and most ...


Factors Influencing The Movement Of Livestock Guardian Dogs In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas: Implications For Efficacy, Behavior, And Territoriality, John M. Tomeček, Justin T. French, John W. Walker, Nova J. Silvy, Nicholas A. Bromen 2019 Texas A&M University

Factors Influencing The Movement Of Livestock Guardian Dogs In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas: Implications For Efficacy, Behavior, And Territoriality, John M. Tomeček, Justin T. French, John W. Walker, Nova J. Silvy, Nicholas A. Bromen

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Livestock guardian dog (Canis lupus familiaris; LGD) breeds of domestic dog worldwide provide a degree of control over predation losses. The application of LGDs as a wildlife damage management tool evolved as a cultural practice in the Old World. In the 1970s, this tool emerged in North America. Despite several decades of science and application, gaps still exist in our knowledge regarding applications for LGDs. From February 2016 to November 2017, we deployed global positioning system transmitters on 4 LGDs on a 20-km2 ranch in Menard County, Texas, USA operated by Texas A&M AgriLife Research to investigate their ...


Spatial Relationships Between Livestock Guardian Dogs And Mesocarnivores In Central Texas, Nicholas A. Bromen, Justin T. French, John Walker, Nova J. Silvy, John M. Tomeček 2019 Texas A&M University

Spatial Relationships Between Livestock Guardian Dogs And Mesocarnivores In Central Texas, Nicholas A. Bromen, Justin T. French, John Walker, Nova J. Silvy, John M. Tomeček

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The use of livestock guardian dogs (Canis lupus familiaris; LGDs) to deter predators from preying on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra spp.) herds continues to increase across the United States. Most research regarding the efficacy of LGDs has been based on queries of rancher satisfaction with LGD performance, yet little is known regarding LGD influence on mesocarnivores, including those species against which they protect livestock. Here, we provide some preliminary observations regarding the effect of LGDs deployed with sheep and goat herds from May 2016 to April 2017 on the detected activity of mesocarnivores within occupied pastures on ...


Did Predator Control Go To The Dogs? A 40-Year Retrospective, John M. Tomeček 2019 Texas A&M University

Did Predator Control Go To The Dogs? A 40-Year Retrospective, John M. Tomeček

Human–Wildlife Interactions

In 1980, Green and Woodruff published an article entitled, “Is Predator Control Going to the Dogs?” At that time, the use of Livestock Guardian Dogs (hereafter LGDs) was a relatively new wildlife damage management tool in North America. Although this tool passed the test of time in its point of origin, early North American adopters stepped into a brave new world with little to guide them. In the modern world, knowledge of methods and means of wildlife damage management exists in written texts, films, and other guides. For LGDs, however, such materials did not exist 40 years ago. Over the ...


Predicting Black Bear Activity At Backcountry Campsites In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, Wesley G. Larson, Tom Smith 2019 Brigham Young University

Predicting Black Bear Activity At Backcountry Campsites In Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, Wesley G. Larson, Tom Smith

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Developing the capacity to predict black bear (Ursus americanus; bear) activity in a diversity of habitats will help conserve bear populations and their habitats and minimize human–bear conflicts. This capacity will be particularly important in areas that provide bear habitat and offer backcountry hiking and camping experiences. Bryce Canyon National Park (BRCA), located on the edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau in southern Utah, USA, provides important bear habitat and offers visitors 12 backcountry campsites. To effectively manage these areas to minimize human–bear conflicts, park managers will need better information about black bear use of these campsites and other ...


The Affiliative Social Relations Of Free-Ranging Rhesus Macaques In The Context Of Instability, Sam Larson 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Affiliative Social Relations Of Free-Ranging Rhesus Macaques In The Context Of Instability, Sam Larson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Across primates, socially integrated individuals exhibit improved genetic fitness compared to their peripheral conspecifics. However, the mechanisms through which this disparity operates is unclear. One hypothesis is that social bonds mitigate the stressors imparted by environmental instability. To date, this relationship has gone critically unexamined, owing to the inability to anticipate and account for instability in prospective research design. In this dissertation, I evaluate this hypothesis within a population of free-ranging rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). I employ a long-term behavioral data set comprised of 691 unique individuals across 6 groups, followed from 1 to 8 years. I employ the tool-kit ...


Diversity On Human Difference: Unanimity On Human Responsibility, Colin A. Chapman, Michael A. Huffman 2019 McGill University

Diversity On Human Difference: Unanimity On Human Responsibility, Colin A. Chapman, Michael A. Huffman

Animal Sentience

Further commentaries on our original target article add important new points and expand our understanding of the differences between animals, particularly between non-human and human primates. But whether they affirm or deny that humans are unique, all commentators agree that our special abilities mean we should be taking responsibility for the care of nature and the plants and animals it supports. We ask: is humankind doing this?


More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers 2019 University of New England

More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman have highlighted observations of animals performing, in nature, complex behaviour once thought to be unique to humans. Just as relevant to their argument are examples of cognition shown by domesticated species tested in controlled conditions. These strengthen the case for human/nonhuman similarities in behaviour and cognition. Recent research has brought to our attention the ability of nonhuman species to perform many tasks previously considered to be the hallmark of humans. Even though different species may use different ways of solving these tasks, the very fact that they can do it undermines the notion of human superiority.


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