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The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia For Animal Communities In Tropical Savannah Ecosystems, J. Sean Doody, Simon Clulow, Geoff Kay, Domenic D'Amore, David Rhind 2019 Selected Works

The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia For Animal Communities In Tropical Savannah Ecosystems, J. Sean Doody, Simon Clulow, Geoff Kay, Domenic D'Amore, David Rhind

J. Sean Doody

In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for ...


Novel Habitat Causes A Shift To Diurnal Activity In A Nocturnal Species, J. Sean Doody, Colin R. McHenry, David Rhind, Simon Clulow 2019 Selected Works

Novel Habitat Causes A Shift To Diurnal Activity In A Nocturnal Species, J. Sean Doody, Colin R. Mchenry, David Rhind, Simon Clulow

J. Sean Doody

Plastic responses may allow individuals to survive and reproduce in novel environments, and can facilitate the establishment of viable populations. But can novel environments reveal plasticity by causing a shift in a behavior as fundamental and conspicuous as daily activity? We studied daily activity times near the invasion front of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), an invasive species that has colonized much of northern Australia. Cane toads in Australia are nocturnal, probably because diurnal activity would subject them to intolerably hot and dry conditions in the tropical savannah during the dry season. Our study can demonstrate, however, that upon reaching ...


Conceptual Model For Thermal Limits On The Distribution Of Reptiles, J. Sean Doody, Jennifer A. Moore 2019 Selected Works

Conceptual Model For Thermal Limits On The Distribution Of Reptiles, J. Sean Doody, Jennifer A. Moore

J. Sean Doody

Recent climate change has re-invigorated scientific interest in the dynamics of geographic distributions of organisms. Climate responses and their biogeographical ramifications can be predicted indirectly by studying variation in fitness-related traits across environmental gradients in wide-ranging species. We review evidence for such variation in reptiles. Clinal variation in seasonal timing (onset) of nesting is common but may offer only minor compensation. In contrast, clinal variation in nesting behavior in two wide-ranging species suggests that reptiles can use nest site choice to counter climate differences. We suggest that when range boundaries located at climate extremes are determined by thermal conditions of ...


Claw Morphometrics In Monitor Lizards: Variable Substrate And Habitat Use Correlate To Shape Diversity Within A Predator Guild, Domenic C. D'Amore, Simon Clulow, J. Sean Doody, David Rhind, Colin R. McHenry 2019 Selected Works

Claw Morphometrics In Monitor Lizards: Variable Substrate And Habitat Use Correlate To Shape Diversity Within A Predator Guild, Domenic C. D'Amore, Simon Clulow, J. Sean Doody, David Rhind, Colin R. Mchenry

J. Sean Doody

Numerous studies investigate morphology in the context of habitat, and lizards have received particular attention. Substrate usage is often reflected in the morphology of characters associated with locomotion, and, as a result, claws have become well-studied ecomorphological traits linking the two. The Kimberley predator guild of Western Australia consists of 10 sympatric varanid species. The purpose of this study was to quantify claw size and shape in the guild using geometric morphometrics, and determine whether these features correlated with substrate use and habitat. Each species was assigned a Habitat/substrate group based on the substrate their claws interact with in ...


Identifying Roadkill Hotspots Using A Running Average, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead, Evan R. Boitet 2019 Georgia College and State University

Identifying Roadkill Hotspots Using A Running Average, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead, Evan R. Boitet

Georgia Journal of Science

The identification of roadkill hotspots is necessary prior to the consideration of wildlife road mortality mitigation measures. In a previous study, 178 roadkill specimens were tallied via a driving survey along 21.4 km (13.3 mi) on three connected roadways in Baldwin County, Georgia. Roadkill locations were recorded to the nearest 0.16 km (0.1 mi) using the vehicle odometer. In the current study, location data were used to generate three graphical displays of roadkill distribution: 1) a linear graph of roadkills per 0.16 km (0.1 mi) bin; 2) a linear graph of roadkills per 0 ...


The Role Of Inflammatory Pathways In Development, Growth, And Metabolism Of Skeletal Muscle In Iugr Offspring; Blood Gene Expression Of Inflammatory Factors As Novel Biomarkers For Assessing Stress And Wellbeing In Exotic Species., Robert J. Posont 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Role Of Inflammatory Pathways In Development, Growth, And Metabolism Of Skeletal Muscle In Iugr Offspring; Blood Gene Expression Of Inflammatory Factors As Novel Biomarkers For Assessing Stress And Wellbeing In Exotic Species., Robert J. Posont

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Our first study identified the effects of maternal inflammation-induced intrauterine growth restriction (MI-IUGR) on growth and muscle glucose metabolism in offspring supplemented with curcumin. MI-IUGR lambs exhibited asymmetric growth restriction at birth and 30d of age, but normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Hindlimb glucose oxidation was reduced by MI-IUGR and not improved by curcumin supplementation. Ex vivo muscle glucose oxidation was reduced by MI-IUGR but improved somewhat by curcumin. These finding indicate that fetal programming responses to MI contribute to neonatal growth and metabolic deficits. Neonatal curcumin supplementation had minimal effect on growth deficits but may improve glucose metabolism.

Our second ...


The Development Of Socio-Sexual Behavior In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas), Malin K. Lilley 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Development Of Socio-Sexual Behavior In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas), Malin K. Lilley

Dissertations

The reproductive success of the beluga whale is critical for a species facing extinction in its endangered Cook Inlet, Alaska population. To date, little is known about the mating behavior of these whales in wild populations. On the other hand, observations of beluga whales in human care allow researchers to better understand many aspects of their daily lives and life histories that are difficult to assess in wild populations. Thus far, a catalog of socio-sexual behavior has been established based on observations of belugas; however, the developmental trajectory of socio-sexual behavior is not well-understood. The present study explored how socio-sexual ...


Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis

Dissertations

As human populations rise, the level of man-made noise increases globally. Naval sonar and boat traffic are underwater sound sources of particular concern to marine mammal welfare. To better understand the impact of these noise increases on cetaceans, studies can explore animals’ behavioral changes in response to noise. Studies have investigated the ‘dose-response’ relationship between the received sound pressure level of sonar signals and the behavior of cetaceans in the wild, but exposure studies in controlled environments are limited. The studies in this dissertation examined bottlenose dolphin vocal modifications during various experimental noise treatments. Acoustic recordings previously obtained for bottlenose ...


Camera Trap Study Of The Mammal Communities Across An Urbanization Gradient, Caleb Durbin, Christine Brodsky 2019 Pittsburg State University

Camera Trap Study Of The Mammal Communities Across An Urbanization Gradient, Caleb Durbin, Christine Brodsky

Posters

Urbanization impacts mammal communities due to habitat removal, resource abundance distribution, and the introduction of exotic species. Other studies have found that wildlife species richness is greatest at intermediate urbanization, while abundance is greatest in cities. This study was done to explore the mammal community across an urban to rural gradient in Pittsburg. Using motion-sensor camera traps, we documented small mammal pres­ence for 24 hours a day, finding patterns in mammal abundance, species richness, and community composition. Our hypothesis was that we will observe trends in mammal communities similar to other cities. Over six weeks, we placed two cameras ...


Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers 2019 Roanoke College

Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers

Virginia Journal of Science

Snorkel observations of Percina roanoka and P. nevisense in the Roanoke River during summer months were followed by measuring current velocity, water depth, and substrate diameter at points of occupation. A total of 89 observations of P. roanoka and 81 observations of P. nevisense were compared using two-sample T-tests. Percina roanoka inhabited faster, shallower water than P. nevisense with the former found in a mean flow of 0.318 m/s and depth of 31.53 cm and the latter in a mean flow of 0.17 m/s and depth of 55.6 cm. Mean diameter of substrate at ...


An Intersectional Feminist Approach To Lyme Disease Epidemiology, Meghan Frisard 2019 University of Maine

An Intersectional Feminist Approach To Lyme Disease Epidemiology, Meghan Frisard

Honors College

Nationally, Maine is the state with the second highest incidence of Lyme disease. While the spread of Lyme disease is generally attributable to ecological factors that affect the life cycle of Lyme-spreading ticks, socioeconomic factors may have substantial impacts on diagnosis and reporting of human cases. Socioeconomic factors could influence one’s ability to see a healthcare provider and ultimately be diagnosed with and treated for Lyme. Additionally, access to and treatment within the healthcare system is often gendered. I hypothesize that certain socioeconomic factors will have a negative correlation with Lyme disease incidence among the general population and among ...


The Most Critical Resource: How Climate Change Fuels The Crisis In Syria And The Implications For The World At Large, Edward Medeiros 2019 University of Maine

The Most Critical Resource: How Climate Change Fuels The Crisis In Syria And The Implications For The World At Large, Edward Medeiros

Honors College

The Syrian crisis, both domestic and international in scope, may well be the defining geopolitical challenge of the generation. Climate change may be the single greatest challenge to face humanity in the entirety of our species’ life history. The dramatic effects of climate change can be seen in the origins of the Syrian crisis when one looks to humanity’s single most critical resource: water. We take the word critical to have two meanings in this context: first, that water is essential to human survival and second that water is a resource in critical condition. Syria’s water crisis pre-dates ...


Construction Of A Cpsa Double Mutant To Determine The Function Of The Lyt-R Domain, Klarissa Klier 2019 University of Maine

Construction Of A Cpsa Double Mutant To Determine The Function Of The Lyt-R Domain, Klarissa Klier

Honors College

Streptococcus agalactiae, otherwise known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a zoonotic, Gram-positive, commensal and invasive bacteria which is the leading cause of neonatal bacterial infections. These bacterial infections include sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia. In neonates, GBS is most commonly transferred to the child in utero or during birth when the child aspirates amniotic or vaginal fluids. GBS can also infect the child through the bloodstream while in utero, causing premature births or still births. Children who survive the initial infection develop severe morbidities which include mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and seizures. GBS can also affect immunocompromised adults, leading ...


Mmp13 Inhibition Does Not Rescue Gmppb-Deficient Skeletal Muscle In Zebrafish, Sean Driscoll 2019 University of Maine

Mmp13 Inhibition Does Not Rescue Gmppb-Deficient Skeletal Muscle In Zebrafish, Sean Driscoll

Honors College

The dystroglycan protein is one of many that attach skeletal muscle fibers to the basement membrane at the myotendinous junction. In the alpha-subunit of the dystroglycan molecule, there are sugar chains that help with the adhesion of the molecule to the basement membrane. A mutation in any gene that codes for an enzyme that adds these sugar chains can result in a form of congenital muscle disease called secondary dystroglycanopathy. One of the genes that codes for an enzyme that adds sugar chains is GMPPB and a mutation in this gene results in GMPPB-associated dystroglycanopathy. Using zebrafish as a model ...


Guided Alligator Tours Or Raccoon Schooling (Gators), Paul List 2019 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Guided Alligator Tours Or Raccoon Schooling (Gators), Paul List

Senior Theses

In my two main internships during college, I worked closely with two very different animals: raccoons and alligators. Additionally, I gained experience in presenting educational programs during my internship at Fripp Island, where my most common program was our Gator Walk. For my thesis project, I built upon my experience in interpretive programming, drawing on my experience with alligators and raccoons to develop a unique educational program to present at Congaree National Park. This report will describe the process of developing this program as well as it’s implementation and outcomes. In addition, it includes a review of scholarly literature ...


Virginia Shark Identification Guide, Multispecies Research Group, Virginia Institute of Marine Science 2019 William & Mary

Virginia Shark Identification Guide, Multispecies Research Group, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Table of Contents:

Atlantic Sharpnose Shark | Bigeye Thresher Shark | Bignose Shark | Blacknose Shark | Blacktip Shark | Blue Shark | Bluntnose Sixgill Shark | Bonnethead Bull Shark | Dusky Shark | Finetooth Shark | Great Hammerhead Shark | Great White Shark | Gulper Shark | Lemon Shark | Longfin Mako Shark | Night Shark | Oceanic Whitetip Shark | Porbeagle | Sandbar Shark | Sand Tiger Shark | Scalloped Hammerhead Shark | Sharpnose Sevengill Shark | Shortfin Mako Shark | Silky Shark | Smooth Dogfish | Smooth Hammerhead Shark | Spinner Shark | Spiny Dogfish | Thresher Shark | Tiger Shark


Impact Of Intrinsic Physiological Factors In The Population Recovery Of Myotis Lucifugus (Little Brown Myotis) From White-Nose Syndrome, Caroline Burke, Caitlin Looney, Alissah Sillah, Christopher Richardson 2019 Lesley University

Impact Of Intrinsic Physiological Factors In The Population Recovery Of Myotis Lucifugus (Little Brown Myotis) From White-Nose Syndrome, Caroline Burke, Caitlin Looney, Alissah Sillah, Christopher Richardson

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

White-nose Syndrome (WNS) has decimated populations of hibernating bats in the US. In particular, Myotis lucifugus (little brown myotis) has been one of the most affected. We investigated the energetic cost of innate immune response and Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) fungal activity on post-hibernating little brown myotis and the link with the recovery of local populations in New England from WNS. We captured bats at one of each of 4 colonies in Eastern Massachusetts and Southern New Hampshire, consecutively, every 14 days to minimize disturbance to the colony. Blood samples were collected from each bat. Respirometry trials were performed on each ...


An Endemic Species In A Protected Area: Euscorpius Carpathicus (L., 1767) In The Cozia National Park, Romania (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Severus-Daniel Covaciu-Marcov, Sára Ferenţi 2019 Marshall University

An Endemic Species In A Protected Area: Euscorpius Carpathicus (L., 1767) In The Cozia National Park, Romania (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Severus-Daniel Covaciu-Marcov, Sára Ferenţi

Euscorpius

In 2016-2018, we identified 48 distribution records of Euscorpius carpathicus in the Cozia National Park, from the Romanian Southern Carpathians. The Carpathian scorpion was found between 300 and 847 m a.s.l., in forested regions, being more numerous in the lower areas situated along the Olt River. E. carpathicus is a native species in the region; it populates natural areas with low human impact.


Employing Natural History Collections In The Aid Of Conservation: Streamlining An Approach To Model Species Distributions En Masse For The Preservation Of Biodiversity, Alice Fornari 2019 Selected Works

Employing Natural History Collections In The Aid Of Conservation: Streamlining An Approach To Model Species Distributions En Masse For The Preservation Of Biodiversity, Alice Fornari

Alice Fornari

Using species distribution models (SDMs) in Natural History Collections (NHCs) can influence how humans implement conservation changes in flora and fauna communities and ecosystems. Through the use of legacy data (old NHCs and their associated locality/collection information), data correction (background data or pseudo absences added to presence-only data), and the SDM software, Maxent (and its associated geographic information systems or GIS projected models), it has been shown that it is feasible to create a low budget protocol/setup to project the past, present and future of species population changes. This has been done in the past few decades as ...


Stephen Lory Williams (1948-2018), In Memoriam, Suzanne Boyer McLaren, Catharine A, Hawks, Hugh H. Genoways 2019 Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Stephen Lory Williams (1948-2018), In Memoriam, Suzanne Boyer Mclaren, Catharine A, Hawks, Hugh H. Genoways

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Obituary and biography of Stephen Lory Williams (1948-2018).

Excerpts:

His move in 1990 returned him to Texas Tech University, taking up positions as Collection Manager in the Museum, and Adjunct Professor in the Museum Science Program. His final professional move was made in 1995 to the Department of Museum Studies at the Strecker Museum now known as the Mayborn Museum Complex at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, where he took positions as Assistant Professor and Collections Manager. Steve retired from Baylor in 2007.

Steve was present at the birth of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, serving ...


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