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Lobster Attack Induces Sensitization In The Sea Hare, Aplysia Californica, Amanda J. Watkins, Daniel A. Goldstein, Lucy C. Lee, Christina J. Pepino, Scott L. Tillett, Francis E. Ross, Elizabeth M. Wilder, Virginia A. Zachary, William G. Wright 2010 Chapman University

Lobster Attack Induces Sensitization In The Sea Hare, Aplysia Californica, Amanda J. Watkins, Daniel A. Goldstein, Lucy C. Lee, Christina J. Pepino, Scott L. Tillett, Francis E. Ross, Elizabeth M. Wilder, Virginia A. Zachary, William G. Wright

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Studies of the neural mechanisms of learning, especially of sensitization, have benefitted from extensive research on the model species, Aplysia californica (hereafter Aplysia). Considering this volume of literature on mechanisms, it is surprising that our understanding of the ecological context of sensitization in Aplysia is completely lacking. Indeed, the widespread use of strong electric shock to induce sensitization (an enhancement of withdrawal reflexes following noxious stimulation) is completely unnatural and leaves unanswered the question of whether this simple form of learning has any ecological relevance. We hypothesized that sublethal attack by a co-occurring predator, the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, might ...


Interspecific Variation In Palatability Suggests Cospecialization Of Antipredator Defenses In Sea Hares, Kimberly K. Takagi, Nadia N. Ono, William G. Wright 2010 Chapman University

Interspecific Variation In Palatability Suggests Cospecialization Of Antipredator Defenses In Sea Hares, Kimberly K. Takagi, Nadia N. Ono, William G. Wright

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Prey species often deploy different kinds of antipredator defenses, which can interact with each other in ways that are not yet completely understood. Much research into these interactions has utilized gastropod mollusks, usually focusing (in part) on the protective utility of the gastropod shell. This makes the evolutionary reduction of the shell in the opisthobranch gastropods (marine slugs) particularly interesting. This loss of protective function of the shell is associated with the evolution of alternative defenses. Particularly well studied are chemical defenses, especially those using secondary metabolites derived from food resources. As a first step toward understanding interspecific variation in ...


Morphological Differences Among Eyeless Amphipods In The Genus Stygobromus Dwelling In Different Subterranean Habitats, David C. Culver, John R. Holsinger, Mary C. Christman, Tanja Pipan 2010 Old Dominion University

Morphological Differences Among Eyeless Amphipods In The Genus Stygobromus Dwelling In Different Subterranean Habitats, David C. Culver, John R. Holsinger, Mary C. Christman, Tanja Pipan

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The amphipod genus Stygobromus occurs in a variety of subterranean habitats in North America, including caves, phreatic (groundwater) lakes, and superficial subterranean habitats (seeps and epikarst). The habitats share the absence of light but differ in other features, such as pore size of the habitat, available food, and degree of seasonality. Measurements of body size, antennal size, and antennal segment number of type specimens were compared for 56 species occurring in the eastern United States. Except for differences in body size, differences among species in the four different habitats were not significant. Body size was related to relative pore size ...


Leptodactylus Savagei, W. R. Heyer, Miriam M. Heyer, Rafael O. de Sá 2010 University of Richmond

Leptodactylus Savagei, W. R. Heyer, Miriam M. Heyer, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Adult Leptodactylus savagei are large, the head is as wide as long or usually wider than long, and the hind limbs are moderate in length (Table 1; Heyer and Thompson (2000) provided definitions of adult size and leg length categories for Leptodactylus). Male vocal sacs are not visible externally. Sexually active males have hypertrophied forearms, usually 1 large black spine on each thumb, rarely with 1 large spine and a prepollical bump, and a pair of black chest spines. A pair of entire dorsolateral folds extend anteriorly from at least one_half to full distance from eye to groin, the dorsolateral ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


The Interictal State In Epilepsy And Behavior, Daniel Tice Barkmeier 2010 Wayne State University

The Interictal State In Epilepsy And Behavior, Daniel Tice Barkmeier

Wayne State University Dissertations

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, affecting up to 1% of the world population. Epilepsy remains poorly understood and there are currently no medications to cure it. Patients with epilepsy have both seizures as well as another type of abnormal activity between seizures, known as interictal spikes. Interictal spikes have thus far been poorly researched, yet growing evidence supports an important role for them in epilepsy. In this project, we first show the high variability between reviewers in marking interictal spikes on intracranial EEG, and then develop and test an automated detection method to solve this problem ...


Light Whole Genome Sequence For Snp Discovery Across Domestic Cat Breeds, James C. Mullikin, Nancy F. Hansen, Lei Shen, Heather Ebling, William F. Donahue, Wei Tao, David J. Saranga, Adrianne Brand, Marc J. Rubenfield, Alice C. Young, Pedro Cruz, Carlos Driscoll, Victor David, Samer W. K. Al-Murrani, Mary F. Locniskar, Mitchell S. Abrahamsen, Stephen J. O'Brien, Douglas R. Smith, Jeffrey A. Brockman 2010 National Institutes of Health at Bethesda

Light Whole Genome Sequence For Snp Discovery Across Domestic Cat Breeds, James C. Mullikin, Nancy F. Hansen, Lei Shen, Heather Ebling, William F. Donahue, Wei Tao, David J. Saranga, Adrianne Brand, Marc J. Rubenfield, Alice C. Young, Pedro Cruz, Carlos Driscoll, Victor David, Samer W. K. Al-Murrani, Mary F. Locniskar, Mitchell S. Abrahamsen, Stephen J. O'Brien, Douglas R. Smith, Jeffrey A. Brockman

Biology Faculty Articles

Background

The domestic cat has offered enormous genomic potential in the veterinary description of over 250 hereditary disease models as well as the occurrence of several deadly feline viruses (feline leukemia virus -- FeLV, feline coronavirus -- FECV, feline immunodeficiency virus - FIV) that are homologues to human scourges (cancer, SARS, and AIDS respectively). However, to realize this bio-medical potential, a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map is required in order to accomplish disease and phenotype association discovery.

Description

To remedy this, we generated 3,178,297 paired fosmid-end Sanger sequence reads from seven cats, and combined these data with the publicly ...


About Fish, The Humane Society of the United States 2010 Animal Studies Repository

About Fish, The Humane Society Of The United States

Aquaculture Collection

Although a number of fish species have been studied in their freshwater life stages, further research on the behavior and habitat requirements of ocean-going fish is required. While fishes have historically been regarded as more “primitive” than other vertebrate groups, Rodriguez et al concluded that several memory and learning systems of bony fishes are noticeably similar to those of reptiles, birds, and mammals. When animals as small and under appreciated as fish display complex mating systems, parental care, and demonstrate the ability to traverse significant distances using olfactory and celestial cues, it is clear that previously established definitions of intelligence ...


Male Remating Success And The Frequency Of Copulatory Plugs In The Green Lynx Spider Peucetia Viridans (Araneae, Oxyopidae), Martina G. Ramirez, Angelik C. Achekian, Catherine R. Coverley, Rachel M. Pierce, Sarah S. Eiman, Melissa M. Wetkowski 2010 Loyola Marymount University

Male Remating Success And The Frequency Of Copulatory Plugs In The Green Lynx Spider Peucetia Viridans (Araneae, Oxyopidae), Martina G. Ramirez, Angelik C. Achekian, Catherine R. Coverley, Rachel M. Pierce, Sarah S. Eiman, Melissa M. Wetkowski

Biology Faculty Works

Peucetia viridans males were allowed to mate with three virgin females and most matings resulted in live spiderlings, even when males lacked palpal paracymbial processes. Among females, the presence of copulatory plugs was inconsistent, and when present, their condition was not uniform; broken-off male paracymbia were often found in epigynal orifices. There was no size effect in a male’s ability to completely plug a female’s genital orifices, as well as no significant change in the pattern of plug production over consecutive mating trials. Among mated, field-collected females, the presence of plugs and paracymbia was variable, with females from ...


Migration Dynamics, Within-Estuary Behaviors And Cardiorespiratory Responses Of Summer Flounder To Selected Estuarine Conditions, Karen M. Capossela 2010 College of William and Mary - Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Migration Dynamics, Within-Estuary Behaviors And Cardiorespiratory Responses Of Summer Flounder To Selected Estuarine Conditions, Karen M. Capossela

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

A comprehensive understanding of migration dynamics, within-estuary behaviors and physiological tolerances of fish is needed to assess and predict future responses of fish to environmental disturbance and to protect habitat necessary for growth and survival. This study adds to current knowledge of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) responses to environmental conditions by (1) examining migration and within-estuarine behaviors of adult summer flounder and (2) establishing summer flounder metabolic requirements and cardiorespiratory responses to variations in hypoxia and temperature. To elucidate use of a southern mid-Atlantic Bight estuary by adult summer flounder, the movements of 45 fish were monitored using acoustic telemetry ...


Survival In An Urbanized Landscape: Radio-Tracking Fledgling Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis) On Golf Courses, Allyson Kathleen Jackson 2010 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

Survival In An Urbanized Landscape: Radio-Tracking Fledgling Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis) On Golf Courses, Allyson Kathleen Jackson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Conservation On The Status Of The World's Vertebrates, Michael Hoffmann, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Ariadne Angulo, Monika Böhm, Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent E. Carpenter, Janice Chanson, Beth A. Polidoro, Jonnell C. Sanciangco 2010 Old Dominion University

The Impact Of Conservation On The Status Of The World's Vertebrates, Michael Hoffmann, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Ariadne Angulo, Monika Böhm, Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent E. Carpenter, Janice Chanson, Beth A. Polidoro, Jonnell C. Sanciangco

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to extinction each year. However, this overall pattern conceals the impact of conservation successes, and we show that the rate of deterioration would have been at least one-fifth again as much in the absence of these. Nonetheless, current conservation efforts remain insufficient to ...


A Garter Snake Transcriptome: Pyrosequencing, De Novo Assembly, And Sex-Specific Differences, Tonia S. Schwartz, Hongseok Tae, Youngik Yang, Keithanne Mockaitis, John L. Van Hemert, Stephen R. Proulx, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Anne M. Bronikowski 2010 Iowa State University

A Garter Snake Transcriptome: Pyrosequencing, De Novo Assembly, And Sex-Specific Differences, Tonia S. Schwartz, Hongseok Tae, Youngik Yang, Keithanne Mockaitis, John L. Van Hemert, Stephen R. Proulx, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Anne M. Bronikowski

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background

The reptiles, characterized by both diversity and unique evolutionary adaptations, provide a comprehensive system for comparative studies of metabolism, physiology, and development. However, molecular resources for ectothermic reptiles are severely limited, hampering our ability to study the genetic basis for many evolutionarily important traits such as metabolic plasticity, extreme longevity, limblessness, venom, and freeze tolerance. Here we use massively parallel sequencing (454 GS-FLX Titanium) to generate a transcriptome of the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) with two goals in mind. First, we develop a molecular resource for an ectothermic reptile; and second, we use these sex-specific transcriptomes to ...


Aging And Its Demographic Measurement, Anne M. Bronikowski, Thomas Flatt 2010 Iowa State University

Aging And Its Demographic Measurement, Anne M. Bronikowski, Thomas Flatt

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Aging is an inevitable fact of life. But as life span increases, do aging processes slow down? Here, we introduce how to measure life span, aging rate, and frailty, in cohorts and populations.


Conceptual Model For Thermal Limits On The Distribution Of Reptiles, J. Sean Doody, Jennifer A. Moore 2010 University of South Florida St. Petersburg

Conceptual Model For Thermal Limits On The Distribution Of Reptiles, J. Sean Doody, Jennifer A. Moore

Faculty Publications

Recent climate change has re-invigorated scientific interest in the dynamics of geographic distributions of organisms. Climate responses and their biogeographical ramifications can be predicted indirectly by studying variation in fitness-related traits across environmental gradients in wide-ranging species. We review evidence for such variation in reptiles. Clinal variation in seasonal timing (onset) of nesting is common but may offer only minor compensation. In contrast, clinal variation in nesting behavior in two wide-ranging species suggests that reptiles can use nest site choice to counter climate differences. We suggest that when range boundaries located at climate extremes are determined by thermal conditions of ...


Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken 2009 Gettysburg College

Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken

Ryan Kerney

Genetic and developmental alterations associated with the evolution of amphibian direct development remain largely unexplored. Specifically, little is known of the underlying expression of skeletal regulatory genes, which may reveal early modifications to cranial ontogeny in direct-developing species. We describe expression patterns of three key skeletal regulators (runx2, sox9, and bmp4) along with the cartilage-dominant collagen 2a1 gene (col2a1) during cranial development in the direct- developing anuran, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Expression patterns of these regulators reveal transient skeletogenic anlagen that correspond to larval cartilages, but which never fully form in E. coqui. Suprarostral anlagen in the frontonasal processes are detected through ...


Diagnostic Exercise: Chronic Vomiting In A Dog., Debra Miller 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Diagnostic Exercise: Chronic Vomiting In A Dog., Debra Miller

Debra L Miller

An approximately one-and-a-half-year-old, neutered male, mixed-breed dog was presented for a chronic history of vomiting. Profuse diarrhea was also noted during examination. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, bone chips were removed from the stomach, and a raised, circular area of gastric mucosa was biopsied. Histologically, there was severe gastric cryptosporidiosis as well as numerous spiral bacteria, consistent with Helicobacter spp. Polymerase chain reaction revealed visible bands for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp. The polymerase chain reaction product was sequenced and was found to be most similar to Cryptosporidium muris. Both the gastric location and the species of ...


Amphibian Decline And Mass Mortality: The Value Of Visualizing Ranavirus In Tissue Sections., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Amphibian Decline And Mass Mortality: The Value Of Visualizing Ranavirus In Tissue Sections., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray

Debra L Miller

No abstract provided.


Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Caused By Aphanomyces Invadans In Captive Bullseye Snakehead Channa Marulius Collected From South Florida, Usa., R. Saylor, Debra Miller, M. Vandersea, M. Bevelhimer, P. Schofield, W. Bennett 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Caused By Aphanomyces Invadans In Captive Bullseye Snakehead Channa Marulius Collected From South Florida, Usa., R. Saylor, Debra Miller, M. Vandersea, M. Bevelhimer, P. Schofield, W. Bennett

Debra L Miller

Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is an invasive, opportunistic disease of both freshwater and estuarine fishes. Originally documented as the cause of mycotic granulomatosis of ornamental fishes in Japan and as the cause of EUS of fishes in southeast Asia and Australia, this pathogen is also present in estuaries and freshwater bodies of the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the USA. We describe a mass mortality event of 343 captive juvenile bullseye snakehead Channa marulius collected from freshwater canals in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Clinical signs appeared within the first 2 d of captivity and included ...


Gingival Osteogenic Melanoma In Two Dogs., A. Ellis, B. Harmon, Debra Miller, N. Northup, K. Latimer, E. Uhl 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Gingival Osteogenic Melanoma In Two Dogs., A. Ellis, B. Harmon, Debra Miller, N. Northup, K. Latimer, E. Uhl

Debra L Miller

Osteogenic melanoma is a rare variant of metaplastic malignant melanoma in human medicine and appears to be a similarly rare variant in dogs. Two dogs with oral malignant melanoma with neoplastic bone formation are reported in this study. Both tumors were characterized by malignant melanocytes that transitioned into neoplastic bone at the deep margins of the neoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed S100- and Melan-A-positive neoplastic cells adjacent to, and occasionally embedded within, an osteoid and chondroblastic matrix. Scattered clusters of neoplastic cells were also positive for osteocalcin. The findings indicate that in dogs, as in humans, neoplastic melanocytes have metaplastic potential ...


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