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Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney 2020 University of Montana

Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Ground dwelling birds must scale all kinds of complex terrain in order to survive in their natural environments. For instance, Alectoris chukar live on steep hillsides with slopes of up to 60° or 172.3% slope. We undertook the present study to improve understanding of how birds successfully traverse such complex terrain. Using a high speed camera, we analyzed the hind limb kinematics of chukars during normal locomotion on a 10° and 35° incline, decline, and level slope. We compared the data collected from the video recordings, which we had used to identify and digitize the bony landmarks, between all ...


Odour Reducing Microbial-Mineral Additive For Poultry Manure Treatment, Kajetan Kalus, Sebastian Opaliński, Devin Maurer, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Mariusz Korczyński, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Roman Kołacz, Beata Gutarowska 2019 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Odour Reducing Microbial-Mineral Additive For Poultry Manure Treatment, Kajetan Kalus, Sebastian Opaliński, Devin Maurer, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Mariusz Korczyński, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Roman Kołacz, Beata Gutarowska

Somchai Rice

Poultry production systems are associated with emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), greenhouse gases, and particulate matter. Development of mitigation technologies for these emissions is important. Previous laboratory-scale research on microbial-mineral treatment has shown to be effective for mitigation of NH3, H2S and amines emissions from poultry manure. The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of surface application of a microbial-mineral treatment for other important odorants, i.e., phenolics and sulfur-containing VOCs. Microbial-mineral litter additive consisting of 20% (w/w) of bacteria powder (six strains of heterotrophic bacteria) and 80% of ...


Commissioning Of A Segmented Wand For Evaluating Airflow Performance Of Fans In Livestock And Poultry Housing, Katlyn R. DeVoe, Steven J. Hoff, Yun Gao, Brett C. Ramirez 2019 Iowa State University

Commissioning Of A Segmented Wand For Evaluating Airflow Performance Of Fans In Livestock And Poultry Housing, Katlyn R. Devoe, Steven J. Hoff, Yun Gao, Brett C. Ramirez

Brett Ramirez

Ventilation rate estimates play an important role in evaluating the thermal environment and determining emission rates from livestock and poultry housing. Currently, the standard method to measure in situ ventilation rates is the Fan Assessment Numeration System (FANS). A similar sensing system is needed for extension personnel that eliminates the labor and set-up requirements of FANS. In order to efficiently and cost-effectively estimate ventilation rates, a Segmented Wand for Evaluating Airflow Performance (SWEAP) was developed. The objectives of this research were to: (i) design and construct a hand-held device capable of measuring in situ fan intake flowrate, (ii) evaluate SWEAP ...


An Image Acquisition System For Studying Behaviors Of Sows And Piglets In Farrowing Barns, Suzanne Leonard, Hongwei Xin, Tami Brown-Brandl, Brett C. Ramirez 2019 Iowa State University

An Image Acquisition System For Studying Behaviors Of Sows And Piglets In Farrowing Barns, Suzanne Leonard, Hongwei Xin, Tami Brown-Brandl, Brett C. Ramirez

Brett Ramirez

Behavior studies in commercial swine farrowing room environments often need to monitor each set of sow and piglets individually and simultaneously. Autonomous computer imaging systems can overcome this challenge. The system presented here utilizes a time of flight depth sensor and a digital camera to capture depth and digital images of each sow and litter, housed in individual farrowing stalls. Depth sensors were centered above the stalls on a triangular truss spanning the length of the farrowing room and mounted in waterproof boxes with attached lids, enabling them to easily be waterproofed when cleaning the farrowing room. Each depth sensor ...


Unique Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiles Of Chicken Macrophages Exposed To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Dan Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont 2019 Iowa State University

Unique Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiles Of Chicken Macrophages Exposed To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Dan Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont

Dan Nettleton

Background: Macrophages play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Bacteria require endotoxin, a complex lipopolysaccharide, for outer membrane permeability and the host interprets endotoxin as a signal to initiate an innate immune response. The focus of this study is kinetic and global transcriptional analysis of the chicken macrophage response to in vitro stimulation with endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium-798.

Results: The 38535-probeset Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome array was used to profile transcriptional response to endotoxin 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours post stimulation (hps). Using a maximum FDR (False Discovery Rate) of 0.05 to declare genes as ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, and also leads to economic activity in other parts of the economy. This report is the eleventh in a series of reports examining agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on ...


Genetic Analysis Of Production, Physiological, And Egg Quality Traits In Heat-Challenged Commercial White Egg-Laying Hens Using 600k Snp Array Data, Kaylee Rowland, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2019 Iowa State University

Genetic Analysis Of Production, Physiological, And Egg Quality Traits In Heat-Challenged Commercial White Egg-Laying Hens Using 600k Snp Array Data, Kaylee Rowland, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

Background: Heat stress negatively afects the welfare and production of chickens. High ambient temperature is considered one of the most ubiquitous abiotic environmental challenges to laying hens around the world. In this study, we recorded several production traits, feed intake, body weight, digestibility, and egg quality of 400 commercial white egg-laying hens before and during a 4-week heat treatment. For the phenotypes that had estimated heritabilities (using 600k SNP chip data) higher than 0, SNP associations were tested using the same 600k genotype data.

Results: Seventeen phenotypes had heritability estimates higher than 0, including measurements at various time points for ...


A Feasibility Study Of Industrial Hemp On Virginia Commercial Poultry Production, Aaron Sloss 2019 James Madison University

A Feasibility Study Of Industrial Hemp On Virginia Commercial Poultry Production, Aaron Sloss

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This project sought to characterize industrial hemp as a potential competitive agricultural commodity for the state of Virginia. Specifically, industrial hempseed was evaluated as a feedstock for the commercial broiler (meat-chickens) industry in Virginia.

Data were gathered to identify both the advantages and disadvantages of industrial hempseed as a nutritional resource for broilers. Key nutritional compositions were identified, quantified, and compared to several common feed ingredients, such as soybean, wheat, corn, and sorghum. Hempseed (whole seed) was found to have a considerably high amino acid content, protein, fiber, and metabolizable energy – making it an attractive alternative to conventional feedstuffs.

However ...


Consumer Perceptions Of Organic, Natural, And Conventional Products When Provided At The Same Price., Kylee Sigmon 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Consumer Perceptions Of Organic, Natural, And Conventional Products When Provided At The Same Price., Kylee Sigmon

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Today’s grocery stores are filled aisle to aisle with an overwhelming variety of options for the consumer. In a consumer-driven market structure, the food industry has grown to encompass many niche markets which meet the ever changing demands of consumers. From organically produced food to more modern agriculture practices and even to finding non-meat protein alternatives, the options are endless. However, in the United States (a country with a higher level of disposable income compared to others), the question arises are customers educated about what the products truly are that they are spending a price premium on?

This study ...


Analysis Of Rwandan Smallholder Poultry Farmer Needs In Production Manuals, Holly Henry 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Analysis Of Rwandan Smallholder Poultry Farmer Needs In Production Manuals, Holly Henry

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

As global population continues to grow improving agricultural production become even more important. Smallholder farmers make up a large portion of agricultural production in developing countries (Gueye, 2000; Upton, 2000). East Africa is one sector which has seen growth in poultry production over the pas five years. (Vernooij, Masaki, & Meiher-Willems, 2018). One major constraint to smallholder production is lack of access to educational materials and production guidelines (Mack et al., 2005).

The purpose of the study was to describe methods of production utilized by smallholder farmers in Rwanda and determine what information should be included in a production guide. The ...


Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild 2019 Iowa State University

Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

Natural selection is likely a major factor in shaping genomic variation of the African indigenous rural chicken, driving the development of genetic footprints. Selection footprints are expected to be associated with adaptation to locally prevailing environmental stressors, which may include diverse factors as high altitude, disease resistance, poor nutrition, oxidative and heat stresses. To determine the existence of a selection footprint, 268 birds were randomly sampled from three indigenous ecotypes from East Africa (Rwanda and Uganda) and North Africa (Baladi), and two registered Egyptian breeds (Dandarawi and Fayoumi). Samples were genotyped using the chicken Affymetrix 600K Axiom® Array. A total ...


Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


Comprehensive Poultry Supply Chain Model With Vertical And Horizontal Linkages: Implication Of Domestic And International Shocks, Hakan Unveren 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Comprehensive Poultry Supply Chain Model With Vertical And Horizontal Linkages: Implication Of Domestic And International Shocks, Hakan Unveren

Theses and Dissertations

According to USDA FAS, in 2017, the US was the largest broiler-producing country with 18.696 million metric tons and the second largest exporter of broiler products with 3.075 million metric tons (Brazil is the largest exporter with 3.847 million metric tons). Thus, around 83% of US production is consumed domestically. According to USITC, chickens are the most important protein source in the US, and Americans consume more chicken per capita than any other country. However, while the broiler industry is a key segment of US agriculture, it is underserved by large-scale supply-chain and trade models.

In this ...


Optimization Of The Light Environment For Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optimization Of The Light Environment For Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge

Theses and Dissertations

The use of artificial light sources has been necessitated by the use of fully enclosed rearing facilities for improved environmental control. Light Emitting Diodes (LED) have been developed as a light source that reduce the utilities required to provide equal light to that of incandescent sources. The following reports were carried out to investigate the effects of two light color temperatures, light intensity and light intensity gradients on broiler chicken production and behavior. The first investigation consisting of two consecutive trials investigated the effect of two light color temperatures (2700 K and 5000 K) in addition to the preference for ...


Broiler Breeder Amino Acid Levels And Progeny Nutritional Status, Leasea Butler 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Breeder Amino Acid Levels And Progeny Nutritional Status, Leasea Butler

Theses and Dissertations

Crude protein needs of chickens have changed due to genetic line differences and selection of those lines for differing broiler traits. Standard commercial broiler strains have been selected to be used to meet multiple processing categories typically at live body weights less than 3.5 kg. In the last two decades high-yielding broiler strains were introduced into the commercial market. These breeds are known as the Cobb 700 and Ross 708. The works included within are focused on the Cobb 700 high-yielding broiler strain, and its response to crude protein, with emphasis on digestible lysine.


Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey Carpenter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey Carpenter

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study explores the husbandry methodologies on a backyard poultry farm in Dangriga, Belize, with the purpose of producing a set of guidelines for backyard poultry growers that have limited resources in similar regions. The majority of data collection occurred through survey questions approved by the IRB, necropsies approved by IACUC, and general observations. There has been a steady increase in poultry production in developing regions due to its positive effects on income and relative nutrition. However, due to a lack of accessible communication and education regarding effective and safe poultry production, these operators typically see poor productivity and/or ...


Shirley Family Letters (Sc 3403), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2019 Western Kentucky University

Shirley Family Letters (Sc 3403), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3403. Letters received by the Shirley family of Eagle Station, Carroll County, Kentucky. A nephew writes of his new job with a Fort Wayne, Indiana newspaper, a specialist with the Dixie Poultry Journal gives advice on treating worms in poultry, and Albert Shirley writes his wife Lydia from their daughter Kathleen’s home. Includes a doctor’s notes on the health of Kathleen’s young son Robert.


The Effects Of Butyric Acid On Performance Parameters, Egg Quality And Nutrient Utilization In Young White Leghorn Hens, Dani-el Hanna 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Effects Of Butyric Acid On Performance Parameters, Egg Quality And Nutrient Utilization In Young White Leghorn Hens, Dani-El Hanna

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Adviser: Sheila E. Purdum

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Prophorce butyric acid on the performance of White Leghorn laying hens. Hens (180) were placed in 60 conventional cages (3 hens/cage) using a completely randomized design with 30 replicate cages per treatment allowing 722.58cm2/hen. Hens were given the control or butyric acid. The trial spanned 40 weeks (35 weeks old at the start). Water was given ad libitum and hens were fed 110g/day. Egg production and mortality were recorded daily. Egg shell strength, weight, and mass were recorded biweekly; hen ...


Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow 2019 University of Southern Maine

Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow

Student Scholarship

Climate change and weather affect the phenology of bird migration; however, specific climatological factors associated with these observed effects have only recently been described. The relationship between local, regional, and global climate patterns and avian migration are increasingly important to understand due to the widespread, and potentially negative, implications (such as reduced fecundity) of rapid human induced climate change on bird populations. Migratory birds are under selective pressure to arrive at breeding areas at the optimal time to set up nesting territories and exploit seasonally abundant food resources, and because climate change has the potential to occur more rapidly than ...


Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske 2019 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske

Rudy Valentine

Background: The literature regarding the relation between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and there is limited evidence pertaining to the impact of egg consumption on measures of insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole egg on metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance in T2D rats. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzz015/5374517 by Iowa State University user on 28 March 2019 Methods: Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n=12; 6 wk of age) and their lean controls (n=12; 6 wk ...


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