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Welfare-Adjusted Life Years (Waly): A Novel Metric Of Animal Welfare That Combines The Impacts Of Impaired Welfare And Abbreviated Lifespan, Kendy Tzu-Yun Teng, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Charline Maerten De Noordhout, Peter Bennett, Paul McGreevy, Po-Yu Chiu, Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio, Navneet Dhand 2019 University of Sydney

Welfare-Adjusted Life Years (Waly): A Novel Metric Of Animal Welfare That Combines The Impacts Of Impaired Welfare And Abbreviated Lifespan, Kendy Tzu-Yun Teng, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Charline Maerten De Noordhout, Peter Bennett, Paul Mcgreevy, Po-Yu Chiu, Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio, Navneet Dhand

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Currently, separate measures are used to estimate the impact of animal diseases on mortality and animal welfare. This article introduces a novel metric, the Welfare-Adjusted Life Year (WALY), to estimate disease impact by combining welfare compromise and premature death components. Adapting the Disability-Adjusted Life Year approach used in human health audits, we propose WALY as the sum of a) the years lived with impaired welfare due to a particular cause and b) the years of life lost due to the premature death from the same cause. The years lived with impaired welfare are the product of the average duration of ...


Work-Type Influences Perceived Livestock Herding Success In Australian Working Kelpies, Jonathan B. Early, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Lisa J. Mascord, Diane van Rooy, Paul McGreevy, Claire M. Wade 2019 University of Sydney

Work-Type Influences Perceived Livestock Herding Success In Australian Working Kelpies, Jonathan B. Early, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Lisa J. Mascord, Diane Van Rooy, Paul Mcgreevy, Claire M. Wade

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Background

Working dog handlers and breeders have very different behavioural requirements in the animals that they employ for managing livestock. The Australian Working Kelpie breed may be used in several working contexts, notably yards, paddocks and a combination of both. The working context influences the skillsets required and gives rise to three corresponding work-types: Yard, Paddock and Utility Kelpies. In particular, dogs used for working stock in the confines of yards and trucks interact with stock more forcefully than those mustering in larger areas (paddocks) where they can herd stock effectively from a greater distance. This article explores owner assessments ...


Orca Behavior And Subsequent Aggression Associated With Oceanarium Confinement, Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight 2019 Palomar College

Orca Behavior And Subsequent Aggression Associated With Oceanarium Confinement, Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego’s SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional ...


Vegetarian Versus Meat-Based Diets For Companion Animals, Andrew Knight, Madelaine Leitsberger 2019 University of Winchester

Vegetarian Versus Meat-Based Diets For Companion Animals, Andrew Knight, Madelaine Leitsberger

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in vegetarian diets for themselves and their companion animals. However, are vegetarian canine and feline diets nutritious and safe? Four studies assessing the nutritional soundness of these diets were reviewed, and manufacturer responses to the most recent studies are provided. Additional reviewed studies examined the nutritional soundness of commercial meat-based diets and the health status of cats ...


Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer 2019 University of Bern

Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Measuring emotions in nonhuman mammals is challenging. As animals are not able to verbally report how they feel, we need to find reliable indicators to assess their emotional state. Emotions can be described using two key dimensions: valence (negative or positive) and arousal (bodily activation or excitation). In this study, we investigated vocal expression of emotional valence in wild boars (Sus scrofa). The animals were observed in three naturally occurring situations: anticipation of a food reward (positive), affiliative interactions (positive), and agonistic interactions (negative). Body movement was used as an indicator of emotional arousal to control for the effect of ...


Elevated Sensitivity To Tactile Stimuli In Stereotypic Horses, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Déborah Bardou, Sandrine Beuret, Iris Bachmann, Klaus Zuberbühler, Elodie Briefer 2019 Agroscope - Swiss National Stud Farm

Elevated Sensitivity To Tactile Stimuli In Stereotypic Horses, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Déborah Bardou, Sandrine Beuret, Iris Bachmann, Klaus Zuberbühler, Elodie Briefer

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Although stereotypic behaviors are a common problem in captive animals, why certain individuals are more prone to develop them remains elusive. In horses, individuals show considerable differences in how they perceive and react to external events, suggesting that this may partially account for the emergence of stereotypies in this species. In this study, we focused on crib-biting, the most common stereotypy displayed by horses. We compared how established crib-biters (“CB” = 19) and normal controls (“C” = 18) differed in response to a standard “personality” assessment test battery, i.e., reactivity to humans, tactile sensitivity, social reactivity, locomotor activity, and curiosity vs ...


Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann 2019 ETH Zürich

Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Background: Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result ...


Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. McElligott 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Functional asymmetries, for example, the preferential involvement of 1 brain hemisphere to process stimuli, may increase brain efficiency and the capacity to carry out tasks simultaneously. We investigated which hemisphere was primarily involved in processing acoustic stimuli in goats using a head-orienting paradigm. Three playbacks using goat vocalizations recorded in different contexts: food anticipation (positive), isolation (negative), food frustration (negative), as well as 1 playback involving dog barks (negative) were presented on the left and right sides of the test subjects simultaneously. The head-orienting response (left or right) and latency to resume feeding were recorded. The direction of the head-orienting ...


Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. McElligott 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Functional asymmetries, for example, the preferential involvement of 1 brain hemisphere to process stimuli, may increase brain efficiency and the capacity to carry out tasks simultaneously. We investigated which hemisphere was primarily involved in processing acoustic stimuli in goats using a head-orienting paradigm. Three playbacks using goat vocalizations recorded in different contexts: food anticipation (positive), isolation (negative), food frustration (negative), as well as 1 playback involving dog barks (negative) were presented on the left and right sides of the test subjects simultaneously. The head-orienting response (left or right) and latency to resume feeding were recorded. The direction of the head-orienting ...


Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. McElligott 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Perceptual Lateralization Of Vocal Stimuli In Goats, Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Functional asymmetries, for example, the preferential involvement of 1 brain hemisphere to process stimuli, may increase brain efficiency and the capacity to carry out tasks simultaneously. We investigated which hemisphere was primarily involved in processing acoustic stimuli in goats using a head-orienting paradigm. Three playbacks using goat vocalizations recorded in different contexts: food anticipation (positive), isolation (negative), food frustration (negative), as well as 1 playback involving dog barks (negative) were presented on the left and right sides of the test subjects simultaneously. The head-orienting response (left or right) and latency to resume feeding were recorded. The direction of the head-orienting ...


Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney 2019 DePaul University

Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney

DePaul Discoveries

Animals are considered to possess personalities when individuals differ in behavior, and these differences are consistent between situations. Several studies have identified personalities in diverse groups but less is known about personality variation between the sexes. In this study, we examined variation in two key personality traits (boldness, activity) in female and male purple marsh crabs (Sesarma reticulatum) using a semi-field approach. Specifically, we measured boldness and activity on two consecutive days using the same behavioral assays during each time point. Consistency (personality) was determined using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance based on Spearman correlation coefficients for each behavior. The ...


Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Wyoming Wildlife: A Natural History, Paul Johnsgard, Thomas D. Mangelsen

Zea E-Books

This book surveys Wyoming’s mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian faunas. In addition to introducing the state’s geography, geology, climate, and major ecosystems, it provides 65 biological profiles of 72 mammal species, 195 profiles of 196 birds, 9 profiles of 12 reptiles, and 6 profiles of 9 amphibians. There are also species lists of Wyoming’s 117 mammals, 445 birds, 22 reptiles, and 12 amphibians. Also included are descriptions of nearly 50 national and state properties, including parks, forests, preserves, and other public-access natural areas in Wyoming. The book includes a text of more than 150,000 words, nearly ...


Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson 2019 Humboldt State University

Place-Based Learning Communities On A Rural Campus: Turning Challenges Into Assets, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Goldenberg, P. Dawn Goley, Steve Ladwig, Frank J. Shaughnessy, Kerri J. Malloy, Cutcha R. Baldy, Monty M. Mola, Joshua R. Smith, Mark A. Hemphill-Haley, Melanie J. Michalak, Claire P. Till, Alison P. O'Dowd, Gillian Black, Patricia L. Siering, Eileen Cashman, Alexandru M.F. Tomescu, Matthew P. Hurst, Bori Mazzag, Sonja Manor, Dale R. Oliver, Jeffrey R. Dunk, Jeffrey Abell, Micaela S. Gunther, Andre Buchheister, Ruth Saunders, James Floss, Erin Sullivan, Sarah Ben-Zvi, Matthew D. Johnson

Learning Communities Research and Practice

At Humboldt State University (HSU), location is everything. Students are as drawn to our spectacular natural setting as they are to the unique majors in the natural resource sciences that the university has to offer. However, the isolation that nurtures the pristine natural beauty of the area presents a difficult reality for students who are accustomed to more densely populated environments. With the large majority of our incoming students coming from distant cities, we set out to cultivate a “home away from home” by connecting first-year students majoring in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) to the communities and local ...


The Horse's Back As Influenced By Saddle Fit, Katie Millican 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Horse's Back As Influenced By Saddle Fit, Katie Millican

Agricultural Education and Communication

Therefore, this project will use devices called the Lameness Locator and a thermal camera along with facilities at the Equine Center in San Luis Obispo, California. The objective of the project is to utilize a population of sound horses and compare the heat detection images of their backs and saddles after being ridden to provide saddle fit data. This project will provide information contributing to closing the gap of equestrians uneducated about the importance of saddle fit.

The reason for researching and conducting a study to prove this point is simple: a horse owner needs to look at the bigger ...


Oxyrase And Pyruvate Inclusion In Extenders For Cold Stored Stallion Spermatozoa, Jordan T. Shore 2019 Missouri State University

Oxyrase And Pyruvate Inclusion In Extenders For Cold Stored Stallion Spermatozoa, Jordan T. Shore

MSU Graduate Theses

A current method in addressing subfertility in stallions include manipulating the semen extender media by supplementing antioxidants and energy sources. Two experiments (EXP 1/EXP 2) were conducted to assess the effects of pyruvate and Oxyrase® suspended in commercial diluents for preservation of stallion spermatozoa. Assessment of total (TM) and progressive motility (PM), velocity and direction of movement (VAP, VSL, VCL, and elongation) were recorded by CASA. In EXP 1, 3 different ejaculates were collected from each of 4 stallions. Aliquots of each ejaculate were suspended into 4 treatments of INRA96 with or without Oxyrase® supplemented at 2.4 U ...


American White Pelicans, Tommy King 2019 National Wildlife Research Center, Starkville, Mississippi

American White Pelicans, Tommy King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Figure 1) threaten aquaculture producers by direct predation and the spread of disease. They are also considered competition and a nuisance by some sports fishermen. Pelicans can also damage pond levees and crops, such as rice, by trampling the vegetation and depositing guano. A combination of wildlife damage management techniques is often necessary to reduce pelican damage to these resources. Aquaculture Prior to the winter of 1992, American white pelican depredations at catfish facilities in the Delta regions of Arkansas and Mississippi were limited, and birds were easily dispersed from the area. Since 1992, however ...


Initiation Of A Roundtable Meeting To Determine Safety Hazards And Provide Education To Range Bison Herd Workers, Lucia Finocchiaro 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Initiation Of A Roundtable Meeting To Determine Safety Hazards And Provide Education To Range Bison Herd Workers, Lucia Finocchiaro

Capstone Experience

This capstone project serves as an important piece of greater project studying bison handling. Bison production is both a growing and dangerous industry. As a new enterprise in many parts of the country and on tribal lands, significant numbers of untrained employees may be hired. This project undertakes methods to better understand the risks associated with bison handling and to thereby improve handling procedures and increase safety. Herd managers (from tribal and non-tribal sites), researchers, safety experts, and stakeholders were brought together for a roundtable meeting in Omaha. This meeting was designed to provide stakeholders a forum to discuss common ...


The Diversity Of Terrestrial Mammals Surrounding Waterfall At Billy Barquedier National Park, Kelsey Johnson 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Diversity Of Terrestrial Mammals Surrounding Waterfall At Billy Barquedier National Park, Kelsey Johnson

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Billy Barquedier is a National Park located in the Stann Creek district of Belize that contains Neotropical vegetation and wildlife. This study was performed in order to provide a baseline inventory and appearance frequency patterns of the terrestrial mammals located within Zone 1 of the park near a waterfall. The goal of the data and information collected during this study is to gain a greater understanding of the biodiversity and activity patterns of terrestrial mammals within the park and across Belize as a whole. The use of camera traps, small Sherman live traps, large live traps, and tracking methods were ...


The Effects Of Pre And Post Exercise Low-Level Laser Therapy On Biochemical Markers Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Equines, Carson Freeman 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Pre And Post Exercise Low-Level Laser Therapy On Biochemical Markers Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Equines, Carson Freeman

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Our objective was to determine whether administering low-level laser therapy before or after exercise had the greatest effect on biochemical markers of skeletal muscle fatigue in equines such as cortisol and blood lactate. Twelve quarter horses were divided into three groups: Group A received no laser therapy, Group B received laser therapy before exercise, and Group C received laser therapy after exercise. A Class II ERCHONIA ® PL500 handheld low-level laser was utilized for treatment with a wavelength of 635nm. Exercise was utilized using a horse walker system for 30 minutes five days a week for three weeks. Blood was collected ...


Vocal Expression Of Emotions In Mammals: Mechanisms Of Production And Evidence, Elodie Briefer 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Vocal Expression Of Emotions In Mammals: Mechanisms Of Production And Evidence, Elodie Briefer

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Emotions play a crucial role in an animal’s life because they facilitate responses to external or internal events of significance for the organism. In social species, one of the main functions of emotional expression is to regulate social interactions. There has recently been a surge of interest in animal emotions in several disciplines, ranging from neuroscience to evolutionary zoology. Because measurements of subjective emotional experiences are not possible in animals, researchers use neurophysiological, behavioural and cognitive indicators. However, good indicators, particularly of positive emotions, are still lacking. Vocalizations are linked to the inner state of the caller. The emotional ...


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