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The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Joint Mouse–Human Phenome-Wide Association To Test Gene Function And Disease Risk, Xusheng Wang, Ashutosh K. Ciobanu, Megan K. Mulligan, Evan G. Williams, Khyobeni Mozhui, Zhengsheng Li, Virginija Jovaisaite, L. Darryl Quarles, Zhousheng Xiao, Jinsong Huang, John A. Capra, Zugen Chen, William L. Taylor, Lisa Bastarache, Xinnan Niu, Katherine S. Pollard, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Alexander O. Reznik, Artem V. Tishkov, Igor B. Zhulin, Junmin Peng, Stanley F. Nelson, Joshua C. Denny, Johan Auwerx, Lu Lu, Robert W. Williams 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Joint Mouse–Human Phenome-Wide Association To Test Gene Function And Disease Risk, Xusheng Wang, Ashutosh K. Ciobanu, Megan K. Mulligan, Evan G. Williams, Khyobeni Mozhui, Zhengsheng Li, Virginija Jovaisaite, L. Darryl Quarles, Zhousheng Xiao, Jinsong Huang, John A. Capra, Zugen Chen, William L. Taylor, Lisa Bastarache, Xinnan Niu, Katherine S. Pollard, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Alexander O. Reznik, Artem V. Tishkov, Igor B. Zhulin, Junmin Peng, Stanley F. Nelson, Joshua C. Denny, Johan Auwerx, Lu Lu, Robert W. Williams

Lu Lu

Phenome-wide association is a novel reverse genetic strategy to analyze genome-tophenome relations in human clinical cohorts. Here we test this approach using a large murine population segregating for ~5 million sequence variants, and we compare our results to those extracted from a matched analysis of gene variants in a large human cohort. For the mouse cohort, we amassed a deep and broad open-access phenome consisting of ~4,500 metabolic, physiological, pharmacological and behavioural traits, and more than 90 independent expression quantitative trait locus (QTL), transcriptome, proteome, metagenome and metabolome data sets—by far the largest coherent phenome for any experimental ...


Microarray Analysis Reveals Distinctive Signaling Between The Bed Nucleus Of The Stria Terminalis, Nucleus Accumbens, And Dorsal Striatum, Christopher M. Olsen, Yong Pandey, Shirlean Goodwin, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Lu Lu, Thomas R. Sutter, Danny G. Winder 2019 Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Microarray Analysis Reveals Distinctive Signaling Between The Bed Nucleus Of The Stria Terminalis, Nucleus Accumbens, And Dorsal Striatum, Christopher M. Olsen, Yong Pandey, Shirlean Goodwin, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Lu Lu, Thomas R. Sutter, Danny G. Winder

Lu Lu

Microarray analysis reveals distinctive signaling between the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum. Physiol Genomics 32: 283–298, 2008. First published October 2, 2006; doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00224.2006.—To identify distinct transcriptional patterns between the major subcortical dopamine targets commonly studied in addiction we studied differences in gene expression between the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dorsal striatum (dStr) using microarray analysis. We first tested for differences in expression of genes encoding transcripts for common neurotransmitter systems as well as calcium binding proteins routinely used in neuroanatomical ...


Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined By Host Genetics And Modulates Variation Of Metabolic Traits, Autumn M. McKnite, Maria Elisa Perez-Munoz, Lu Lu, Evan G. Williams, Simon Brewer, Penelope A. Andreux, John W. M. Bastiaansen, Xusheng Wang, Stephen D. Kachman, Johan Auwerx, Robert W. Williams, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel C. Ciobanu 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined By Host Genetics And Modulates Variation Of Metabolic Traits, Autumn M. Mcknite, Maria Elisa Perez-Munoz, Lu Lu, Evan G. Williams, Simon Brewer, Penelope A. Andreux, John W. M. Bastiaansen, Xusheng Wang, Stephen D. Kachman, Johan Auwerx, Robert W. Williams, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel C. Ciobanu

Lu Lu

The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological traits of the BXD mouse population to explore genetic factors that explain differences in gut microbiota and its impact on metabolic traits. Molecular profiling of the gut microbiota revealed important quantitative differences in microbial composition among BXD strains. These differences in gut microbial composition are influenced by host-genetics, which ...


Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass 2019 Bowling Green State University

Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass

WRIT: Journal of First-Year Writing

The beef industry is harmful to the environment and human health and alternative solutions must be implemented in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Water and grain are used in agriculture in abundance despite the negative environmental effects it causes. Cattle are the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in the sector, also contributing to climate change. Antibiotics are used in large quantities without regard to potential future consequences. One potential solution for this problem is lab-grown beef, which demands very little from the consumer and would take pressure off the environmental issues the beef industry creates. Lab-grown ...


Development And Validation Of A Spatial And Temporal Thermal Environment Sensor Array And Data Acquisition System, Brett C. Ramirez, Yun Gao, Steven J. Hoff 2019 Iowa State University

Development And Validation Of A Spatial And Temporal Thermal Environment Sensor Array And Data Acquisition System, Brett C. Ramirez, Yun Gao, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

The Thermal Environment (TE) inside swine facilities has a substantial impact on animal growth performance and facility energy usage; therefore, proper control and measurement are required to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes feed efficiency and consumes minimal resources. An inexpensive and novel sensor network capable of capturing the spatial and temporal distribution of TE is needed to help guide control feedback sensor placement and identify potential issues with the facility’s environmental modification system. Hence, the objectives of this research were to: (1) design and construct a Thermal Environment Sensor Array (TESA) and (2) preliminarily evaluate the ability to ...


Thermal Environment Performance And Uniformity Assessment For A Novel Swine Breeding And Gestation Facility, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff 2019 Iowa State University

Thermal Environment Performance And Uniformity Assessment For A Novel Swine Breeding And Gestation Facility, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

The Thermal Environment (TE) inside swine facilities has a substantial impact on animal performance and facility energy usage; therefore, proper control and measurement are required to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes performance and consumes minimal energy. Currently, controllers only monitor and describe the TE with dry-bulb temperature (tdb); however, tdb does not account for all the factors that influence the TE. Therefore, a novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array (TESA) network and accompanying data acquisition systems were developed for a preliminary investigation inside a commercial, ~800 hd, positive pressure ventilated, filtered breeding facility located in central Iowa. Data from the ...


Design And Feasibility Of A Novel Sprinkler Control Algorithm For Swine Heat Stress Alleviation, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon 2019 Iowa State University

Design And Feasibility Of A Novel Sprinkler Control Algorithm For Swine Heat Stress Alleviation, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Brett Ramirez

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Different Packaging Materials And Atmospheric Conditions On The Properties Of Pork Rinds, Kristi Kõrge, Katrin Laos 2019 TalTech (Tallinn University of Technology)

The Influence Of Different Packaging Materials And Atmospheric Conditions On The Properties Of Pork Rinds, Kristi Kõrge, Katrin Laos

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Rancidity development in high fat content products is a common off-flavor flaw in snack foods. Packaging is often used to avoid spoilage and extend shelf-life. The properties of pork rinds packaged in four different packaging materials with and without nitrogen were studied during 120 days of storage (22 °C, RH 60%, absence of light). The influence of different packaging materials and atmospheric conditions on pork rinds’ water activity, hardness, crispness and rancidity development was determined. The PET/PE packaging material had lower barrier properties for the product in both atmospheric conditions compared with PP/metPP (40 and 50 μm) and ...


Feed Efficiency Effects On Barrow And Gilt Behavioral Reactivity To Novel Stimuli Tests, Jessica D. Colpoys, Caitlyn Abell, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Jennifer M. Young, Anna Johnson 2019 Iowa State University

Feed Efficiency Effects On Barrow And Gilt Behavioral Reactivity To Novel Stimuli Tests, Jessica D. Colpoys, Caitlyn Abell, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Jennifer M. Young, Anna Johnson

Aileen Keating

Increasing feed efficiency is an important goal for improving sustainable pork production and profitability for producers. To study feed efficiency, genetic selection based on residual feed intake (RFI) was used to create 2 divergent lines. Low-RFI pigs consume less feed for equal weight gain compared to their less efficient, high-RFI counterparts. Therefore, our objective was to assess how a pig’s behavioral reactivity toward fear-eliciting stimuli related to RFI selection and improvement of feed efficiency. In this study, behavioral reactivity of pigs divergently selected for RFI was evaluated using human approach (HAT) and novel object (NOT) tests. Forty low-RFI and ...


Intestinal Integrity, Endotoxin Transport And Detoxification In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Venkatesh Mani, A. J. Harris, Aileen F. Keating, Thomas E. Weber, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler 2019 Iowa State University

Intestinal Integrity, Endotoxin Transport And Detoxification In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Venkatesh Mani, A. J. Harris, Aileen F. Keating, Thomas E. Weber, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler

Aileen Keating

Microbes and microbial components potentially impact the performance of pigs through immune stimulation and altered metabolism. These immune modulating factors can include endotoxin from gram negative bacterial outer membrane component, commonly referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, our objective was to examine the relationship between intestinal barrier integrity, endotoxin and inflammation with feed efficiency (FE), using pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) as a model. Twelve gilts (62 ± 3 kg BW) from the low RFI (LRFI, more efficient) and 12 from the high RFI (HRFI, less efficient) were used. Individual performance data was recorded for ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, and also leads to economic activity in other parts of the economy. This report is the eleventh in a series of reports examining agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on ...


Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Infected Pigs With Different Shedding Levels Exhibit Distinct Clinical, Peripheral Cytokine And Transcriptomic Immune Response Phenotypes, Susan M. Knetter, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Ting-Hua Huang, Dason Kurkiewicz, Martine Schroyen, Dan Nettleton, Daniel Berman, Valerie Cohen, Joan K. Lunney, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Christopher K. Tuggle 2019 Iowa State University

Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Infected Pigs With Different Shedding Levels Exhibit Distinct Clinical, Peripheral Cytokine And Transcriptomic Immune Response Phenotypes, Susan M. Knetter, Shawn M. D. Bearson, Ting-Hua Huang, Dason Kurkiewicz, Martine Schroyen, Dan Nettleton, Daniel Berman, Valerie Cohen, Joan K. Lunney, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Christopher K. Tuggle

Dan Nettleton

Foodborne salmonellosis costs the US $2.7 billion/year, including $100.0 million in annual losses to pork producers. Pigs colonized with Salmonella are usually asymptomatic with varied severity and duration of fecal shedding. Thus, understanding the responses that result in less shedding may provide a mechanism for control. Fifty-four pigs were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) and clinical signs, fecal ST shedding, growth performance, peripheral cytokines and whole blood gene expression were measured. Persistently shedding (PS) pigs had longer pyrexia and elevated serum IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ compared with low shedding (LS) pigs, while LS pigs had ...


The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of A Cured, Cooked Meat Product, Michael S. Cropp, James S. Dickson, Rodrigo Tarté, Joseph G. Sebranek 2019 Iowa State University

The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of A Cured, Cooked Meat Product, Michael S. Cropp, James S. Dickson, Rodrigo Tarté, Joseph G. Sebranek

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Objectives

Alternatively-cured meats often contain lower amounts of nitrate and/or nitrite in the formulation, which can lead to decreased color stability and reduced shelf life. Alternatively-cured meats rely on natural sources of nitrate and/or nitrite which are primarily derived from vegetable sources, but these natural sources can result in vegetablelike flavors; thus, processors often decrease the relative ingoing level of nitrite and/or nitrate. This reduction can potentially lead to decreased color stability and negatively affect the product’s shelf life. Furthermore, consumer perception of natural sources of nitrite has led to consideration of other nitrite alternatives. The ...


Alternative Proteins: Present State And Future Outlook, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D. 2019 Iowa State University

Alternative Proteins: Present State And Future Outlook, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D.

Rodrigo Tarté

No abstract provided.


Productivity And Meat Quality With Meat Goat Management, Trent Drae Dugas 2019 Louisiana State University

Productivity And Meat Quality With Meat Goat Management, Trent Drae Dugas

LSU Master's Theses

The growth of kid meat goats and their carcass and meat characteristics with monensin sodium or decoquinate coccidiostats in feed were studied. Seventy-three goats of various breeds were divided into six groups with the treatments of control, monensin and decoquinate. Half of the goats were harvested at day 45 and the rest at day 60. The second harvest monensin group had a larger percentage of the goat carcass as the hind leg (P

Supplementation of permanent pasture with sunn hemp forage or concentrate feed were compared for influences on growth, carcass traits, and meat properties of kid meat goats. Goats ...


Maternal Inflammation At Midgestation Impairs Subsequent Fetal Myoblast Function And Skeletal Muscle Growth In Rats, Resulting In Intrauterine Growth Restriction At Term, Caitlin N. Cadaret, Robert J. Posont, Kristin A. Beede, Hannah E. Riley, John Dustin Loy, Dustin T. Yates 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Maternal Inflammation At Midgestation Impairs Subsequent Fetal Myoblast Function And Skeletal Muscle Growth In Rats, Resulting In Intrauterine Growth Restriction At Term, Caitlin N. Cadaret, Robert J. Posont, Kristin A. Beede, Hannah E. Riley, John Dustin Loy, Dustin T. Yates

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Maternal inflammation induces intrauterine growth restriction (MI-IUGR) of the fetus, which compromises metabolic health in human offspring and reduces value in livestock. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal inflammation at midgestation on fetal skeletal muscle growth and myoblast profiles at term. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected daily with bacterial endotoxin (MI-IUGR) or saline (controls) from the 9th to the 11th day of gestational age (dGA; term = 21 dGA). At necropsy on dGA 20, average fetal mass and upper hindlimb cross-sectional areas were reduced (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR fetuses compared with controls. MyoD+ and myf5+ myoblasts were less abundant (P < 0.05), and myogenin+ myoblasts were more abundant (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR hindlimb skeletal muscle compared with controls, indicating precocious myoblast differentiation. Type I and Type II hindlimb muscle fibers were smaller (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR fetuses than in controls, but fiber type proportions did not differ between experimental groups. Fetal blood plasma TNFα concentrations were below detectable amounts in both experimental groups, but skeletal muscle gene expression for the cytokine receptors TNFR1, IL6R, and FN14 was greater (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR fetuses than controls, perhaps indicating enhanced sensitivity to these cytokines. Maternal blood glucose concentrations at term did not differ between experimental groups, but MI-IUGR fetal blood contained less (P < 0.05) glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Fetal-to-maternal blood glucose ratios were also reduced (P < 0.05), which is indicative of placental insufficiency. Indicators of protein catabolism, including blood plasma urea nitrogen and creatine kinase, were greater (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR fetuses than in controls. From these findings, we conclude that maternal inflammation at midgestation causes muscle-centric fetal programming that impairs myoblast function, increases protein catabolism, and reduces skeletal muscle growth near term. Fetal muscle sensitivity to inflammatory cytokines appeared to be enhanced after maternal inflammation, which may represent a mechanistic target for improving these outcomes in MI-IUGR fetuses.


Guide To Functional Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D. 2019 Iowa State University

Guide To Functional Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D.

Rodrigo Tarté

No abstract provided.


Metabolomics Profile And Targeted Lipidomics In Multiple Tissues Associated With Feed Efficiency In Beef Steers, Virginia M. Artegoitia, Andrew P. Foote, Ronald M. Lewis, Harvey C. Freetly 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Metabolomics Profile And Targeted Lipidomics In Multiple Tissues Associated With Feed Efficiency In Beef Steers, Virginia M. Artegoitia, Andrew P. Foote, Ronald M. Lewis, Harvey C. Freetly

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A study of multiple tissues was conducted to identify potential metabolic differences in cattle differing in feed efficiency. Individual feed intake and body weight was measured on 144 steers during 105 days on a high-concentrate ration. Steers were selected according to differences in average daily gain (ADG) with those with the greatest ADG (n = 8; 1.96 ± 0.02 kg/day) and least ADG (n = 8; 1.57 ± 0.02 kg/day), whose dry matter intake was within 0.32 SD of the mean intake (10.10 ± 0.05 kg/day). Duodenum, liver, adipose, and longissimus-dorsi were collected at slaughter ...


Evaluation Of The Energy Value And Nutrient Digestibility Of Distillers Grains That Have Undergone A Fiber Separation Process In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Hannah C. Hamilton Hamilton, Galen E. Erickson, James C. MacDonald, Ryan A. Mass 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of The Energy Value And Nutrient Digestibility Of Distillers Grains That Have Undergone A Fiber Separation Process In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Hannah C. Hamilton Hamilton, Galen E. Erickson, James C. Macdonald, Ryan A. Mass

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A digestion study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a new, high protein distillers grains and corn bran plus solubles on nutrient digestibility. Treatments included a corn-based control, high protein distillers at both 20% and 40%, corn bran plus solubles, traditional wet distillers grains and traditional dry distillers grains all at 40% of diet DM. Feeding high protein distillers grains or corn bran plus solubles resulted in decreased digestibility compared to corn or traditional wet and dry distillers grains, but increased energy intake. Traditional wet and dry distillers grains also resulted in decreased digestibilities while energy intake was ...


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