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Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney 2020 University of Montana

Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Ground dwelling birds must scale all kinds of complex terrain in order to survive in their natural environments. For instance, Alectoris chukar live on steep hillsides with slopes of up to 60° or 172.3% slope. We undertook the present study to improve understanding of how birds successfully traverse such complex terrain. Using a high speed camera, we analyzed the hind limb kinematics of chukars during normal locomotion on a 10° and 35° incline, decline, and level slope. We compared the data collected from the video recordings, which we had used to identify and digitize the bony landmarks, between all ...


Messy Eating, Samantha King, R Scott Carey, Isabel Macquarie, Victoria Millious, Elaine Power 2019 Fordham University

Messy Eating, Samantha King, R Scott Carey, Isabel Macquarie, Victoria Millious, Elaine Power

Environmental Studies

Literature on the ethics and politics of food and that on animal-human relationships have infrequently converged. Representing an initial step towards bridging this divide, Messy Eating features interviews with thirteen prominent and emerging scholars about the connections between their academic work and their approach to consuming animals as food. The collection explores how authors working across a range of perspectives—postcolonial, Indigenous, Black, queer, trans, feminist, disability, poststructuralist, posthumanist, and multispecies—weave their theoretical and political orientations with daily, intimate, and visceral practices of food consumption, preparation, and ingestion.

Contributors: Neel Ahuja, Billy Ray Belcourt, Matthew Calarco, Lauren Corman, Naisargi ...


Conserved, Breed-Dependent, And Subline-Dependent Innate Immune Responses Of Fayoumi And Leghorn Chicken Embryos To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection, Megan A. Schilling, Sahar Memari, Meredith Cavanaugh, Robab Katani, Melissa S. Deist, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Susan J. Lamont, Joram J. Buza, Vivek Kapur 2019 The Pennsylvania State University

Conserved, Breed-Dependent, And Subline-Dependent Innate Immune Responses Of Fayoumi And Leghorn Chicken Embryos To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection, Megan A. Schilling, Sahar Memari, Meredith Cavanaugh, Robab Katani, Melissa S. Deist, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Susan J. Lamont, Joram J. Buza, Vivek Kapur

Susan J. Lamont

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a threat to the global poultry industry, but particularly for smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries. Previous reports suggest that some breeds of chickens are less susceptible to NDV infection, however, the mechanisms contributing to this are unknown. We here examined the comparative transcriptional responses of innate immune genes to NDV infection in inbred sublines of the Fayoumi and Leghorn breeds known to differ in their relative susceptibility to infection as well as at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatability complex (MHC) locus. The analysis identified a set of five core genes, Mx1, IRF1 ...


Advertising And Orders, Human-Wildlife Interactions Journal 2019 Utah State University

Advertising And Orders, Human-Wildlife Interactions Journal

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the advertising and orders.


Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information, Human-Wildlife Interactions Journal 2019 Utah State University

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information, Human-Wildlife Interactions Journal

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


Table Of Contents, Human-Wildlife Interactions Journal 2019 Utah State University

Table Of Contents, Human-Wildlife Interactions Journal

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the table of contents.


Improved Annotation Of The Domestic Pig Genome Through Integration Of Iso-Seq And Rna-Seq Data, Hamid Beiki, Haibo Liu, J. Huang, Nancy Manchanda, D. Nonneman, T. P. L. Smith, James M. Reecy, Christopher K. Tuggle 2019 Iowa State University

Improved Annotation Of The Domestic Pig Genome Through Integration Of Iso-Seq And Rna-Seq Data, Hamid Beiki, Haibo Liu, J. Huang, Nancy Manchanda, D. Nonneman, T. P. L. Smith, James M. Reecy, Christopher K. Tuggle

James M Reecy

Background: Our understanding of the pig transcriptome is limited. RNA transcript diversity among nine tissues was assessed using poly(A) selected single-molecule long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-seq) and Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from a single White cross-bred pig.

Results: Across tissues, a total of 67,746 unique transcripts were observed, including 60.5% predicted proteincoding, 36.2% long non-coding RNA and 3.3% nonsense-mediated decay transcripts. On average, 90% of the splice junctions were supported by RNA-seq within tissue. A large proportion (80%) represented novel transcripts, mostly produced by known protein-coding genes (70%), while 17% corresponded to novel genes. On average ...


Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver 2019 Iowa State University

Quantifying Thermal‐Imager Effectiveness For Detecting Bird Nests On Farms, Matthew D. Stephenson, Lisa A. Schulte, Robert W. Klaver

Lisa A. Schulte Moore

We conducted a designed experiment to test whether having a thermal‐imaging camera available affected researchers’ nest detection rates when searching for bird nests in cropland and grassland habitat in an agricultural landscape of Iowa, USA, in 2016. With known active nests present, naïve observers searched for nests with and without a thermal imager available. We did not find a difference in detection probabilities, although only a large difference would have been detectable with our sample size. Extraneous heat signatures from reflected solar radiation and dense vegetation were key factors limiting the usefulness of thermal imagers for locating nests.


A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith 2019 Fordham University

A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith

Student Theses 2015-Present

In this report, I explore the historical, climatological, economic, and ethical issues created by the contemporary industrial salmon farming practices off Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Chapter 1 utilizes a variety of sources from Stephen Hume’s A Stain upon the Sea to Miller’s Living in the Environment, to examine the integral part salmon plays in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services salmon contribute in wild and farmed settings, and the trends in salmon consumption around the world. Chapter 2 examines the historically relevant role salmon held among indigenous societies and how that role ...


Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi de Leon 2019 Yale University

Ranging And Behavior Of Black And Gold Howler Monkeys In Formosa, Argentina, Claire Rossi De Leon

Library Map Prize

Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) are known for their adaptability, allowing them to inhabit a large range of forest types and driving high levels of variation in ranging and behavioral patterns. I address a series of hypotheses relating these relationships: 1) If an energy minimizing lifestyle is an adaptation to eating high quantities of leaves, then howler groups that have a high proportion of leaves in their diet will occupy smaller home ranges, have shorter daily path lengths, and spend more time resting, 2) if temperature is the primary driver of high levels of resting, then howlers will conserve energy and ...


Rational Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management: An Application To The Gom Commercial Reef Fish Fishery, Quinn Weninger 2019 Iowa State University

Rational Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management: An Application To The Gom Commercial Reef Fish Fishery, Quinn Weninger

Economics Working Papers

Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) seeks to integrate the complexity of real-world marine ecosystems into the design of fisheries policies and regulations. EBFM is practiced currently with the help of complex ecosystem process models that track and simulate ecosystem function and outcomes under competing model formulations and management plans. To maintain tractability, the fishing sector component of process models maintain restrictive assumptions for multiple species harvesting technologies, fishing behavioral rules, and fishing sector responses to changing stock conditions. Predictions of fishing sector-ecosystem interaction obtained under these assumptions can grossly misinform EBFM policy design. An alternative rational fishing model is presented and ...


Epistatic Interactions Associated With Fatty Acid Concentrations Of Beef From Angus Sired Beef Cattle, Luke M. Kramer, M. A. Abdel Ghaffar, J. E. Koltes, E. R. Fritz-Waters, M. S. Mayes, A. D. Sewell, N. T. Weeks, D. J. Garrick, R. L. Fernando, L. Ma, J. M. Reecy 2019 Iowa State University

Epistatic Interactions Associated With Fatty Acid Concentrations Of Beef From Angus Sired Beef Cattle, Luke M. Kramer, M. A. Abdel Ghaffar, J. E. Koltes, E. R. Fritz-Waters, M. S. Mayes, A. D. Sewell, N. T. Weeks, D. J. Garrick, R. L. Fernando, L. Ma, J. M. Reecy

Nathan Weeks

Background: Consumers are becoming increasingly conscientious about the nutritional value of their food. Consumption of some fatty acids has been associated with human health traits such as blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate genetic variation in content of fatty acids present in meat. Previously publications reported regions of the cattle genome that are additively associated with variation in fatty acid content. This study evaluated epistatic interactions, which could account for additional genetic variation in fatty acid content.

Results: Epistatic interactions for 44 fatty acid traits in a population of Angus beef cattle were evaluated with ...


Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao 2019 Northern Arizona University

Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO2, and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since ...


Global Manure Nitrogen Production And Application In Cropland During 1860–2014: A 5 Arcmin Gridded Global Dataset For Earth System Modeling, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shree R.S. Dangal, Jia Yang, Shufen Pan 2019 Auburn University

Global Manure Nitrogen Production And Application In Cropland During 1860–2014: A 5 Arcmin Gridded Global Dataset For Earth System Modeling, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shree R.S. Dangal, Jia Yang, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the important role of nitrogen input from livestock systems in terrestrial nutrient cycles and the atmospheric chemical composition, it is vital to have a robust estimation of the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation in manure nitrogen production and its application to cropland across the globe. In this study, we used the dataset from the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS) in conjunction with country-specific annual livestock populations to reconstruct the manure nitrogen production during 1860–2014. The estimated manure nitrogen production increased from 21.4TgNyr−1 in 1860 to 131.0TgNyr−1 in 2014 with a significant annual increasing trend ...


Global Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer Use For Agriculture Production In The Past Half Century: Shifted Hot Spots And Nutrient Imbalance, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian 2019 Iowa State University

Global Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer Use For Agriculture Production In The Past Half Century: Shifted Hot Spots And Nutrient Imbalance, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

In addition to enhancing agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically alters global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedback to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system and land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use oversimplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long periods. In this study, we therefore develop global time series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in agricultural lands ...


A Pilot Study Of The Effects Of Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae Exposure On Domestic Lamb Growth And Performance, Thomas E. Besser, Jessica Levy, Melissa Ackerman, Danielle Nelson, Kezia Manlove, Kathleen A. Potter, Jan Busboom, Margaret Benson 2019 Washington State University

A Pilot Study Of The Effects Of Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae Exposure On Domestic Lamb Growth And Performance, Thomas E. Besser, Jessica Levy, Melissa Ackerman, Danielle Nelson, Kezia Manlove, Kathleen A. Potter, Jan Busboom, Margaret Benson

Kezia Manlove

Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is a globally distributed pathogen that has been associated with pneumonia in both domestic and wild Caprinae. It is closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, a respiratory pathogen of swine that is associated with decreased growth rates of pigs as well as clinical respiratory disease. In order to assess the effects of M. ovipneumoniae on lamb performance, we generated a cohort of lambs free of M. ovipneumoniae by segregation of test negative ewes after lambing, then compared the growth and carcass quality traits of M. ovipneumoniae-free and -colonized lambs from weaning to harvest. Some signs of respiratory disease ...


Mitigating Particulate Matter Generations In A Commercial Cage-Free Henhouse, Lilong Chai, Hongwei Xin, Yu Wang, Jofran Oliveira, Kailao Wang, Yang Zhao 2019 University of Georgia

Mitigating Particulate Matter Generations In A Commercial Cage-Free Henhouse, Lilong Chai, Hongwei Xin, Yu Wang, Jofran Oliveira, Kailao Wang, Yang Zhao

Hongwei Xin

Compared to conventional cage production systems, cage-free (CF) hen housing offers hens more space and opportunities to exercise their natural behaviors (e.g., perching, dust bathing, and foraging). However, CF housing poses a number of inherent environmental challenges, among which are high levels of particulate matter (PM) and ammonia (NH3). Spraying water on CF henhouse litter (e.g., 125 mL m-2 per cm litter depth) has been shown to mitigate generation of PM by 60-70% in our previous lab-scale tests. The objectives of this study were to verify the lab-study findings of PM reduction in a commercial CF henhouse in ...


An Rfid-Based Automated Individual Perching Monitoring System For Group-Housed Poultry, Kailao Wang, Kai Liu, Hongwei Xin, Lilong Chai, Yu Wang, Tao Fei, Jofran Oliveira, Jinming Pan, Yibin Ying 2019 Zhejiang University and Iowa State University

An Rfid-Based Automated Individual Perching Monitoring System For Group-Housed Poultry, Kailao Wang, Kai Liu, Hongwei Xin, Lilong Chai, Yu Wang, Tao Fei, Jofran Oliveira, Jinming Pan, Yibin Ying

Hongwei Xin

Perching is a natural behavior of poultry. Considerable research has been done to explore the relationship between group overall perch usage and well-being of laying hens. To quantify the potential cause-effect relationship on individual hens with different health or well-being status (e.g., keel bone deformation, foot pad lesion, social ranking) in a group, it is necessary to identify perching behavior of the individual birds. However, continuously monitoring individual birds in a group poses considerable challenge. To enable such research and potential commercial application, this study developed and validated a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based automated perching monitoring system (APMS ...


Forage News [2019-05], University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences 2019 University of Kentucky

Initiation Of A Roundtable Meeting To Determine Safety Hazards And Provide Education To Range Bison Herd Workers, Lucia Finocchiaro 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Initiation Of A Roundtable Meeting To Determine Safety Hazards And Provide Education To Range Bison Herd Workers, Lucia Finocchiaro

Service Learning/Capstone Experience

This capstone project serves as an important piece of greater project studying bison handling. Bison production is both a growing and dangerous industry. As a new enterprise in many parts of the country and on tribal lands, significant numbers of untrained employees may be hired. This project undertakes methods to better understand the risks associated with bison handling and to thereby improve handling procedures and increase safety. Herd managers (from tribal and non-tribal sites), researchers, safety experts, and stakeholders were brought together for a roundtable meeting in Omaha. This meeting was designed to provide stakeholders a forum to discuss common ...


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