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When The Well Runs Dry: Why Water-Rich States Need To Prepare For Climate Change And Protect Their Groundwater, Danielle Takacs 2018 College of William & Mary Law School

When The Well Runs Dry: Why Water-Rich States Need To Prepare For Climate Change And Protect Their Groundwater, Danielle Takacs

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

It may seem surprising to see such concern over groundwater usage in a state like Wisconsin. While known for its dairy and cheese production, Wisconsin is first in the nation for producing snap beans and cranberries. Agriculture contributes $88.3 billion annually to Wisconsin’s economy alone. In addition to bordering two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, Wisconsin boasts that it is home to about 15,000 lakes. And this does not include the numerous rivers and streams throughout the state. These facts alone may make Wisconsin seem an unlikely place for disputes over groundwater, as ...


Friends Of Animals V. United States Fish & Wildlife Service, Bradley E. Tinker 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Friends Of Animals V. United States Fish & Wildlife Service, Bradley E. Tinker

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In Friends of Animals v. United States Fish & Wildlife Service, the Ninth Circuit held that the plain language of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act allows for the removal of one species of bird to benefit another species. Friends of Animals argued that the Service’s experiment permitting the taking of one species––the barred owl––to advance the conservation of a different species––the northern spotted owl––violated the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The court, however, found that the Act delegates broad implementing discretion to the Secretary of the Interior, and neither the Act nor the underlying international conventions limit ...


Public Employees For Environmental Responsibility V. United States Epa, F. Aaron Rains 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Public Employees For Environmental Responsibility V. United States Epa, F. Aaron Rains

Public Land & Resources Law Review

Prior to 2016, the EPA acknowledged that human activities significantly contribute to climate change. However, on March 9, 2017, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt announced that significant debate regarding the issue remained in the scientific community. In response to these statements, a nonprofit organization filed a FOIA request with the EPA seeking any documents or records Pruitt may have used when formulating his statements or substantiating his position. The EPA refused to comply with the request, citing undue burden and improper interrogation and this action followed. Upon review, the District Court for the District of Columbia found the plaintiff’s FOIA ...


Transboundary Legal Perspective: International Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Transboundary Legal Perspective: International Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

This chapter provides readers with an introduction to international law in general and international water law in particular. The chapter discusses the scope, principle tenets, procedural obligations, and sources of international water law, and delves into discussions about transboundary aquifers and joint institutional mechanisms. An appendix that provides exercises and discussion topics to help readers retain and apply important information.


The Role Of Creative Language In Addressing Political Asymmetries: The Israeli-Arab Water Agreements, Itay Fischhendler, Aaron T. Wolf, Gabriel E. Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

The Role Of Creative Language In Addressing Political Asymmetries: The Israeli-Arab Water Agreements, Itay Fischhendler, Aaron T. Wolf, Gabriel E. Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

International water agreements are often used as mechanisms for fostering and institutionalizing political cooperation. Yet, since water resources in many places are being driven to the edge of their natural limits, a number of international organizations have formulated legal principles and norms aimed at helping states resolve water disputes. While states have been urged to adopt these principles, it seems that they often embrace other less-traditional alternatives that may better address their own political needs. The aim of this study is to examine why states fail or decline to adopt several of the general principles of customary law formulated by ...


Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part One, Gabriel Eckstein, Salman M.A. Salman, Dinara Ziganshina, Kishor Uprety, Götz Reichert 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part One, Gabriel Eckstein, Salman M.A. Salman, Dinara Ziganshina, Kishor Uprety, Götz Reichert

Gabriel Eckstein

This is the first part of a two-part research report on opinions of prominent international water lawyers from each continent on the potential impacts of the 1997 UN Convention on Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The second part of the report was published in Water Policy 17(1).

The following compilation is reproduced and adapted from a series of essays that appeared in the blog of the International Water Law Project (www.internationalwaterlaw.org). The series was solicited in preparation for the coming into force of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The Convention had ...


Scientific, Legal, And Ethical Foundations For Texas Water Law., Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger 2018 Selected Works

Scientific, Legal, And Ethical Foundations For Texas Water Law., Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Water law is the field of law concerned with the ownership, control, and use of water resources, both surface and subsurface. Although most closely related to property law, recent developments in other legal fields, especially in environmental law, have heavily influenced the interpretation, application, and development of water law. As a result, water law today encompasses a broad perspective and often takes into account individual and community rights, environmental issues, commerce and economics, and other societal and legal concerns. Significantly, modern water law is also an interdisciplinary practice. In light of the continuously expanding body of knowledge of the hydrologic ...


State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Ground Water Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Ground Water Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Throughout the world, international and state political boundaries divide ground water resources into politically convenient jurisdictions. Subsurface water, however, does not recognize such borders and flows freely without regard to overlying politics. This disregard for the political dimension, coupled with the growing global importance of fresh water, has the potential for aggravating disputes and conflicts over the use, allocation, and preservation of such resources. To date, widely accepted norms of international law applicable to transboundary aquifers have yet to emerge. However, local and regional agreements, including both formal and unofficial arrangements, suggest the emergence of state practice that should be ...


State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Groundwater Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger 2018 Selected Works

State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Groundwater Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Throughout the world, international and state political boundaries divide groundwater resources into politically convenient jurisdictions. Subsurface water, however, does not recognize such borders and flows freely without regard to overlying politics. This disregard for the political dimension, coupled with the growing global importance of fresh water, has the potential for aggravating disputes and conflicts over the use, allocation, and preservation of such resources. To date, widely accepted norms of international law applicable to transboundary aquifers have yet to emerge. However, local and regional agreements, including both formal and unofficial arrangements, suggest the emergence of state practice that should be considered ...


Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part Two, Gabriel Eckstein, Patricia Wouters, Robyn Stein, Georgina Mackenzie, Maria Querol, Richard Paisley, Salman M.A. Salman 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part Two, Gabriel Eckstein, Patricia Wouters, Robyn Stein, Georgina Mackenzie, Maria Querol, Richard Paisley, Salman M.A. Salman

Gabriel Eckstein

This is the second part of a research report on opinions of prominent international water lawyers from each continent on the potential impacts of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The first part of the report was published in Water Policy 16(6).

The following compilation is reproduced and adapted from a series of essays that appeared in the blog of the International Water Law Project (www.internationalwaterlaw.org). The series was solicited in preparation for the coming into force of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The Convention had ...


Scientific, Legal, And Ethical Foundations For Texas Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Scientific, Legal, And Ethical Foundations For Texas Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Water law is the field of law concerned with the ownership, control, and use of water resources, both surface and subsurface. Although most closely related to property law, recent developments in other legal fields, especially in environmental law, have heavily influenced the interpretation, application, and development of water law. As a result, water law today encompasses a broad perspective and often takes into account individual and community rights, environmental issues, commerce and economics, and other societal and legal concerns.

Significantly, modern water law is also an interdisciplinary practice. In light of the continuously expanding body of knowledge of the hydrologic ...


Framework Of Surface And Ground Water In Oklahoma And Texas: Perspectives For Oil And Gas Development, Jessica Foster, Gabriel Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Framework Of Surface And Ground Water In Oklahoma And Texas: Perspectives For Oil And Gas Development, Jessica Foster, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

Chapter Extract:

Advancements in drilling techniques have broadened possibilities for producing hydrocarbons; but the innovations of unconventional drilling have exacerbated existing threats that the oil and gas industry have posed to water resources while creating new challenges. In today's industry, conventional methods of drilling for free-flowing crude oil are playing a secondary role to unconventional oil and gas production capable of bringing hydrocarbons trapped in tight or previously inaccessible geologic formations. Compared to conventional production, unconventional methods use much greater amounts of water in chemical-laden processes that can impact the availability and purity of freshwater resources in concentrated localities ...


Ground Water Resources And International Law In The Middle East Process, Yoram Eckstein, Gabriel Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Ground Water Resources And International Law In The Middle East Process, Yoram Eckstein, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

Next to issues of land, water resources are the major bone of contention in the peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Arabs. The objective of negotiations is de facto setting the clock back to the eve of the Israel War of Independence, when the Jews accepted the 1947 UN resolution of partition, while the Arabs rejected it. The Arabs now accept the principle of territorial partition, but at the same time, they demand re-apportioning of resources, mainly of water. The Palestinians contend that the facts created on the ground unilaterally by Israel during the last 50 years, namely the ...


International Water Law, Groundwater Resources And The Danube Dam Case, Gabriel Eckstein, Yoram Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

International Water Law, Groundwater Resources And The Danube Dam Case, Gabriel Eckstein, Yoram Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

International water law is generally applied to disputes between states concerning surface bodies of water crossing international borders. Disputes and policy-making over transboundary ground water resources, however, have traditionally been determined on an ad hoc basis or based on regional custom. This disparate treatment stems primarily from the misunderstood nature of ground water and its relationship to surface water among government officials, policy-makers, jurists, and others. The result often has been the degradation of subsurface waters on both sides of political boundaries, and unwittingly, of numerous international surface bodies of water.

International concern over regional and global availability and quality ...


Cooperative Transboundary Mechanism, Alena Drieschova, Gabriel Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Cooperative Transboundary Mechanism, Alena Drieschova, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

Management of transboundary waters in increasingly becoming more challenging, and climate change is likely to exacerbate these pressures. Not least because climate change is a global issue, adaptation will require an international response. This book aims to identify issues, both theoretical and practical, that States face in establishing cooperative transboundary mechanisms to effectively adapt water management to climate change. Furthermore, it will address complex legal hurdles that existing transboundary water institutions face when attempting to adapt existing mechanisms to function in a changing climate. It will also provide an overview of best practices in transboundary adaptive water governance thus far ...


Alternative Strategies For Managing Pharmaceutical And Personal Care Products In Water Resources, Gabriel Eckstein, George William Sherk 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Alternative Strategies For Managing Pharmaceutical And Personal Care Products In Water Resources, Gabriel Eckstein, George William Sherk

Gabriel Eckstein

In recent decades, concern has grown over the presence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in water. This concern stems from the possibility that the presence of PPCPs in water supplies may pose a threat to both human and environmental health. Such threats may be both direct (e.g., exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds) and indirect (e.g., emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria). The water treatment and wastewater treatment community has been especially concerned over PPCPs because of PPCPs ubiquitous nature and their ability to persist or only partially degrade in water and during wastewater treatment. Studies done over ...


Sections 7 And 15 Of The Canadian Charter Of Rights And Freedoms In The Context Of The Clean Water Crisis On Reserves: Opportunities And Challenges For First Nations Women, Madiha Vallani 2018 Western University

Sections 7 And 15 Of The Canadian Charter Of Rights And Freedoms In The Context Of The Clean Water Crisis On Reserves: Opportunities And Challenges For First Nations Women, Madiha Vallani

Master of Laws Research Papers Repository

This paper analyzes the water crisis on reserves through the lens of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Specifically, this paper discusses certain issues, stemming from the water crisis, that some First Nations women experience, through the lens of the Charter’s section 15 right to equality, and section 7 right to life, liberty, and security of the person. In doing so, this paper aims to draw attention to the various ways that the water crisis uniquely impacts First Nations women due to their intersectional experiences under the protected grounds of sex, ethnic origin, race, and residency on reserve ...


When Is Groundwater Recharge A Beneficial Use Of Surface Water In California?, Kathleen Miller, Nell Green Nylen, Holly Doremus, Dave Owen, Andrew Fisher 2018 UC Berkeley School of Law

When Is Groundwater Recharge A Beneficial Use Of Surface Water In California?, Kathleen Miller, Nell Green Nylen, Holly Doremus, Dave Owen, Andrew Fisher

Nell Green Nylen

This issue brief considers whether groundwater recharge currently qualifies, or should qualify, as a beneficial use of surface water under a California water right. Currently, the lack of an explicit policy regarding recharge for non-extractive purposes — that is, for purposes such as combatting subsidence, raising regional groundwater levels, or supporting baseflow or ground-water dependent wetlands — creates uncertainty and confusion. To bring much needed clarity, the State Water Resources Control Board (the Board) should provide guidance explaining that recharge for non-extractive purposes can be a beneficial use of water. That guidance should explain the conditions under which recharge for nonextractive purposes ...


Murr And Wisconsin: The Badger State's Take On Regulatory Takings, 2018 Marquette University Law School

Murr And Wisconsin: The Badger State's Take On Regulatory Takings

Marquette Law Review

None.


Current Developments In Indian Water Law And Treaty Rights: Old Promises, Recent Challenges, And The Potential For A New Future, Monte Mills 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Current Developments In Indian Water Law And Treaty Rights: Old Promises, Recent Challenges, And The Potential For A New Future, Monte Mills

Faculty Books & Book Chapters

Chapter nine of 64 Rocky Mt. Min. L. Inst. 9-1 (2018).


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