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At Your Service: Lawyer Discretion To Assist Clients In Unlawful Conduct, Paul R. Tremblay 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

At Your Service: Lawyer Discretion To Assist Clients In Unlawful Conduct, Paul R. Tremblay

Florida Law Review

The common, shared vision of lawyers’ ethics holds that lawyers ought not collaborate with clients in wrongdoing. Ethics scholars caution that lawyers “may not participate in or assist illegal conduct,” or “giv[e] legal services to clients who are going to engage in unlawful behavior with the attorney as their accomplice.” That sentiment resonates comfortably with the profession’s commitment to honor legal obligations and duties, and to remain faithful to the law. The problem with that sentiment, this Article shows, is that it is not an accurate statement of the prevailing substantive law. The American Bar Association’s (ABA ...


Unusual Deference, William W. Berry III 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Unusual Deference, William W. Berry Iii

Florida Law Review

Three Eighth Amendment decisions—Harmelin v. Michigan, Pulley v. Harris, and McCleskey v. Kemp—have had enduring, and ultimately, cruel and unusual consequences on the administration of criminal justice in the United States. What links these cases is the same fundamental analytical misstep—the decision to ignore core constitutional principles and instead defer to state punishment practices. The confusion arises from the text of the Eighth Amendment where the Supreme Court has read the “cruel and unusual” punishment proscription to rest in part on majoritarian practices. This is a classical analytical mistake—while the Amendment might prohibit rare punishments, it ...


Convictions Based On Character: An Empirical Test Of Other-Acts Evidence, Michael D. Cicchini, Lawrence T. White 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Convictions Based On Character: An Empirical Test Of Other-Acts Evidence, Michael D. Cicchini, Lawrence T. White

Florida Law Review

Despite the time-honored judicial principle that “we try cases, rather than persons,” courts routinely allow prosecutors to use defendants’ prior, unrelated bad acts at trial. Courts acknowledge that jurors could improperly use this other acts evidence as proof of the defendant’s bad character. However, courts theorize that if the other acts are also relevant for a permissible purpose—such as proving the defendant’s identity as the perpetrator of the charged crime—then a cautionary instruction will cure the problem, and any prejudice is “presumed erased from the jury’s mind.” We put this judicial assumption to an empirical ...


Teva And The Process Of Claim Construction, Lee Petherbridge, R. Polk Wagner 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Teva And The Process Of Claim Construction, Lee Petherbridge, R. Polk Wagner

Florida Law Review

In Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. v. Sandoz, Inc., the Supreme Court addressed an oft-discussed jurisprudential disconnect between itself and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit: whether patent claim construction was “legal” or “factual” in nature, and how much deference is due to district court decision-making in this area. This Article closely examines the Teva opinion and situates it within modern claim construction jurisprudence. The thesis is that the Teva holding is likely to have only very modest effects on the incidence of deference to district court claim construction, but that for unexpected reasons the case is ...


Should They Stay Or Should They Go: Rethinking The Use Of Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude In Immigration Law, Sara Salem 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Should They Stay Or Should They Go: Rethinking The Use Of Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude In Immigration Law, Sara Salem

Florida Law Review

Although absent from modern English conversation, the words moral turpitude continue to carry devastating consequences for undocumented aliens living in the United States. Under federal immigration law, an alien convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude may be deported or denied entry into the United States. Perhaps most significantly, nearly all immigration relief is conditioned on an alien having never been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude. So the question becomes, what is a crime involving moral turpitude? There is currently no clear answer. No one standard exists for determining whether a conviction qualifies as a crime involving moral ...


The Declining Fortunes Of American Workers: Six Dimensions And An Agenda For Reform, Stephen F. Befort 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

The Declining Fortunes Of American Workers: Six Dimensions And An Agenda For Reform, Stephen F. Befort

Florida Law Review

At the turn of the century, I undertook an assessment of the then-current state of workplace rights and obligations. I concluded that the balance of power between employers and workers was “badly skewed” in favor of employers. This Article revisits that topic for the purpose of assessing twenty-first-century trends through the lens of six workplace dimensions. They are: workforce attachment, union–management relations, employment security, income inequality, balancing work and family, and retirement security. An examination of these dimensions reveals that the status of U.S. workers has significantly declined during the first sixteen years of the twenty-first century. This ...


The Global Trade Of Cloned Meat, Andrew Jensen Kerr 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

The Global Trade Of Cloned Meat, Andrew Jensen Kerr

Florida Law Review

Until now commercial animal cloning has been generally limited to breeding stock. But Xu Xiaochun of the Chinese company Boyalife Genetics plans to mass produce animal clones for direct meat consumption. The research partnership between Boyalife and South Korean firm Sooam Biotech suggests the possibility of an international market for cloned food animals. Can cloned food imports be rejected by national governments? This Article outlines the relevant considerations, and argues that a revised understanding of the “precautionary principle” can help to reconcile disparate, and perhaps ineffable, goals like producing high-quality meat and maintaining the integrity of the human experience.


The Rule Of Reason, Herbert Hovenkamp 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

The Rule Of Reason, Herbert Hovenkamp

Florida Law Review

Antitrust’s rule of reason was born out of a thirty-year Supreme Court debate concerning the legality of multi-firm restraints on competition. By the late 1920s the basic contours of the rule for restraints among competitors was roughly established. Antitrust policy toward vertical restraints remained much more unstable, however, largely because their effects were so poorly understood. This Article provides a litigation field guide for antitrust claims under the rule of reason—or more precisely, for situations when application of the rule of reason is likely. At the time pleadings are drafted and even up to the point of summary ...


Why Congress Matters: The Collective Congress In The Structural Constitution, Neomi Rao 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Why Congress Matters: The Collective Congress In The Structural Constitution, Neomi Rao

Florida Law Review

Congress currently operates in the shadow of the administrative state. This Article provides a modern reconsideration of why Congress still matters by examining the “collective Congress” within the text, structure, and history of the Constitution. Like the unitary executive, the collective Congress is a structural feature of the Constitution’s separation of powers. With deep roots in political theory, the Framers created a representative and collective legislature that would provide a legitimate mechanism for bringing together the nation’s diverse interests to most effectively pursue the common good. To fully realize the benefits of collective lawmaking, the Constitution insists on ...


Sweet Child O’ Mine: Adult Adoption & Same-Sex Marriage In The Post-Obergefell Era, Robert Keefe 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Sweet Child O’ Mine: Adult Adoption & Same-Sex Marriage In The Post-Obergefell Era, Robert Keefe

Florida Law Review

Gay and lesbian partners used adult adoption to create family relationships and to ensure inheritance and property rights in the decades before the Supreme Court’s decision in Obergefell v. Hodges legalized same-sex marriage nationwide. Same-sex partners who chose adult adoption as an alternative to marriage before the Obergefell decision must now dissolve the adoption in order to exercise their constitutional right to marry due to state incest laws prohibiting marriages between parents and their adopted children. It is difficult, however, to dissolve an adoption, and anecdotal evidence indicates that some judges have refused to dissolve adoptions between same sex ...


Rescuing The Rescuer: Reforming How Florida’S Workers’ Compensation Law Treats Mental Injury Of First Responders, Travis J. Foels 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Rescuing The Rescuer: Reforming How Florida’S Workers’ Compensation Law Treats Mental Injury Of First Responders, Travis J. Foels

Florida Law Review

The 2016 Pulse nightclub shooting in Orlando, Florida was the deadliest terrorist attack in the United States since the September 11 attacks in 2001. With a final death toll of forty-nine people, and fifty-three others wounded, the attack sent shockwaves throughout the city, state, and nation. People sent condolences to the families of those affected, prayers for those taken, and praise to first responders and health care professionals for their hard work and service. What many fail to consider, however, is the lasting effect such a horrific and traumatic event can have on the first responders whose job it is ...


Picking And Choosing Text: Lessons For Statutory Interpretation From The Philosophy Of Language, Victoria Nourse 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Picking And Choosing Text: Lessons For Statutory Interpretation From The Philosophy Of Language, Victoria Nourse

Florida Law Review

Textualists claim that they follow statutory text. This Article argues that, in practice, textualists often create meaning rather than find it. Deploying the analytics of linguistic philosophy, this Article takes a deep dive into textualist methodology. The philosophy of language reveals what legal scholarship has left submerged: The very choice of text can put the thumb on the scales of any interpretation. When one pulls a term out of a statute and isolates it from the rest of the text (what I call “isolationist” method), this decontextualization offers the opportunity for adding and subtracting meaning from the statute by “pragmatic ...


By Any Other Name: Rational Basis Inquiry And The Federal Government’S Fiduciary Duty Of Care, Gary Lawson, Guy I. Seidman 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

By Any Other Name: Rational Basis Inquiry And The Federal Government’S Fiduciary Duty Of Care, Gary Lawson, Guy I. Seidman

Florida Law Review

Under modern law, federal legislation is subject to “rational basis review” under the doctrinal rubric of “substantive due process.” That construction of the Fifth Amendment’s Due Process of Law Clause is notoriously difficult to justify as a matter of original constitutional meaning. Something functionally very similar to substantive due process, however, is easily justifiable as a matter of original constitutional meaning once one understands that the Constitution, for interpretative purposes, is best seen as a kind of fiduciary instrument. Fiduciary instruments operate against a background of legal norms that notably include a duty of care on the part of ...


The Possibility Of Illiberal Constitutionalism?, Mark Tushnet 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

The Possibility Of Illiberal Constitutionalism?, Mark Tushnet

Florida Law Review

This Essay examines the possibility of an illiberal constitutionalism in which some citizens have “second-class” status – protected against arbitrary government action but with restricted rights. Drawing on scholarship dealing with “dual states” and federalism, the Essay argues that illiberal constitutionalism is possible conceptually but may be quite difficult to sustain over time in the face of the openness of even illiberal polities to demographic and similar changes.


Investing In The Ill: The Need To Curb Third-Party Payment Of Qualified Health Plan Premiums, Brad M. Beall 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Investing In The Ill: The Need To Curb Third-Party Payment Of Qualified Health Plan Premiums, Brad M. Beall

Florida Law Review

Hospitals and physicians have begun encouraging their high-cost patients to switch from Medicare or Medicaid to government-subsidized Qualified Health Plans by offering to pay their insurance premiums. Providers make these third-party payments because insurance payouts are much higher under Qualified Health Plans than under Medicare or Medicaid. However, this practice is not always in the best interests of patients, issuers, and the health-care Marketplace. This Note delineates the regulatory responses to this issue, as well as the various advantages and disadvantages that stem from the practice in different contexts. This Note argues that a federal criminal statute is needed to ...


Redefining “Revenge Porn” Reform: A View From The Front Lines, Mary Anne Franks 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Redefining “Revenge Porn” Reform: A View From The Front Lines, Mary Anne Franks

Florida Law Review

The legal and social landscape of “revenge porn” has changed dramatically in the last few years. Before 2013, only three states criminalized the unauthorized disclosure of sexually explicit images of adults and few people had ever heard the term “revenge porn.” As of July 2017, thirty-eight states and Washington, D.C. had criminalized the conduct; federal criminal legislation on the issue had been introduced in Congress; Google, Facebook, and Twitter had banned nonconsensual pornography from their platforms; and the term “revenge porn” had been added to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. I have had the privilege of playing a role in many ...


Too Big And Unable To Fail, Stephen J. Lubben, Arthur E. Wilmarth, Jr. 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Too Big And Unable To Fail, Stephen J. Lubben, Arthur E. Wilmarth, Jr.

Florida Law Review

Financial regulation after the Dodd-Frank Act has produced a blizzard of acronyms, many of which revolve around the “too big to fail” (TBTF) problem. OLA, OLF, SPOE, and TLAC are new regulatory tools that seek to build a new regime for resolving failures of systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs). The explicit goal of this new regime is to enable a SIFI to fail, just like United Airlines or Blockbuster Video, without requiring a government bailout. This Article expresses significant doubts about the new regime’s ability to work as advertised. The “single point of entry” (SPOE) resolution strategy, which focuses ...


Assessing The Viability Of Implicit Bias Evidence In Discrimination Cases: An Analysis Of The Most Significant Federal Cases, Anthony Kakoyannis 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Assessing The Viability Of Implicit Bias Evidence In Discrimination Cases: An Analysis Of The Most Significant Federal Cases, Anthony Kakoyannis

Florida Law Review

The theory of implicit bias occupies a rapidly growing field of scientific research and legal scholarship. With the advent of tools measuring individuals’ subconscious biases toward people of other races, genders, ages, national origins, religions, and sexual orientations, scholars have rushed to explore the ways in which these biases might affect decision-making and produce broad societal consequences. The question that remains unanswered for scholars, attorneys, and judges is whether evidence of implicit bias and its effects can or should be used in legal proceedings. Although the study of implicit bias dates back several decades, only recently have judicial opinions begun ...


The Epidemic Of Higher Levels Of Depression And Anxiety In Each Successive Generation Of Youth: Proposed Causes, Detrimental Effects, And The Introduction Of Positive Psychology In The Classroom, Rosemarie Parasole 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

The Epidemic Of Higher Levels Of Depression And Anxiety In Each Successive Generation Of Youth: Proposed Causes, Detrimental Effects, And The Introduction Of Positive Psychology In The Classroom, Rosemarie Parasole

Florida Law Review

The past few decades have witnessed a major increase in each successive generation of youth reporting higher levels of mental illness. The detrimental effects of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety, demand a solution that addresses a change in thinking and wellbeing among youth. Research illustrates the substantial impact the teachings of positive psychology have on developing minds. Additionally, positive psychology addresses and attempts to remedy many of the proposed factors contributing to youth depression and anxiety. This Note calls for legislation to introduce positive psychology classes on a statewide level within the K–12 curriculum in all Florida public ...


Zombie Patents And Zombie Companies With Patents, Xuan-Thao Nguyen 2019 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Zombie Patents And Zombie Companies With Patents, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Florida Law Review

The word “Zombie” has its roots in the Haitian French language, referring to the reanimation of the human corpse. “Zombie” has become ubiquitous in American popular culture; zombies seem to be everywhere from films, novels, comic books, video games, and botnets to tax. Of course, science fiction reincarnates zombies as post-human, appearing in different forms of the undead through viruses, diseases, and experimental accidents, among others. Debates about zombies find no agreement, but we can all agree that we know a zombie when we see it, and we don’t like what we see. While a zombie is the undead ...


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