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Consenting To Counterclaims Under The Icsid Convention, Harshad Pathak 2019 Pepperdine University

Consenting To Counterclaims Under The Icsid Convention, Harshad Pathak

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Counterclaims in investment treaty arbitration hold immense significance. Counterclaims have the potential to nullify biases and bolster the confidence of States in investment treaty arbitration. That being said, the multitude of jurisdictional hurdles faced by counterclaims under the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID Convention) risk dampening the aforementioned potential. It is two of these hurdles emanating from the consensual nature of arbitration that I address herein. Part II of this article commences by analyzing the provisions of the ICSID Convention to derive the prerequisites of a valid counterclaim in investment ...


Houston, We Have An Arbitration: International Arbitration’S Role In Resolving Commercial Aerospace Disputes, Carson W. Bennett 2019 Pepperdine University

Houston, We Have An Arbitration: International Arbitration’S Role In Resolving Commercial Aerospace Disputes, Carson W. Bennett

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article explores the complimentary nature between the burgeoning private aerospace industry and international arbitration, as well as detailing how it could be advantageous to resolve these aerospace disputes in California. Part II outlines the new space race. It begins with the Ansari XPrize and follows some of the industry’s most significant developments. Part III explores the benefits of arbitration and how the characteristics of international arbitral proceedings cater to the common concerns of aerospace companies. Part IV catalogues the initiatives arbitral institutions have taken to customize an arbitration for aerospace disputes. This article argues that a specialized institution ...


The Singapore Convention On Mediation: A Framework For The Cross-Border Recognition And Enforcement Of Mediated Settlements, Timothy Schnabel 2019 Pepperdine University

The Singapore Convention On Mediation: A Framework For The Cross-Border Recognition And Enforcement Of Mediated Settlements, Timothy Schnabel

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article attempts to provide a definitive overview of the text, structure, history, and purpose of the Singapore Convention on Mediation (also known as the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation), a new multilateral treaty developed by the U.N. Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). The Convention, scheduled to open for signature in August 2019, provides a uniform, efficient framework for the recognition and enforcement of mediated settlement agreements that resolve international, commercial disputes — akin to the framework that the 1958 New York Convention provides for arbitral awards. Unlike the other primary international organizations that ...


If The Shoe Fits: Rethinking Minimum Contacts And The Fsia Commercial Activity Exception, Jacqueline M. Fitch 2019 Washington and Lee University School of Law

If The Shoe Fits: Rethinking Minimum Contacts And The Fsia Commercial Activity Exception, Jacqueline M. Fitch

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

The question explored in this Note is whether, under the direct effect clause of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act commercial activities exception, a foreign sovereign must have minimum contacts with the United States in order for a U.S. court to assert personal jurisdiction over the entity. Examining personal jurisdiction over foreign states under the direct effect clause requires exploring the interaction between constitutional law and principles of international law. The minimum contacts analysis highlights the tension between applying constitutional due process protection to a foreign state, while simultaneously asserting jurisdiction over its commercial activities. Denying jurisdiction over a foreign ...


The Legal Determinants Of Health: Harnessing The Power Of Law For Global Health And Sustainable Development, Lawrence O. Gostin, John T. Monahan, Jenny Kaldor, Mary DeBartolo, Eric A. Friedman, Katie Gottschalk, Susan C. Kim, Ala Alwan, Agnes Binagwaho, Gian Luca Burci, Luisa Cabal, Katherine DeLand, Timothy Grant Evans, Eric Goosby, Sara Hossain, Howard Koh, Gorik Ooms, Mirta Roses Periago, Rodrigo Uprimny, Alicia E. Yamin 2019 Georgetown University Law Center

The Legal Determinants Of Health: Harnessing The Power Of Law For Global Health And Sustainable Development, Lawrence O. Gostin, John T. Monahan, Jenny Kaldor, Mary Debartolo, Eric A. Friedman, Katie Gottschalk, Susan C. Kim, Ala Alwan, Agnes Binagwaho, Gian Luca Burci, Luisa Cabal, Katherine Deland, Timothy Grant Evans, Eric Goosby, Sara Hossain, Howard Koh, Gorik Ooms, Mirta Roses Periago, Rodrigo Uprimny, Alicia E. Yamin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Health risks in the 21st century are beyond the control of any country. In an era of globalization, promoting public health and equity requires cooperation and coordination both within and among states. Law can be a powerful tool for advancing global health, yet it remains significantly underutilised and poorly understood. Working in partnership, public health lawyers and health professionals can become champions for evidence-based laws to ensure the public’s health and safety.

The O'Neill Institute/Georgetown University Lancet Commission on Law and Global Health articulates the vital role of law – through legal instruments, legal capacities, and institutional reforms ...


Deliberation And Decision-Making Process In The Inter-American Court Of Human Rights: Do Individual Opinions Matter?, Ranieri L. Resende 2019 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Deliberation And Decision-Making Process In The Inter-American Court Of Human Rights: Do Individual Opinions Matter?, Ranieri L. Resende

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

The work is focused on the adjudicatory nature of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and investigates its model of deliberation, considering three basic schemes: per curiam, seriatim and hybrid. In order to identify an institutional pattern, the importance of individual opinions is analyzed through the quantitative performance of each category of judge (ad hoc and regular), as well as each type of adjudicative activity (judgments and advisory opinions). The quantitative data is also useful to better understand the explicit assimilation of separate opinions to the core reasoning of future cases. As a result, it has been possible to identify ...


Navigating The Moral Minefields Of Human Rights Advocacy In The Global South, Sandra L. Babcock 2019 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Navigating The Moral Minefields Of Human Rights Advocacy In The Global South, Sandra L. Babcock

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

No abstract provided.


North Korean Defectors In South Korea And Asylum Seekers In The United States: A Comparison, Emma Poorman 2019 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

North Korean Defectors In South Korea And Asylum Seekers In The United States: A Comparison, Emma Poorman

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

North Korean defectors are considered citizens of South Korea under the South Korean Constitution, while others that flee violence gain the legal status of “refugee.” North Korean defectors, who attempt to escape one of the worst human rights crises in the world, find themselves in a unique situation. What benefits does this status have? How are refugees typically treated abroad, such as in the United States? This Comment will explore this unique status, how it differs from refugee status in the United States, and the challenges North Korean defectors face in South Korea.


Does Customary International Tax Law Exist?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah 2019 University of Michigan Law School

Does Customary International Tax Law Exist?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

Customary international law is law that “results from a general and consistent practice of states followed by them from a sense of legal obligation.” “International agreements create law for states parties thereto and may lead to the creation of customary international law when such agreements are intended for adherence by states generally and are in fact widely accepted.” Does customary international law (CIL) exist in tax? There are over 3,000 bilateral tax treaties, and they are about 80% identical to each other, but do they create CIL that binds in the absence of a binding treaty, like for example ...


Free Speech On The World Wide Web: A Comparison Between French And United States Policy With A Focus On Uejf V. Yahoo Inc., Pamela G. Smith 2019 Selected Works

Free Speech On The World Wide Web: A Comparison Between French And United States Policy With A Focus On Uejf V. Yahoo Inc., Pamela G. Smith

Pamela G. Smith

No abstract provided.


Global Standards For Securities Holding Infrastructures: A Soft Law/Fintech Model For Reform, Charles W. Mooney Jr. 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Global Standards For Securities Holding Infrastructures: A Soft Law/Fintech Model For Reform, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article outlines a “soft-law-to-hard-law” approach for the development and implementation of reforms to systems for the holding of publicly traded securities. It proposes the development of global standards for securities holding systems (“Global Standards”), to be led by the International Organization of Securities Commissions (the “IOSCO”). This approach contemplates that States would be encouraged and expected to implement the Global Standards by adopting “hard law” reforms through statutory and regulatory adjustments to their securities holding systems as well as modifications of the architecture of their securities holding systems. The successes of past IOSCO initiatives inspire this Article’s proposal ...


The Dialogic Aspect Of Soft Law In International Insolvency: Discord, Digression, And Development, John A. E. Pottow 2019 University of Michigan Law School

The Dialogic Aspect Of Soft Law In International Insolvency: Discord, Digression, And Development, John A. E. Pottow

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this study, I describe three important articles in the IRJ model law and discuss their development, drawing in part upon my experience as a delegate to UNCITRAL Working Group V. In doing so, I want to situate these developments within the broader discussions of international law and international relations theory regarding soft law. Doing so will both vindicate and puzzle some of the conventional understanding of how soft law instruments tend to function, although some of the conclusions must necessarily be conjectural at this stage.


The Use Of Soft Law In The Creation Of Legal Norms In International Commercial Law: How Successful Has It Been?, Henry Deeb Gabriel 2019 Elon University

The Use Of Soft Law In The Creation Of Legal Norms In International Commercial Law: How Successful Has It Been?, Henry Deeb Gabriel

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this Article, I examine several interrelated points. After defining soft law in Part II, I briefly set out some of the assumed advantages soft law instruments may have over legislation and regulations in Part III. In Part IV, I examine why some soft law instruments in international commercial law have been successful in creating international legal norms. In this Part, I specifically examine the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts to show how one might gauge success by looking beyond the express purpose of the instrument. I also compare the UNIDROIT Principles of Commercial Contracts with the American Law ...


Offshore Drilling: Combating Regulatory Uncertainty With Contract Law Protection, Jordan M. Steele 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Offshore Drilling: Combating Regulatory Uncertainty With Contract Law Protection, Jordan M. Steele

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Offshore drilling accounts for billions of dollars in tax revenue every year. It is a pillar of the energy industry and is crucial to the economy. A recent flurry of deregulation, accelerating with the arrival of the Trump administration, highlights the tremendous impact politics has upon the profitability of this sector. The Secretary of the Interior, under the direction of the President, wields the power to regulate and make determinations into where, when, and how private companies can drill offshore. These private companies have contracts with the government for the opportunity to produce and develop oil or gas on the ...


“There’S Voices In The Night Trying To Be Heard”: The Potential Impact Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities On Domestic Mental Disability Law, Michael L. Perlin, Naomi M. Weinstein 2019 Brooklyn Law School

“There’S Voices In The Night Trying To Be Heard”: The Potential Impact Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities On Domestic Mental Disability Law, Michael L. Perlin, Naomi M. Weinstein

Brooklyn Law Review

This article carefully examines, through a therapeutic jurisprudence framework, the likely impact of the United States’ ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on U.S. society’s sanist attitudes towards persons with mental disabilities. Although the United Nations ratified the CRPD—the most significant historical development in the recognition of the human rights of persons with mental disabilities— in 2008, the United States has yet to ratify it. In this article, we consider whether the CRPD, if ratified, is likely to finally extinguish the toxic stench of sanism that permeates all levels ...


Indeterminacy In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Adil Ahmad Haque 2019 Rutgers Law School

Indeterminacy In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Adil Ahmad Haque

International Law Studies

Controversy and confusion pervade the law of armed conflict. Its most basic rules may seem ambiguous, vague, incomplete, or inconsistent. The prevailing view of customary international law confronts serious problems, in principle and in practice, when applied to the customary law of armed conflict. Legal indeterminacy, in its different forms, might be reduced or resolved in light of the object and purpose of the law of armed conflict, or by taking into account other relevant rules of international law. Unfortunately, the purpose of the law of armed conflict is itself the subject of deep disagreement. So is the relationship between ...


Intersex, Hyperandrogenism, Female Athletes: A Legal Perspective On The Iaaf Doping Regulations And Where Hyperandrogenic Female Athletes Fit In, Tylyn Wells 2019 Santa Clara Law

Intersex, Hyperandrogenism, Female Athletes: A Legal Perspective On The Iaaf Doping Regulations And Where Hyperandrogenic Female Athletes Fit In, Tylyn Wells

Santa Clara Journal of International Law

Intersex, Hyperandrogenism, Female Athletes: A Legal Perspective on The IAAF Doping Regulations and Where Hyperandrogenic Female Athletes Fit In


The Criminalization Of Cyberbullying Among Children And Youth, Liat Franco, Khalid Ghanayim 2019 Santa Clara Law

The Criminalization Of Cyberbullying Among Children And Youth, Liat Franco, Khalid Ghanayim

Santa Clara Journal of International Law

The Criminalization of Cyberbullying Among Children and Youth


Between Politics And Morality: Hans Kelsen's Contributions To The Changing Notion Of International Criminal Responsibility, Jason Kropsky 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Between Politics And Morality: Hans Kelsen's Contributions To The Changing Notion Of International Criminal Responsibility, Jason Kropsky

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The pure theory of law analyzes the legal normative basis of jurisprudence. According to its author, Hans Kelsen (1881-1973), the study of law as a science can only arise once “alien elements” associated with sociology, politics, ethics and psychology are extracted from strict legal cognition. But what happens when the international sphere of law that possesses the special quality of holding state officials accountable for core international crimes requires intrusion by extra-legal sources? Does Kelsen’s structural edifice collapse? Or is it reconstituted? In examining how international criminal responsibility, a test case for Kelsen’s positive law claims derives its ...


Businesspersons, Governments, And International Law, Halil Rahman Basaran 2019 Louisiana State University Law Center

Businesspersons, Governments, And International Law, Halil Rahman Basaran

Louisiana Law Review

The article sets forth evidence to substantiate the dynamics and tensions among businessperson, governments and international law with particular focus on issues related to controlling the development of cryptocurrencies through taxation, regulation or even prohibition.


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