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Funding Mental Healthcare In The Wake Of Deinstitutionalization: How The United States And The United Kingdom Diverged In Mental Health Policy After Deinstitutionalization, And What We Can Learn From Their Differing Approaches To Funding Mental Healthcare, Catherine Ryan Gawron 2019 University of Notre Dame Law School

Funding Mental Healthcare In The Wake Of Deinstitutionalization: How The United States And The United Kingdom Diverged In Mental Health Policy After Deinstitutionalization, And What We Can Learn From Their Differing Approaches To Funding Mental Healthcare, Catherine Ryan Gawron

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

Deinstitutionalization was a mass movement away from institutional-focused mental healthcare in the mid-to-late twentieth century, which changed the dynamic of mental healthcare service provision in both the United States and United Kingdom. This Note analyzes the history and effects of deinstitutionalization on subsequent mental healthcare policy in those two nations, highlighting the key role of funding in shaping the success of mental health policy and programming.

The focus on mental healthcare funding structures provides a lens to analyze the differences in financial funding, resource allocation, infrastructure development of community-based or alternative care services, and government and social support of mental ...


If It Looks Like A Duck ... : Private International Arbitral Bodies Are Adjudicatory Tribunals Under 28 U.S.C. § 1782(A), Brandon Hasbrouck 2019 Selected Works

If It Looks Like A Duck ... : Private International Arbitral Bodies Are Adjudicatory Tribunals Under 28 U.S.C. § 1782(A), Brandon Hasbrouck

Brandon Hasbrouck

No abstract provided.


Forced Marriage: Terminological Coherence And Dissonance In International Criminal Law, Valerie Oosterveld 2019 College of William & Mary Law School

Forced Marriage: Terminological Coherence And Dissonance In International Criminal Law, Valerie Oosterveld

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Chinese Law Of Secured Transactions In Personal Property At A Crossroads: An Analysis And Suggestions, Boris Kozolchyk 2019 University of Miami Law School

The Chinese Law Of Secured Transactions In Personal Property At A Crossroads: An Analysis And Suggestions, Boris Kozolchyk

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Improving The Odds: Strengthening The Prospects For Accountability In The Syrian Conflict By Regulating The Marketplace For Information On Atrocity Crimes, Kaitlin Owens 2019 University of Miami Law School

Improving The Odds: Strengthening The Prospects For Accountability In The Syrian Conflict By Regulating The Marketplace For Information On Atrocity Crimes, Kaitlin Owens

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Process & Industrial Developments Limited V. Nigeria: Exception Under The Fsia When Award Has Been Set Aside By A Court Of The Country “Under The Law Of Which” The Award Was Made, Ndifreke Uwem 2019 University of Miami Law School

Process & Industrial Developments Limited V. Nigeria: Exception Under The Fsia When Award Has Been Set Aside By A Court Of The Country “Under The Law Of Which” The Award Was Made, Ndifreke Uwem

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

In March 2018, Process & Industrial Developments Limited (P&ID) filed a petition at the United States District Court for the District of Columbia to confirm an arbitral award against the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The proceedings were conducted in three phases – jurisdictional, liability, and damages. The arbitration provision in the underlying contract hardly represented a model of clarity. It provided for the application of the Nigerian arbitration act to any dispute between the parties. On the other hand, it specified London as the “venue” of the proceedings. This posed a problem as to whether Nigeria was the juridical seat of ...


Conditionality And Constitutional Change, Felix B. Chang 2019 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Conditionality And Constitutional Change, Felix B. Chang

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

The burgeoning field of Critical Romani Studies explores the persistent subjugation of Europe’s largest minority, the Roma. Within this field, it has become fashionable to draw parallels to the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. Yet the comparisons are often one-sided; lessons tend to flow from Civil Rights to Roma Rights more than the other way around. It is an all-too-common hagiography of Civil Rights, where our history becomes a blueprint for other movements for racial equality.

To correct this trend, this Essay reveals what American scholars can learn from Roma Rights. Specifically, this Essay argues that the European Union ...


If Not Now, When? Us Tax Treaties With Latin America After Tcja, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah 2019 University of Michigan Law School

If Not Now, When? Us Tax Treaties With Latin America After Tcja, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

Since the 1990s, the US tax treaty network has expanded to include most large developing countries. However, there remains a glaring exception: The US only has two tax treaties in Latin America (Mexico and Venezuela), and one pending tax treaty (Chile). The traditional explanation for why the US has no treaty with, for example, Argentina or Brazil is the US refusal since 1957 to grant tax sparing credits to developing countries. Before the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA), this explanation was wrong, because the combination of deferral and cross-crediting meant that tax holidays in a source country ...


Consenting To Counterclaims Under The Icsid Convention, Harshad Pathak 2019 Pepperdine University

Consenting To Counterclaims Under The Icsid Convention, Harshad Pathak

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Counterclaims in investment treaty arbitration hold immense significance. Counterclaims have the potential to nullify biases and bolster the confidence of States in investment treaty arbitration. That being said, the multitude of jurisdictional hurdles faced by counterclaims under the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID Convention) risk dampening the aforementioned potential. It is two of these hurdles emanating from the consensual nature of arbitration that I address herein. Part II of this article commences by analyzing the provisions of the ICSID Convention to derive the prerequisites of a valid counterclaim in investment ...


Houston, We Have An Arbitration: International Arbitration’S Role In Resolving Commercial Aerospace Disputes, Carson W. Bennett 2019 Pepperdine University

Houston, We Have An Arbitration: International Arbitration’S Role In Resolving Commercial Aerospace Disputes, Carson W. Bennett

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article explores the complimentary nature between the burgeoning private aerospace industry and international arbitration, as well as detailing how it could be advantageous to resolve these aerospace disputes in California. Part II outlines the new space race. It begins with the Ansari XPrize and follows some of the industry’s most significant developments. Part III explores the benefits of arbitration and how the characteristics of international arbitral proceedings cater to the common concerns of aerospace companies. Part IV catalogues the initiatives arbitral institutions have taken to customize an arbitration for aerospace disputes. This article argues that a specialized institution ...


The Singapore Convention On Mediation: A Framework For The Cross-Border Recognition And Enforcement Of Mediated Settlements, Timothy Schnabel 2019 Pepperdine University

The Singapore Convention On Mediation: A Framework For The Cross-Border Recognition And Enforcement Of Mediated Settlements, Timothy Schnabel

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article attempts to provide a definitive overview of the text, structure, history, and purpose of the Singapore Convention on Mediation (also known as the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation), a new multilateral treaty developed by the U.N. Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). The Convention, scheduled to open for signature in August 2019, provides a uniform, efficient framework for the recognition and enforcement of mediated settlement agreements that resolve international, commercial disputes — akin to the framework that the 1958 New York Convention provides for arbitral awards. Unlike the other primary international organizations that ...


If The Shoe Fits: Rethinking Minimum Contacts And The Fsia Commercial Activity Exception, Jacqueline M. Fitch 2019 Washington and Lee University School of Law

If The Shoe Fits: Rethinking Minimum Contacts And The Fsia Commercial Activity Exception, Jacqueline M. Fitch

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

The question explored in this Note is whether, under the direct effect clause of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act commercial activities exception, a foreign sovereign must have minimum contacts with the United States in order for a U.S. court to assert personal jurisdiction over the entity. Examining personal jurisdiction over foreign states under the direct effect clause requires exploring the interaction between constitutional law and principles of international law. The minimum contacts analysis highlights the tension between applying constitutional due process protection to a foreign state, while simultaneously asserting jurisdiction over its commercial activities. Denying jurisdiction over a foreign ...


The Legal Determinants Of Health: Harnessing The Power Of Law For Global Health And Sustainable Development, Lawrence O. Gostin, John T. Monahan, Jenny Kaldor, Mary DeBartolo, Eric A. Friedman, Katie Gottschalk, Susan C. Kim, Ala Alwan, Agnes Binagwaho, Gian Luca Burci, Luisa Cabal, Katherine DeLand, Timothy Grant Evans, Eric Goosby, Sara Hossain, Howard Koh, Gorik Ooms, Mirta Roses Periago, Rodrigo Uprimny, Alicia E. Yamin 2019 Georgetown University Law Center

The Legal Determinants Of Health: Harnessing The Power Of Law For Global Health And Sustainable Development, Lawrence O. Gostin, John T. Monahan, Jenny Kaldor, Mary Debartolo, Eric A. Friedman, Katie Gottschalk, Susan C. Kim, Ala Alwan, Agnes Binagwaho, Gian Luca Burci, Luisa Cabal, Katherine Deland, Timothy Grant Evans, Eric Goosby, Sara Hossain, Howard Koh, Gorik Ooms, Mirta Roses Periago, Rodrigo Uprimny, Alicia E. Yamin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Health risks in the 21st century are beyond the control of any country. In an era of globalization, promoting public health and equity requires cooperation and coordination both within and among states. Law can be a powerful tool for advancing global health, yet it remains significantly underutilised and poorly understood. Working in partnership, public health lawyers and health professionals can become champions for evidence-based laws to ensure the public’s health and safety.

The O'Neill Institute/Georgetown University Lancet Commission on Law and Global Health articulates the vital role of law – through legal instruments, legal capacities, and institutional reforms ...


Deliberation And Decision-Making Process In The Inter-American Court Of Human Rights: Do Individual Opinions Matter?, Ranieri L. Resende 2019 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Deliberation And Decision-Making Process In The Inter-American Court Of Human Rights: Do Individual Opinions Matter?, Ranieri L. Resende

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

The work is focused on the adjudicatory nature of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and investigates its model of deliberation, considering three basic schemes: per curiam, seriatim and hybrid. In order to identify an institutional pattern, the importance of individual opinions is analyzed through the quantitative performance of each category of judge (ad hoc and regular), as well as each type of adjudicative activity (judgments and advisory opinions). The quantitative data is also useful to better understand the explicit assimilation of separate opinions to the core reasoning of future cases. As a result, it has been possible to identify ...


Navigating The Moral Minefields Of Human Rights Advocacy In The Global South, Sandra L. Babcock 2019 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Navigating The Moral Minefields Of Human Rights Advocacy In The Global South, Sandra L. Babcock

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

No abstract provided.


North Korean Defectors In South Korea And Asylum Seekers In The United States: A Comparison, Emma Poorman 2019 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

North Korean Defectors In South Korea And Asylum Seekers In The United States: A Comparison, Emma Poorman

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

North Korean defectors are considered citizens of South Korea under the South Korean Constitution, while others that flee violence gain the legal status of “refugee.” North Korean defectors, who attempt to escape one of the worst human rights crises in the world, find themselves in a unique situation. What benefits does this status have? How are refugees typically treated abroad, such as in the United States? This Comment will explore this unique status, how it differs from refugee status in the United States, and the challenges North Korean defectors face in South Korea.


Does Customary International Tax Law Exist?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah 2019 University of Michigan Law School

Does Customary International Tax Law Exist?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

Customary international law is law that “results from a general and consistent practice of states followed by them from a sense of legal obligation.” “International agreements create law for states parties thereto and may lead to the creation of customary international law when such agreements are intended for adherence by states generally and are in fact widely accepted.” Does customary international law (CIL) exist in tax? There are over 3,000 bilateral tax treaties, and they are about 80% identical to each other, but do they create CIL that binds in the absence of a binding treaty, like for example ...


Free Speech On The World Wide Web: A Comparison Between French And United States Policy With A Focus On Uejf V. Yahoo Inc., Pamela G. Smith 2019 Selected Works

Free Speech On The World Wide Web: A Comparison Between French And United States Policy With A Focus On Uejf V. Yahoo Inc., Pamela G. Smith

Pamela G. Smith

No abstract provided.


Global Standards For Securities Holding Infrastructures: A Soft Law/Fintech Model For Reform, Charles W. Mooney Jr. 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Global Standards For Securities Holding Infrastructures: A Soft Law/Fintech Model For Reform, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article outlines a “soft-law-to-hard-law” approach for the development and implementation of reforms to systems for the holding of publicly traded securities. It proposes the development of global standards for securities holding systems (“Global Standards”), to be led by the International Organization of Securities Commissions (the “IOSCO”). This approach contemplates that States would be encouraged and expected to implement the Global Standards by adopting “hard law” reforms through statutory and regulatory adjustments to their securities holding systems as well as modifications of the architecture of their securities holding systems. The successes of past IOSCO initiatives inspire this Article’s proposal ...


The Dialogic Aspect Of Soft Law In International Insolvency: Discord, Digression, And Development, John A. E. Pottow 2019 University of Michigan Law School

The Dialogic Aspect Of Soft Law In International Insolvency: Discord, Digression, And Development, John A. E. Pottow

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this study, I describe three important articles in the IRJ model law and discuss their development, drawing in part upon my experience as a delegate to UNCITRAL Working Group V. In doing so, I want to situate these developments within the broader discussions of international law and international relations theory regarding soft law. Doing so will both vindicate and puzzle some of the conventional understanding of how soft law instruments tend to function, although some of the conclusions must necessarily be conjectural at this stage.


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