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25,934 full-text articles. Page 535 of 545.

Illustrating Illegitimate Lawfare, Michael A. Newton 2010 Vanderbilt University Law School

Illustrating Illegitimate Lawfare, Michael A. Newton

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Lawfare that erodes the good faith application of the laws and customs of warfare is illegitimate and untenable. This essay outlines the contours of such illegitimate lawfare and provides current examples to guide practitioners. Clearly addressing the terminological imprecision in current understandings of lawfare, this essay is intended to help prevent further erosion of the corpus of jus in bello. Words matter, particularly when they are charged with legal significance and purport to convey legal rights and obligations. When purported legal “developments” actually undermine respect for the application and enforcement of humanitarian law, they are illegitimate. Although the laws and ...


Don't Tread On Me: Has The United States Government's Quest For Customer Records From Ubs Sounded The Death Knell For Swiss Bank Secrecy Laws, Bradley J. Bondi 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Don't Tread On Me: Has The United States Government's Quest For Customer Records From Ubs Sounded The Death Knell For Swiss Bank Secrecy Laws, Bradley J. Bondi

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Privacy protection is a defining characteristic of Swiss culture and a pillar of the Swiss economy. For centuries, the Swiss people have coveted the principles of individual privacy, regularly reaffirming those principles in response to referendums designed to limit them. Swiss banking secrecy, one aspect of privacy, is protected by Swiss criminal and civil laws and professional duties. Swiss banks pride themselves on protecting customer identity and have leveraged their legal and cultural commitment to secrecy to gain a competitive advantage in the global banking market. This brief Article discusses the Swiss banking laws that prohibit a Swiss bank from ...


Rethinking The Foreign Direct Investment Process And Incentives In Post-Conflict Transition Countries, Kojo Yelpaala 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Rethinking The Foreign Direct Investment Process And Incentives In Post-Conflict Transition Countries, Kojo Yelpaala

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Burdened by the remnants of conflict, continuing threats of security lapses, significant market failures and weak institutions, post-conflict transition countries can hardly be described as normal economies. The task of transforming them into vibrant, productive, and self-sustaining economies is no simple assignment. Constructing the blueprint for reconstruction and economic development requires creativity of the first order. Conventional theories or pure neo-liberal market driven policy levers preached by the Washington Consensus Group are not likely to be productive. The design of the investment regime for development should therefore focus on non-conventional policy constructs. Contrary to the received theories, the history and ...


The Significance Of South-South Bits For The International Investment Regime: A Quantitative Analysis, Lauge Skovgaard Poulsen 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

The Significance Of South-South Bits For The International Investment Regime: A Quantitative Analysis, Lauge Skovgaard Poulsen

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Initially, bilateral investment treaties ("BITs") were intended as legal instruments to promote and protect investments from rich capital exporting states to the developing world. While BITs signed between developing countries (hereinafter South-South BITs) began to emerge from the mid-1960s onwards with the 1964 Kuwait-Iraq BIT, a typical BIT was until recently negotiated between a developed and a developing country (hereinafter North-South BITs). In order to examine these questions, this paper will investigate whether there are systematic differences in investment-rule making between South-South and North-South BITs. As noted by UNCTAD in its cursory review of South-South BITs, such an analysis has ...


Law Without Order In Chinese Corporate Governance Institutions, Donald C. Clarke 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Law Without Order In Chinese Corporate Governance Institutions, Donald C. Clarke

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The substantive norms of Chinese corporate governance have been studied extensively inside and outside China. Yet much less attention has been paid to the Chinese institutional environment that determines whether and how far those norms will be made meaningful. While complaints about general lack of enforcement are common, less common are analyses that concretely tie institutional capacity to specific enforcement problems. This Article aims to fill that gap. It surveys a number of state and non-state channels for the enforcement of corporate governance rules and standards in China, from markets to regulatory bodies, looking at the specific capacities of each ...


Short Selling In A Financial Crisis: The Regulation Of Short Sales In The United Kingdom And The United States, Katherine McGavin 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Short Selling In A Financial Crisis: The Regulation Of Short Sales In The United Kingdom And The United States, Katherine Mcgavin

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

In a well-regulated market with minimal risk of abuse, the liquidity and information efficiency benefits of short selling far outweigh its potential harm. Contrary to the recent hostility short sellers face from market regulators and the popular press, short sellers in aggregate are neither market villains nor agents of destruction. While a small minority of short sellers have exploited lax regulation and inattentive enforcement of anti-abuse rules to manipulate stock prices and earn substantial fees, these rare episodes suggest that the world's major capital markets need better enforcement of existing rules and not new rules per se. The failure ...


Private Commercialization Of Space In An International Regime: A Proposal For A Space District, Zach Meyer 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Private Commercialization Of Space In An International Regime: A Proposal For A Space District, Zach Meyer

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The Soviet Union inaugurated the Space Age in 1957 with the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik I, into the Earth's orbit. Human activity in space, once only a dream, had become reality. The hope for human advancement was immense. However, over the past five decades, the progress of the Space Age has not matched the measure of that hope. National space agencies have slowly and inefficiently explored and developed the space frontier. But, the success of a recent private competition suggests a better channel for facilitating space exploration and development: private commercial enterprise. However, certain problems are ...


Federalism And Concurrent Jurisdiction In Global Markets: Why A Combination Of National And State Antitrust Enforcement Is A Model For Effective Economic Regulation, Katherine Mason Jones 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Federalism And Concurrent Jurisdiction In Global Markets: Why A Combination Of National And State Antitrust Enforcement Is A Model For Effective Economic Regulation, Katherine Mason Jones

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The focus of the article is on the proper role of U.S. state governments in regulating international business. The specific issue analyzed is the desirability of having state attorneys general enforce federal antitrust laws in global markets concurrently with federal antitrust regulators. Congress granted state officials this power in 1976. In 2009, however, a large proportion of the world's commerce is now conducted in international, rather than national markets. This development has led Judge Richard A. Posner and others to advocate that the states be stripped of their statutory power to enforce federal antitrust laws on behalf of ...


Coping With Uncertainty: The Role Of Contracts In Russian Industry During The Transition To The Market, Kathryn Hendley 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Coping With Uncertainty: The Role Of Contracts In Russian Industry During The Transition To The Market, Kathryn Hendley

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

In the decade following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia earned a reputation for being a chaotic environment for business. Some commentators went so far as to label it as the "Wild East," a scary place where law was largely irrelevant and criminal gangs held sway. In a series of articles, I have begun to fill this gap in the literature by exploring the day-to-day reality of life for industrial enterprises in Yeltsin's Russia. The picture that emerges is more nuanced than the stereotype of industry beholden to the mafia that the popular media has perpetuated. In this ...


Transparency In Lending In The United States And The United Kingdom: Which Business Model Does It Best, Mara Hart 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Transparency In Lending In The United States And The United Kingdom: Which Business Model Does It Best, Mara Hart

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The recent downturn of the global economy, spurred in large part by an unparalleled housing crisis and credit crunch in the United States and abroad, cannot be practicably understood or explained by an examination of isolated factors. Although the impact of the economic downturn has been felt globally, many blame the meltdown of the U.S. subprime mortgage market for their individual country's woes. Therefore, the mortgage regulatory scheme in the United States, in terms of lending practices and housing policies, is an important place to begin an inquiry into the origins of the global crisis. In order to ...


Lowering The Cost Of Rent: How Ifrs And The Convergence Of Corporate Governance Standards Can Help Foreign Issuers Raise Capital In The United States And Abroad, Kyle W. Pine 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Lowering The Cost Of Rent: How Ifrs And The Convergence Of Corporate Governance Standards Can Help Foreign Issuers Raise Capital In The United States And Abroad, Kyle W. Pine

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Since the early 1990s the United States has experienced a dramatic growth in the number of foreign firms choosing to trade their shares in U.S. markets. Meanwhile, Europe and other markets have not experienced this effect to the same extent. there has been an observable worldwide growth in stock market capitalization since the 1990s with an increasing number of foreign issuers choosing to cross-list their shares abroad, usually in the United States. Traditional explanations for why firms choose to cross-list have focused primarily on access to trade in more liquid markets. A more convincing theory for why firms cross-list ...


U.S. International Tax System At A Crossroads, Barbara Angus, Tom Neubig, Eric Solomon, Mark Weinberger 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

U.S. International Tax System At A Crossroads, Barbara Angus, Tom Neubig, Eric Solomon, Mark Weinberger

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The current U.S. international tax system, the administration's international tax proposals, and other potential international tax reforms all have ramifications for U.S. businesses, American workers, and the U.S. economy that must be fully discussed and understood. This report focuses on some of the most important facts and perspectives that should be considered as part of that discussion. This process starts by asking, at a minimum, questions like these: (1) How have the dynamics of the global economy changed? (2) What role should differences between the U.S. tax system and those of other countries play in ...


President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board: Suggested Considerations In Fundamental Reform Of The United States Tax Treatment Of Income From Cross Border Trade And Investment, Robert H. Dilworth 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board: Suggested Considerations In Fundamental Reform Of The United States Tax Treatment Of Income From Cross Border Trade And Investment, Robert H. Dilworth

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board ("PERAB") has as part of its mandated inquiry the reform of the U.S. tax treatment of income from cross border trade and investment. This paper sets forth a short set of recommendations as to tax reform methodology and some substantive proposals. Tax reform should not "start over," or undertake significant changes, without a fairly detailed understanding of what the present regime actually does, or does not do, and identifying the relationship (if any) between the various existing provisions and whatever "the problem" is perceived to be. The present architecture results from the ...


Credit Vs. Exemption: A Comparative Study Of Double Tax Relief In The United States And Japan, Lawrence Lokken, Yoshimi Kitamura 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Credit Vs. Exemption: A Comparative Study Of Double Tax Relief In The United States And Japan, Lawrence Lokken, Yoshimi Kitamura

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The overriding issue in international taxation is the problem of double taxation. Under the tax laws of most countries, income may be taxed on the basis of either residence or source. That is, a country may tax residents of the country on worldwide income and may tax nonresidents on income from sources within the country. Thus, if a resident of one country has income from a business activity or investment in another country, the person may be taxed on the income on a residence basis by its home country and on a source basis in the other country. Most countries ...


International Tax Reform Should Begin At Home: Replace The Corporate Income Tax With A Territorial Expenditure, William B. Barker 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

International Tax Reform Should Begin At Home: Replace The Corporate Income Tax With A Territorial Expenditure, William B. Barker

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The present U.S. system of international taxation is riddled with problems because it does not satisfy critical principles of economics, justice, or common sense. It fails to accomplish the most important goals that an international system should achieve - that is, protecting the domestic tax base in a way that fosters domestic economic development and the creation of jobs. This paper explores alternatives to the present system to see if they do a better job. Some of the alternatives fail for the same reasons as the present system because they are predicated on the same outmoded theories. Some are clearly ...


Transfer Pricing And Fin 48: Removing Uncertainty Through The Advanced Pricing Agreement Process, Christopher Capuzzi 2010 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Transfer Pricing And Fin 48: Removing Uncertainty Through The Advanced Pricing Agreement Process, Christopher Capuzzi

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The increasing globalization of companies is indisputable, and the multinational enterprise offers many heuristic challenges. Among these are jurisdiction-specific taxation and accounting standards and principles. Enterprises often operate without regard to legal entity structures but rather along business lines. While entities may operate without regard to jurisdictional lines, local taxing and accounting regimes are steadfast on ensuring adherence to their respective principles. Chief among these is ensuring that there is a proper allocation of the tax base. The proper allocation of the tax base has long been at the forefront of concerns, so much so that normative transfer pricing principles ...


Disintegrating Customary International Law: Reactions To Withdrawing From International Custom, Christiana Ochoa 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Disintegrating Customary International Law: Reactions To Withdrawing From International Custom, Christiana Ochoa

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Withdrawing from International Custom, a recent article by Curtis Bradley and Mitu Gulati, has sparked interest and debate. Bradley and Gulati’s article, develops with significant nuance and detail that, naturally, can be best understood by a careful reading of their work. In essence, it proposes a modification in customary international law (CIL) doctrine – a change that would permit states to unilaterally exit from existing customary international law. This Essay will act as a brief reflection on that article. In Part I, it will explore the analogies Withdrawing makes between CIL and contract and will argue, first that CIL and ...


Accountability For System Criminality, Mark A. Drumbl 2010 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Accountability For System Criminality, Mark A. Drumbl

Scholarly Articles

Not available.


Victor's Justice: Selecting "Situations" At The International Criminal Court, 43 J. Marshall L. Rev. 535 (2010), William A. Schabas 2010 John Marshall Law School

Victor's Justice: Selecting "Situations" At The International Criminal Court, 43 J. Marshall L. Rev. 535 (2010), William A. Schabas

The John Marshall Law Review

No abstract provided.


International Criminal Courts And The Making Of Public International Law: New Roles For International Organizations And Individuals, 43 J. Marshall L. Rev. 603 (2010), Kenneth S. Gallant 2010 John Marshall Law School

International Criminal Courts And The Making Of Public International Law: New Roles For International Organizations And Individuals, 43 J. Marshall L. Rev. 603 (2010), Kenneth S. Gallant

The John Marshall Law Review

No abstract provided.


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