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An Examination Of The Legal Question Of Shooting Down Hijacked Planes Through An Emphasis On Past Passenger Aircraft Incidents, Joseph Stuhlmann 2019 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

An Examination Of The Legal Question Of Shooting Down Hijacked Planes Through An Emphasis On Past Passenger Aircraft Incidents, Joseph Stuhlmann

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


The Rule Of Law And The Exploitation Of Children In Africa, John Mukum Mbaku 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

The Rule Of Law And The Exploitation Of Children In Africa, John Mukum Mbaku

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

The abuse and exploitation of children is a major public policy priority for all African countries. Throughout the continent, children are routinely abused and exploited as sex objects; tools in the production of various goods, including cocoa, gold, and various minerals, as well as, services, such as pornography and prostitution; and, as child soldiers to fight in sectarian conflicts and civil wars. Children in Africa are exploited and abused by both domestic and external or foreign actors and these include, but are not limited to, family members and community leaders, foreign tourists who seek the continent’s children for sex ...


Prefatory Matter, 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Prefatory Matter

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Pharmaceutical Industry Funding To Patient-Advocacy Organizations: A Cross-National Comparison Of Disclosure Codes And Regulation, Laura Karas, Robin Feldman, Ge Bai, So Yeon Kang, Gerard F. Anderson 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Pharmaceutical Industry Funding To Patient-Advocacy Organizations: A Cross-National Comparison Of Disclosure Codes And Regulation, Laura Karas, Robin Feldman, Ge Bai, So Yeon Kang, Gerard F. Anderson

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Transparency has become one of the primary themes in health care reform efforts in the United States and across the world. In the face of exorbitant drug prices, high levels of patient cost-sharing, and pharmaceutical expenditures that consume a growing proportion of public sector budgets, much attention has been drawn to the pharmaceutical industry. Congressional investigations, academic publications, and news articles have endeavored to reveal the extent of drug and device industry influence on health care actors. In response, several nations, including the United States, have passed legislation mandating disclosure of drug company payments to physicians. In the United States ...


Legislating The Right-To-Die With Dignity In A Confucian Society—Taiwan’S Patient Right To Autonomy Act, Chih-hsiung Chen 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Legislating The Right-To-Die With Dignity In A Confucian Society—Taiwan’S Patient Right To Autonomy Act, Chih-Hsiung Chen

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

In Confucian societies, people tend to avoid the discussion on death matters, let alone making advance directives to reject life-sustaining treatments at the end of life. Taiwan might be a pioneer in legislating the right-to-die with dignity among Confucian countries. As early as 2000, the Hospice Palliative Care Act was declared in Taiwan, which give terminally-ill patients the options to forgo life-sustaining treatments. Furthermore, in 2016, Taiwan passed the Patient Right to Autonomy Act to enhance patients’ choice at the end of life and expanded the coverage to certain types of nonterminally ill patients. On the other hand, end-of-life issues ...


Organ Donations: Why The Gift Of Life Ideology Is Losing Lives, Dylan Fukai 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Organ Donations: Why The Gift Of Life Ideology Is Losing Lives, Dylan Fukai

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

As people around the world continue to die on organ transplant waiting lists, the international community sits idly by, hoping that human kindness will solve the growing need for organs. Current altruistic systems have proven to be inadequate to close the gap between the high demand for organs and the limited supply of legally available organs. The international community’s aversion toward legal organ sales and the current issues stemming from the illegal organ market continue to impede progress toward saving lives. However, some nations have begun to transition from strictly altruistic organ transplantation systems. One example of a non-altruistic ...


Classification Of Cyber Capabilities And Operations As Weapons, Means, Or Methods Of Warfare, Jeffrey T. Biller, Michael N. Schmitt 2019 Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Air Force

Classification Of Cyber Capabilities And Operations As Weapons, Means, Or Methods Of Warfare, Jeffrey T. Biller, Michael N. Schmitt

International Law Studies

Despite several persistent controversies regarding how international law applies to cyber operations during an armed conflict, general understanding of the law in this domain is maturing. Reasoning by analogy to non-cyber application and interpretation of international law underlies much of the progress. Yet, although preexisting normative structures and legal terminology enable legal advisors and scholars to usefully draw upon previously acquired experience and understanding, there are obstacles to definitive analogizing that result from fundamental differences between cyber and kinetic operations. The number of imperfect analogies that underlie some of the normative uncertainty in the field underscores this point.

One key ...


Grinding Down The Edges Of The Free Expression Right In Hong Kong, Stuart Hargreaves 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Grinding Down The Edges Of The Free Expression Right In Hong Kong, Stuart Hargreaves

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In the liberal-democratic tradition limits on speech must be clear, precise, and subject to justification within the particular constitutional framework of a given jurisdiction. In the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), the Court of Final Appeal has developed a line of jurisprudence that explains under which circumstances the Government of Hong Kong (Government) may seek to limit the free speech provisions contained within the Basic Law, Hong Kong's quasi-constitution. In its fight against ‘localists,’ however, rather than legislating a clear speech restriction that is consistent with this jurisprudence, the Government has instead attempted to suppress unwelcome political speech ...


Trade Secret Protection In Japan And The United States: Comparison And Recommendations, Thomas Landman 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Trade Secret Protection In Japan And The United States: Comparison And Recommendations, Thomas Landman

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Trade secret law is a vital, yet often misunderstood, form of intellectual property law. As economic superpowers, both Japan and the United States realize that effective trade secret protection is essential for the prosperity of their domestic economies, and both nations have enacted laws to protect their trade secrets. While both Japan and the United States are signatories to the TRIPS agreement and therefore provide a shared baseline standard of trade secret protection, cultural and systemic differences between the two nations have resulted in differences in the way each nation implements its trade secret laws. This Note traces the history ...


Forging Taiwan’S Legal Identity, Margaret K. Lewis 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Forging Taiwan’S Legal Identity, Margaret K. Lewis

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The legal system in Taiwan is undergoing a transformation. Over a hundred years since the founding of the Republic of China and over thirty years since the end of martial law on Taiwan, a new legal identity is being forged. Public criticism of “dinosaur” judges and esoteric debates among law-trained elites have galvanized efforts to create a more inclusive discussion surrounding legal reforms. Taiwan is facing the challenge of moving from dinosaurs to dynamism. This Article argues that transparency, clarity, and participation both are animating principles of the current reform debate and are beginning to emerge as characteristics of Taiwan ...


A Third Way Of Thinking About Cultural Property, Lucas Lixinski 2019 Brooklyn Law School

A Third Way Of Thinking About Cultural Property, Lucas Lixinski

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The article argues that the dichotomy between nationalism and internationalism with respect to cultural property, while formative, has outlived its utility, and in many respects compromised the viability of the public good it aims to safeguard. Focused on the example of cultural property in international law, this article argues for more community-centric forms of governance, beyond the interests of states and an undefined “international.” It extrapolates the lessons from cultural property to other forms of resource governance in international law.


Roots Of Revolution: The African National Congress And Gay Liberation In South Africa, Joseph S. Jackson 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Roots Of Revolution: The African National Congress And Gay Liberation In South Africa, Joseph S. Jackson

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

South Africa’s post-apartheid constitutions were the first in the world to contain an explicit prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, and that prohibition established the foundation for marriage equality and broad judicial and legislative protection of gay rights in South Africa. The source of this gay rights clause in the South African Constitution can be found in the African National Congress’s decision to include such a clause in the ANC’s A Bill of Rights for a New South Africa, published when the apartheid government of South Africa was still in power. This article traces the ...


“Why Did Constantinople Get The Works? That’S Nobody’S Business But The Turks.” A New Approach To Cultural Property Claims And Geographic Renaming Under The 1970 Unesco Convention, Kasey Theresa Mahoney 2019 Brooklyn Law School

“Why Did Constantinople Get The Works? That’S Nobody’S Business But The Turks.” A New Approach To Cultural Property Claims And Geographic Renaming Under The 1970 Unesco Convention, Kasey Theresa Mahoney

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The landscape of cultural property and cultural heritage discourse is continually evolving, and the traditional means of regulating disputes must not only be adapted to the current climate but proactively address foreseeable future concerns. This Note explores the Republic of Turkey’s increasing litigiousness with regard to its reparation claims and, further, considers the notion of culture as geographic boundaries transform over the course of time. This Note will analyze the leading international cultural property treaty, the 1970 UNESCO Convention, and recommend UNESCO adopt two mandates to curb the chilling effect current litigation has had on the preservation and dissemination ...


Safeguarding Democracy In Europe: A Bulwark Against Hungary’S Subversion Of Civil Society, Hannah J. Sarokin 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Safeguarding Democracy In Europe: A Bulwark Against Hungary’S Subversion Of Civil Society, Hannah J. Sarokin

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Spurred in large part by a mounting humanitarian crisis in Syria, the 2015 migrant crisis exposed deeply rooted fractures within the European Union regarding refugee resettlement. While the European Union worked to develop a synchronized response to the influx of refugees and asylees, Hungary defiantly sought to close its borders. In doing so, the Hungarian government targeted not only those seeking refuge, but its own civil society. In a series of opaque and overtly punitive legislative acts passed in the summer of 2018, Hungary criminalized any civil society activities that facilitate or assist with immigration. This Note will analyze the ...


The Plight Of Georgia: Russian Occupation And The Energy Charter Treaty, Jennessa M. Lever 2019 Brooklyn Law School

The Plight Of Georgia: Russian Occupation And The Energy Charter Treaty, Jennessa M. Lever

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

After the Five-Day Russo-Georgian War, Russia usurped Georgian separatist territories, including a stretch of the Baku-Supsa Pipeline which provides gas to Europe. The continued occupation by Russia endangers Georgian sovereignty, natural resources, and economic security and puts Europe’s gas security at risk. The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), through provisional application, provides a unique opportunity to assist Georgia’s battle for territorial integrity. This Note will examine the ECT’s ability to provide a pathway for Georgian economic and energy security by holding Russia accountable for violations of the ECT and removing Russia’s stronghold on the region.


Comparative Analysis Of The Eu’S Gdpr And Brazil’S Lgpd: Enforcement Challenges With The Lgpd, Abigayle Erickson 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Comparative Analysis Of The Eu’S Gdpr And Brazil’S Lgpd: Enforcement Challenges With The Lgpd, Abigayle Erickson

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In the wake of the adoption of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018, other countries and jurisdictions have contemplated personal data privacy legislation. In August 2018, the former president of Brazil, Michel Temer, signed the country’s comprehensive data privacy regulation, Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados Pessoais (LGPD), into law. Temer, however, vetoed many of the enforcement provisions. Shortly before leaving office, Temer signed an executive order creating a regulatory agency as the bill initially called for, but situated the agency under executive control instead of creating a wholly independent agency. This Note ...


It's Complicated: The Challenge Of Prosecuting Tncs For Criminal Activity Under International Law, Jena Martin 2019 West Virginia University College of Law

It's Complicated: The Challenge Of Prosecuting Tncs For Criminal Activity Under International Law, Jena Martin

Faculty Scholarship

This essay aims to tackle an increasingly thorny and relevant issue: what do you do if a Transnational Corporation (TNC) commits a crime? The question raises a number of challenges, both philosophically and practically. First, what does it mean to prosecute an organization? Although there are some limited examples (the United States’ prosecution of accounting firm Arthur Andersen being among the most note-worthy), we have relatively little precedence regarding what this would entail; how exactly do you put a corporation on trial? Second, practically speaking, where do you hold the trial? This challenge is magnified by the fact that, by ...


Regulating China's Ecommerce: Harmonizations Of Laws, Pinghui Xiao 2019 Law School, Guangzhou University, China

Regulating China's Ecommerce: Harmonizations Of Laws, Pinghui Xiao

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Internet commercialization began in China in 1995. Since then, China has seen a digitalization movement, which has become a joint undertaking between industry and government in the age of ubiquitous Internet in China. China’s Premier Li Keqiang announced ‘Internet Plus’ as the national strategy in his Government Work Report presented during the Two Sessions of the year of 2015. Following Premier Li’s vision for the ‘Internet Plus’ Strategy, China is now determined “to integrate mobile Internet, cloud computing, big data, and the Internet of Things with modern manufacturing, to encourage the healthy development of e-commerce, industrial networks, and ...


A Collision Course Between Trips Flexibilities And Investor-State Proceedings, Cynthia M. Ho 2019 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

A Collision Course Between Trips Flexibilities And Investor-State Proceedings, Cynthia M. Ho

Cynthia M Ho

This Article discusses an important, yet understudied threat to patent, as well as other intellectual property sovereignty under TRIPS: pending and potential challenges by companies under international agreements protecting investments. Although such agreements have existed for decades, Philip Morris and Eli Lilly are blazing a new path for companies to sue countries they claim interfere with their intellectual property rights through so-called investor-state arbitrations. These suits seek hundreds of millions in compensation and even injunctive relief for alleged violations of internationally agreed intellectual property norms. The suits fundamentally challenge TRIPS flexibilities at the very time the Declaration on Patent Protection ...


Backlash Against International Courts In West, East And Southern Africa: Causes And Consequences, Karen J. Alter, James T. Gathii, Laurence R. Helfer 2019 Duke Law School

Backlash Against International Courts In West, East And Southern Africa: Causes And Consequences, Karen J. Alter, James T. Gathii, Laurence R. Helfer

James T Gathii

This paper discusses three credible attempts by African governments to restrict the jurisdiction of three similarly-situated sub-regional courts in response to politically controversial rulings. In West Africa, when the ECOWAS Court upheld allegations of torture by opposition journalists in the Gambia, that country’s political leaders sought to restrict the Court’s power to review human rights complaints. The other member states ultimately defeated the Gambia’s proposal. In East Africa, Kenya failed in its efforts to eliminate the EACJ and to remove some of its judges after a decision challenging an election to a sub-regional legislature. However, the member ...


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