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25,930 full-text articles. Page 10 of 544.

A Third Way Of Thinking About Cultural Property, Lucas Lixinski 2019 Brooklyn Law School

A Third Way Of Thinking About Cultural Property, Lucas Lixinski

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The article argues that the dichotomy between nationalism and internationalism with respect to cultural property, while formative, has outlived its utility, and in many respects compromised the viability of the public good it aims to safeguard. Focused on the example of cultural property in international law, this article argues for more community-centric forms of governance, beyond the interests of states and an undefined “international.” It extrapolates the lessons from cultural property to other forms of resource governance in international law.


“Why Did Constantinople Get The Works? That’S Nobody’S Business But The Turks.” A New Approach To Cultural Property Claims And Geographic Renaming Under The 1970 Unesco Convention, Kasey Theresa Mahoney 2019 Brooklyn Law School

“Why Did Constantinople Get The Works? That’S Nobody’S Business But The Turks.” A New Approach To Cultural Property Claims And Geographic Renaming Under The 1970 Unesco Convention, Kasey Theresa Mahoney

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The landscape of cultural property and cultural heritage discourse is continually evolving, and the traditional means of regulating disputes must not only be adapted to the current climate but proactively address foreseeable future concerns. This Note explores the Republic of Turkey’s increasing litigiousness with regard to its reparation claims and, further, considers the notion of culture as geographic boundaries transform over the course of time. This Note will analyze the leading international cultural property treaty, the 1970 UNESCO Convention, and recommend UNESCO adopt two mandates to curb the chilling effect current litigation has had on the preservation and dissemination ...


Comparative Analysis Of The Eu’S Gdpr And Brazil’S Lgpd: Enforcement Challenges With The Lgpd, Abigayle Erickson 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Comparative Analysis Of The Eu’S Gdpr And Brazil’S Lgpd: Enforcement Challenges With The Lgpd, Abigayle Erickson

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In the wake of the adoption of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018, other countries and jurisdictions have contemplated personal data privacy legislation. In August 2018, the former president of Brazil, Michel Temer, signed the country’s comprehensive data privacy regulation, Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados Pessoais (LGPD), into law. Temer, however, vetoed many of the enforcement provisions. Shortly before leaving office, Temer signed an executive order creating a regulatory agency as the bill initially called for, but situated the agency under executive control instead of creating a wholly independent agency. This Note ...


Commercial Surrogacy Is The Sale Of Children? An Argument That Commercial Surrogacy Does Not Violate International Treaties, Lily Johnson 2019 University of Washington School of Law

Commercial Surrogacy Is The Sale Of Children? An Argument That Commercial Surrogacy Does Not Violate International Treaties, Lily Johnson

Washington International Law Journal

Rates of commercial surrogacy have risen with the proliferation of in vitro fertilization. The process is unique in allowing intending parents the opportunity to raise a child of their own genetic material even if they cannot procreate through their own bodies. However, commercial surrogacy has been abused and caused physical and legal problems for all parties involved. In an attempt to remedy the problems associated commercial surrogacy, some scholars and humanitarians claim commercial surrogacy is already illegal under an international treaty that bans the sale of children. These legal scholars and human rights advocates argue that commercial surrogacy is the ...


It's Complicated: The Challenge Of Prosecuting Tncs For Criminal Activity Under International Law, Jena Martin 2019 West Virginia University College of Law

It's Complicated: The Challenge Of Prosecuting Tncs For Criminal Activity Under International Law, Jena Martin

Faculty Scholarship

This essay aims to tackle an increasingly thorny and relevant issue: what do you do if a Transnational Corporation (TNC) commits a crime? The question raises a number of challenges, both philosophically and practically. First, what does it mean to prosecute an organization? Although there are some limited examples (the United States’ prosecution of accounting firm Arthur Andersen being among the most note-worthy), we have relatively little precedence regarding what this would entail; how exactly do you put a corporation on trial? Second, practically speaking, where do you hold the trial? This challenge is magnified by the fact that, by ...


Regulating China's Ecommerce: Harmonizations Of Laws, Pinghui Xiao 2019 Law School, Guangzhou University, China

Regulating China's Ecommerce: Harmonizations Of Laws, Pinghui Xiao

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Internet commercialization began in China in 1995. Since then, China has seen a digitalization movement, which has become a joint undertaking between industry and government in the age of ubiquitous Internet in China. China’s Premier Li Keqiang announced ‘Internet Plus’ as the national strategy in his Government Work Report presented during the Two Sessions of the year of 2015. Following Premier Li’s vision for the ‘Internet Plus’ Strategy, China is now determined “to integrate mobile Internet, cloud computing, big data, and the Internet of Things with modern manufacturing, to encourage the healthy development of e-commerce, industrial networks, and ...


A Collision Course Between Trips Flexibilities And Investor-State Proceedings, Cynthia M. Ho 2019 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

A Collision Course Between Trips Flexibilities And Investor-State Proceedings, Cynthia M. Ho

Cynthia M Ho

This Article discusses an important, yet understudied threat to patent, as well as other intellectual property sovereignty under TRIPS: pending and potential challenges by companies under international agreements protecting investments. Although such agreements have existed for decades, Philip Morris and Eli Lilly are blazing a new path for companies to sue countries they claim interfere with their intellectual property rights through so-called investor-state arbitrations. These suits seek hundreds of millions in compensation and even injunctive relief for alleged violations of internationally agreed intellectual property norms. The suits fundamentally challenge TRIPS flexibilities at the very time the Declaration on Patent Protection ...


Backlash Against International Courts In West, East And Southern Africa: Causes And Consequences, Karen J. Alter, James T. Gathii, Laurence R. Helfer 2019 Duke Law School

Backlash Against International Courts In West, East And Southern Africa: Causes And Consequences, Karen J. Alter, James T. Gathii, Laurence R. Helfer

James T Gathii

This paper discusses three credible attempts by African governments to restrict the jurisdiction of three similarly-situated sub-regional courts in response to politically controversial rulings. In West Africa, when the ECOWAS Court upheld allegations of torture by opposition journalists in the Gambia, that country’s political leaders sought to restrict the Court’s power to review human rights complaints. The other member states ultimately defeated the Gambia’s proposal. In East Africa, Kenya failed in its efforts to eliminate the EACJ and to remove some of its judges after a decision challenging an election to a sub-regional legislature. However, the member ...


The Variation In The Use Of Sub-Regional Integration Courts Between Business And Human Rights Actors: The Case Of The East African Court Of Justice, James T. Gathii 2019 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

The Variation In The Use Of Sub-Regional Integration Courts Between Business And Human Rights Actors: The Case Of The East African Court Of Justice, James T. Gathii

James T Gathii

No abstract provided.


Strength In Intellectual Property Protection And Foreign Direct Investment Flows In Least Developed Countries, James T. Gathii 2019 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Strength In Intellectual Property Protection And Foreign Direct Investment Flows In Least Developed Countries, James T. Gathii

James T Gathii

No abstract provided.


Saving The Serengeti: Africa's New International Judicial Environmentalism, James T. Gathii 2019 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Saving The Serengeti: Africa's New International Judicial Environmentalism, James T. Gathii

James T Gathii

This Article analyzes recent environmental law decisions of Africa's fledgling international courts. In 2014, for example, the East African Court of Justice stopped the government of Tanzania from building a road across Serengeti National Park because of its potential adverse environmental impacts. Decisions like these have inaugurated a new era of enhanced environmental judicial protection in Africa. This expansion into environmental law decision-making by Africa's international trade courts contrasts with other international courts that are designed to specialize on one issue area such as human rights or international trade, but not both. By contrast, Africa's international courts ...


Intending The Worst: The Case Of Isis’S Specific Intent To Destroy The Christians Of Iraq, Eric Osborne, Matthew Dowd, Ryan McBrearty 2019 Pepperdine University

Intending The Worst: The Case Of Isis’S Specific Intent To Destroy The Christians Of Iraq, Eric Osborne, Matthew Dowd, Ryan Mcbrearty

Pepperdine Law Review

Genocide has been called the “crime of crimes.” That superlative is well-stated. Genocide is the intentional destruction of an entire people—a worse crime is almost beyond comprehension. The very word conjures some of the most horrific images in recorded history. And yet our legal understanding of this most-important crime is limited. Because the crime of genocide requires specific intent, even horrific atrocities will not qualify as genocide as a matter of law if done for a purpose other than the intended destruction of a target group. Thus whether actions qualify as genocide and what type of evidence is sufficient ...


Arbitration And Mediation In Cross Border Disputes: Possibilities And Limitations, Young Hye Chun 2019 Pepperdine University

Arbitration And Mediation In Cross Border Disputes: Possibilities And Limitations, Young Hye Chun

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Legal Fog Of An Illusion: Three Reflections On "Organization" And "Intensity" As Criteria For The Temporal Scope Of The Law Of Non-International Armed Conflict, Jann K. Kleffner 2019 Swedish Defence University

The Legal Fog Of An Illusion: Three Reflections On "Organization" And "Intensity" As Criteria For The Temporal Scope Of The Law Of Non-International Armed Conflict, Jann K. Kleffner

International Law Studies

The "organization" of the non-State armed group and the "intensity" of the violence between it and its opponent(s) have emerged as the two key criteria to determine the temporal scope of the law of non-international armed conflict. These criteria have served to lift the fog of law in some important respects. Yet, several aspects of the temporal scope of the law of non-international armed conflict remain unsettled. This article addresses three of them, namely the assertion that the factors for ascertaining organization and intensity that have evolved in the jurisprudence of international criminal courts and tribunals are indicative rather ...


Unforced Errors, Legal Fulcrum & International Climate, Steven Ferrey 2019 Suffolk University Law School

Unforced Errors, Legal Fulcrum & International Climate, Steven Ferrey

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Up To The Task: Utilizing Collaboration To Combat Trafficking In Persons, Claire Schalin 2019 Pepperdine University

Up To The Task: Utilizing Collaboration To Combat Trafficking In Persons, Claire Schalin

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

In this article, I will define trafficking and dispel some common myths that people believe about trafficking. This section will explain trafficking’s many forms and will demonstrate how trafficking can be a stationary crime rather than one requiring movement. Next, I will give a history of the legislation surrounding trafficking and common approaches to curbing the trafficking problem including arguments on both sides of decriminalization. In this section, I will present a country comparison on how different countries approach traffickers and victims of trafficking in their efforts to reduce trafficking in general. In addition to analyzing how varying countries ...


The Northern Ireland Broadcasting Ban: Some Reflections On Judicial Review, Geoffrey Bennett, Russell L. Weaver 2019 Notre Dame Law School

The Northern Ireland Broadcasting Ban: Some Reflections On Judicial Review, Geoffrey Bennett, Russell L. Weaver

Russell L. Weaver

This Essay initially examines the British government's ban on its broadcasting networks that restricts coverage of Northern Ireland organizations, and concludes by making some reflections on the system of judicial review in the United States. Professors Weaver and Bennett note that a comparable ban in the United States probably would be held unconstitutional. In Great Britain, however, the courts lack a similar power of judicial review, leaving the question of the Ban's legitimacy to the political process. While Great Britain enjoys a relatively free society, the authors conclude that government control over the British media poses troubling problems ...


Book Review: Crafted Legal Ambiguity In The South China Sea Arbitration, Ariel A. Hampton 2019 University of Maine School of Law

Book Review: Crafted Legal Ambiguity In The South China Sea Arbitration, Ariel A. Hampton

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

People may initial not see the area known as the South China Sea as worthy of the trouble of an Arbitral Tribunal proceeding courtesy of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), especially when they are unsure of the trouble it may bring. This area, rich in resources and firmly entrenched in various historical claims, became the subject of controversy between multiple nations. According to the NUS Centre for International Law in its book The South China Sea Arbitration: The Legal Dimension, the end to the controversy hinged on how the tribunal would choose to characterize ...


Sueños De Tánger: Extraterritorial Basque Crime Fiction On Immigration To Spain, Shanna Lino 2019 York University

Sueños De Tánger: Extraterritorial Basque Crime Fiction On Immigration To Spain, Shanna Lino

Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature

As the world increasingly turns its attention to the European refugee crisis and to the 1.8 million who have arrived on that continent since 2014 as a consequence of being forced to flee their native countries’ war-torn cities and villages, questions continue to arise regarding the ethical and political responsibilities of Western nations to facilitate this exodus and to provide refugee and immigration services en route and at destination. Spain remains the intended port of arrival for thousands of Malians, Mauritanians, Moroccans, and Western Saharans who sometimes manage to escape war and extreme poverty only to find themselves stalled ...


Biologics Under A New Nafta: How Tpp Fixed Nafta's Intellectual Property Provisions But Not Its Investment Provisions, Jordan Jensen 2019 Texas A&M University School of Law (Student)

Biologics Under A New Nafta: How Tpp Fixed Nafta's Intellectual Property Provisions But Not Its Investment Provisions, Jordan Jensen

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

Scientific developments, such as biologics and personalized medicine, have created an entirely new category of pharmaceutical drugs that were not considered when the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”) was adopted in 1994. However, the rise of biologics has increased demand for a reconfigured NAFTA, particularly with respect to Chapter 17, which outlines NAFTA’s robust intellectual property standards, as well as Chapter 11, which both lays out the framework for foreign investment under NAFTA and introduces a controversial mechanism referred to as the investor-state dispute settlement mechanism (“ISDS”). The intellectual property provisions of the original NAFTA should be revised ...


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