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The Rule Of Law And The Exploitation Of Children In Africa, John Mukum Mbaku 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

The Rule Of Law And The Exploitation Of Children In Africa, John Mukum Mbaku

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

The abuse and exploitation of children is a major public policy priority for all African countries. Throughout the continent, children are routinely abused and exploited as sex objects; tools in the production of various goods, including cocoa, gold, and various minerals, as well as, services, such as pornography and prostitution; and, as child soldiers to fight in sectarian conflicts and civil wars. Children in Africa are exploited and abused by both domestic and external or foreign actors and these include, but are not limited to, family members and community leaders, foreign tourists who seek the continent’s children for sex ...


Prefatory Matter, 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Prefatory Matter

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Pharmaceutical Industry Funding To Patient-Advocacy Organizations: A Cross-National Comparison Of Disclosure Codes And Regulation, Laura Karas, Robin Feldman, Ge Bai, So Yeon Kang, Gerard F. Anderson 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Pharmaceutical Industry Funding To Patient-Advocacy Organizations: A Cross-National Comparison Of Disclosure Codes And Regulation, Laura Karas, Robin Feldman, Ge Bai, So Yeon Kang, Gerard F. Anderson

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Transparency has become one of the primary themes in health care reform efforts in the United States and across the world. In the face of exorbitant drug prices, high levels of patient cost-sharing, and pharmaceutical expenditures that consume a growing proportion of public sector budgets, much attention has been drawn to the pharmaceutical industry. Congressional investigations, academic publications, and news articles have endeavored to reveal the extent of drug and device industry influence on health care actors. In response, several nations, including the United States, have passed legislation mandating disclosure of drug company payments to physicians. In the United States ...


Legislating The Right-To-Die With Dignity In A Confucian Society—Taiwan’S Patient Right To Autonomy Act, Chih-hsiung Chen 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Legislating The Right-To-Die With Dignity In A Confucian Society—Taiwan’S Patient Right To Autonomy Act, Chih-Hsiung Chen

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

In Confucian societies, people tend to avoid the discussion on death matters, let alone making advance directives to reject life-sustaining treatments at the end of life. Taiwan might be a pioneer in legislating the right-to-die with dignity among Confucian countries. As early as 2000, the Hospice Palliative Care Act was declared in Taiwan, which give terminally-ill patients the options to forgo life-sustaining treatments. Furthermore, in 2016, Taiwan passed the Patient Right to Autonomy Act to enhance patients’ choice at the end of life and expanded the coverage to certain types of nonterminally ill patients. On the other hand, end-of-life issues ...


Organ Donations: Why The Gift Of Life Ideology Is Losing Lives, Dylan Fukai 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Organ Donations: Why The Gift Of Life Ideology Is Losing Lives, Dylan Fukai

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

As people around the world continue to die on organ transplant waiting lists, the international community sits idly by, hoping that human kindness will solve the growing need for organs. Current altruistic systems have proven to be inadequate to close the gap between the high demand for organs and the limited supply of legally available organs. The international community’s aversion toward legal organ sales and the current issues stemming from the illegal organ market continue to impede progress toward saving lives. However, some nations have begun to transition from strictly altruistic organ transplantation systems. One example of a non-altruistic ...


Letter From The Editor, Lara Thiele 2019 University of Notre Dame Law School

Letter From The Editor, Lara Thiele

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Masthead Volume 9, 2019 Notre Dame Law School

Masthead Volume 9

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Opportunities And Challenges Seeking Accountability For War Crimes In Palestine Under The International Criminal Court's Complementarity Regime, Thomas Obel Hansen 2019 Transitional Justice Institute at Ulster University, Belfast, UK

Opportunities And Challenges Seeking Accountability For War Crimes In Palestine Under The International Criminal Court's Complementarity Regime, Thomas Obel Hansen

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The International Criminal Court (ICC) is currently conducting a preliminary examination of the situation in Palestine, involving allegations against Israeli authorities and military personnel as well as what the Prosecutor refers to as “Palestinian armed groups.” The preliminary examination creates a framework for advancing accountability norms in the Palestinian context and globally for international crimes committed by States with significant resources. However, the road to accountability is anything but straightforward. Indeed, several challenges relating both to the applicable legal framework and broader policy issues, could delay—or potentially even undermine—the accountability process, if not properly understood and managed. One ...


Protecting Internally Displaced Children In Armed Conflicts: Nigeria In Focus, Olaitan O. Olusegun Dr. (Mrs.), Adedokun Ogunfolu Dr. 2019 Department of Jurisprudence and Private Law, Faculty of Law, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State

Protecting Internally Displaced Children In Armed Conflicts: Nigeria In Focus, Olaitan O. Olusegun Dr. (Mrs.), Adedokun Ogunfolu Dr.

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

Internal displacement, especially of children, is a common consequence of armed conflict. Children who become internally displaced as a result of armed conflict face significant trauma due to their vulnerability, in addition to the fact that many of them lose their parents before being moved to internal displacement camps. Moreover, the conditions of some of these camps are not favorable and may affect children’s health and wellbeing. Internally displaced children therefore need protection and care by the national governments of affected countries, with support from the international community. However, Nigeria has not effectively protected children who have been displaced ...


The Necessity Of Human Rights Legal Protections In Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty Reform, Christine Galvagna 2019 Global Public Policy Institute, Berlin

The Necessity Of Human Rights Legal Protections In Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty Reform, Christine Galvagna

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

Mutual legal assistance treaty (MLAT) reform is a transnational legal movement aimed at facilitating more rapid law enforcement access to cross-border data, while also preventing violations of state sovereignty through the exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction over data. Efforts primarily focus on the United States (U.S.) mutual legal assistance (MLA) process, as it is exceedingly slow and convoluted, but also unavoidable, given that most major tech companies have their bases in the U.S. Recently proposed or enacted legal instruments include the U.S. CLOUD Act, the European Union’s (EU) e-Evidence proposal, Council of Europe’s forthcoming Additional Protocol ...


Funding Mental Healthcare In The Wake Of Deinstitutionalization: How The United States And The United Kingdom Diverged In Mental Health Policy After Deinstitutionalization, And What We Can Learn From Their Differing Approaches To Funding Mental Healthcare, Catherine Ryan Gawron 2019 University of Notre Dame Law School

Funding Mental Healthcare In The Wake Of Deinstitutionalization: How The United States And The United Kingdom Diverged In Mental Health Policy After Deinstitutionalization, And What We Can Learn From Their Differing Approaches To Funding Mental Healthcare, Catherine Ryan Gawron

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

Deinstitutionalization was a mass movement away from institutional-focused mental healthcare in the mid-to-late twentieth century, which changed the dynamic of mental healthcare service provision in both the United States and United Kingdom. This Note analyzes the history and effects of deinstitutionalization on subsequent mental healthcare policy in those two nations, highlighting the key role of funding in shaping the success of mental health policy and programming.

The focus on mental healthcare funding structures provides a lens to analyze the differences in financial funding, resource allocation, infrastructure development of community-based or alternative care services, and government and social support of mental ...


Family Leave: Comparing The United States' Family And Medical Leave Act With Sweden's Parental Leave Policy, Mallory Campbell 2019 University of Notre Dame Law School

Family Leave: Comparing The United States' Family And Medical Leave Act With Sweden's Parental Leave Policy, Mallory Campbell

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

This Article focuses on parental leave in the United States, which mostly relies on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and compares it to parental leave policies in other countries, particularly Sweden. While the FMLA has many drawbacks, Sweden and other countries have robust and progressive leave plans that the United States should look to in amending the FMLA or adopting a new parental leave policy.


If It Looks Like A Duck ... : Private International Arbitral Bodies Are Adjudicatory Tribunals Under 28 U.S.C. § 1782(A), Brandon Hasbrouck 2019 Selected Works

If It Looks Like A Duck ... : Private International Arbitral Bodies Are Adjudicatory Tribunals Under 28 U.S.C. § 1782(A), Brandon Hasbrouck

Brandon Hasbrouck

No abstract provided.


The Chinese Law Of Secured Transactions In Personal Property At A Crossroads: An Analysis And Suggestions, Boris Kozolchyk 2019 University of Miami Law School

The Chinese Law Of Secured Transactions In Personal Property At A Crossroads: An Analysis And Suggestions, Boris Kozolchyk

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Improving The Odds: Strengthening The Prospects For Accountability In The Syrian Conflict By Regulating The Marketplace For Information On Atrocity Crimes, Kaitlin Owens 2019 University of Miami Law School

Improving The Odds: Strengthening The Prospects For Accountability In The Syrian Conflict By Regulating The Marketplace For Information On Atrocity Crimes, Kaitlin Owens

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Process & Industrial Developments Limited V. Nigeria: Exception Under The Fsia When Award Has Been Set Aside By A Court Of The Country “Under The Law Of Which” The Award Was Made, Ndifreke Uwem 2019 University of Miami Law School

Process & Industrial Developments Limited V. Nigeria: Exception Under The Fsia When Award Has Been Set Aside By A Court Of The Country “Under The Law Of Which” The Award Was Made, Ndifreke Uwem

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

In March 2018, Process & Industrial Developments Limited (P&ID) filed a petition at the United States District Court for the District of Columbia to confirm an arbitral award against the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The proceedings were conducted in three phases – jurisdictional, liability, and damages. The arbitration provision in the underlying contract hardly represented a model of clarity. It provided for the application of the Nigerian arbitration act to any dispute between the parties. On the other hand, it specified London as the “venue” of the proceedings. This posed a problem as to whether Nigeria was the juridical seat of ...


Consenting To Counterclaims Under The Icsid Convention, Harshad Pathak 2019 Pepperdine University

Consenting To Counterclaims Under The Icsid Convention, Harshad Pathak

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Counterclaims in investment treaty arbitration hold immense significance. Counterclaims have the potential to nullify biases and bolster the confidence of States in investment treaty arbitration. That being said, the multitude of jurisdictional hurdles faced by counterclaims under the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID Convention) risk dampening the aforementioned potential. It is two of these hurdles emanating from the consensual nature of arbitration that I address herein. Part II of this article commences by analyzing the provisions of the ICSID Convention to derive the prerequisites of a valid counterclaim in investment ...


Houston, We Have An Arbitration: International Arbitration’S Role In Resolving Commercial Aerospace Disputes, Carson W. Bennett 2019 Pepperdine University

Houston, We Have An Arbitration: International Arbitration’S Role In Resolving Commercial Aerospace Disputes, Carson W. Bennett

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article explores the complimentary nature between the burgeoning private aerospace industry and international arbitration, as well as detailing how it could be advantageous to resolve these aerospace disputes in California. Part II outlines the new space race. It begins with the Ansari XPrize and follows some of the industry’s most significant developments. Part III explores the benefits of arbitration and how the characteristics of international arbitral proceedings cater to the common concerns of aerospace companies. Part IV catalogues the initiatives arbitral institutions have taken to customize an arbitration for aerospace disputes. This article argues that a specialized institution ...


The Singapore Convention On Mediation: A Framework For The Cross-Border Recognition And Enforcement Of Mediated Settlements, Timothy Schnabel 2019 Pepperdine University

The Singapore Convention On Mediation: A Framework For The Cross-Border Recognition And Enforcement Of Mediated Settlements, Timothy Schnabel

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article attempts to provide a definitive overview of the text, structure, history, and purpose of the Singapore Convention on Mediation (also known as the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation), a new multilateral treaty developed by the U.N. Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). The Convention, scheduled to open for signature in August 2019, provides a uniform, efficient framework for the recognition and enforcement of mediated settlement agreements that resolve international, commercial disputes — akin to the framework that the 1958 New York Convention provides for arbitral awards. Unlike the other primary international organizations that ...


If The Shoe Fits: Rethinking Minimum Contacts And The Fsia Commercial Activity Exception, Jacqueline M. Fitch 2019 Washington and Lee University School of Law

If The Shoe Fits: Rethinking Minimum Contacts And The Fsia Commercial Activity Exception, Jacqueline M. Fitch

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

The question explored in this Note is whether, under the direct effect clause of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act commercial activities exception, a foreign sovereign must have minimum contacts with the United States in order for a U.S. court to assert personal jurisdiction over the entity. Examining personal jurisdiction over foreign states under the direct effect clause requires exploring the interaction between constitutional law and principles of international law. The minimum contacts analysis highlights the tension between applying constitutional due process protection to a foreign state, while simultaneously asserting jurisdiction over its commercial activities. Denying jurisdiction over a foreign ...


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