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Establishing The Mens Rea Of Genocide Within "Sub-Intentions": A Study Of Systematic Sexual Violence In Myanmar And Bosnia, Perry Joseph Zirpoli 2019 Fordham University

Establishing The Mens Rea Of Genocide Within "Sub-Intentions": A Study Of Systematic Sexual Violence In Myanmar And Bosnia, Perry Joseph Zirpoli

Senior Theses

The aim of this study is to investigate how sexual violence rises to the level of genocide. The thesis puts the ongoing conflict in Myanmar between the Rohingya and Buddhist majority into discussion with the Bosnian conflict between Serbs and Bosnian Muslims during the Yugoslav Wars. In discussing the nature of these two conflicts, this thesis will provide evidence that sexual violence can rise to the level of genocide when it is used to interfere with the free reproduction of a group. The thesis will demonstrate that sexual violence was perpetrated in these conflicts with overall intent to homogenize the ...


Improving The Odds: Strengthening The Prospects For Accountability In The Syrian Conflict By Regulating The Marketplace For Information On Atrocity Crimes, Kaitlin Owens 2019 University of Miami Law School

Improving The Odds: Strengthening The Prospects For Accountability In The Syrian Conflict By Regulating The Marketplace For Information On Atrocity Crimes, Kaitlin Owens

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


North Korean Defectors In South Korea And Asylum Seekers In The United States: A Comparison, Emma Poorman 2019 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

North Korean Defectors In South Korea And Asylum Seekers In The United States: A Comparison, Emma Poorman

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

North Korean defectors are considered citizens of South Korea under the South Korean Constitution, while others that flee violence gain the legal status of “refugee.” North Korean defectors, who attempt to escape one of the worst human rights crisis in the world, find themselves in a unique situation. What benefits does this status have? How are refugees typically treated abroad, such as in the United States? This Comment will explore this unique status, how it differs from refugee status in the United States, and the challenges North Korean defectors face in South Korea.


Indeterminacy In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Adil Ahmad Haque 2019 Rutgers Law School

Indeterminacy In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Adil Ahmad Haque

International Law Studies

Controversy and confusion pervade the law of armed conflict. Its most basic rules may seem ambiguous, vague, incomplete, or inconsistent. The prevailing view of customary international law confronts serious problems, in principle and in practice, when applied to the customary law of armed conflict. Legal indeterminacy, in its different forms, might be reduced or resolved in light of the object and purpose of the law of armed conflict, or by taking into account other relevant rules of international law. Unfortunately, the purpose of the law of armed conflict is itself the subject of deep disagreement. So is the relationship between ...


A Credible Fear: The Politics Of Gang Violence In The Northern Triangle, Jane E. Dowd 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Credible Fear: The Politics Of Gang Violence In The Northern Triangle, Jane E. Dowd

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis will create an argument for how the victims of gang violence from the Northern Triangle nations of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras qualify for asylum in the United States based on a well-founded fear of persecution. An analysis of the legal framework of the asylum system in the United States, profiles of the two largest gangs in the Northern Triangle the Mara Salvatrucha and Barrio 18, a profile of the asylum seekers arriving at the United States border, the criminal activity that the gangs engage in, and the way that this activity is political in nature will form ...


The Effect Of Globalization On The National Criminal Law Systems, Shirin Ahmadi Dastjerdi, Abbas Sheikholeslami 2019 University of Isfahan

The Effect Of Globalization On The National Criminal Law Systems, Shirin Ahmadi Dastjerdi, Abbas Sheikholeslami

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Globalization has influenced many human life scopes with a variety of tools, which the cyberspace playing the most role. Although both cyberspace and globalization have had many benefits to human life, both as a tool and as a process, they have been able to assist offenders to bring crime into the cyberspace without any trouble. Therefore, today criminologists discuss the globalized world of crime. Although, the processes of homogenization and globalization have been precious to human beings, should not be overlooked. In this article, the author has tried to explain the cybercrime in the age of globalization, with an emphasis ...


Reputation As A Disciplinarian Of International Organizations, Kristina Daugirdas 2019 University of Michigan Law School

Reputation As A Disciplinarian Of International Organizations, Kristina Daugirdas

Articles

As a disciplinarian of international organizations, reputation has serious shortcomings. Even though international organizations have strong incentives to maintain a good reputation, reputational concerns will sometimes fail to spur preventive or corrective action. Organizations have multiple audiences, so efforts to preserve a “good” reputation may pull organizations in many different directions, and steps taken to preserve a good reputation will not always be salutary. Recent incidents of sexual violence by UN peacekeepers in the Central African Republic illustrate these points.


Editor's Introduction, 2019 University of South Florida

Editor's Introduction

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Raphaël Lemkin’S Derivation Of Genocide From His Analysis Of Nazi-Occupied Europe, Raffael Scheck 2019 Colby College

Raphaël Lemkin’S Derivation Of Genocide From His Analysis Of Nazi-Occupied Europe, Raffael Scheck

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The breadth and complexity of Lemkin’s definition of “genocide” results from several influences during the time he developed the concept. One of them is a belief that Nazi Germany was engineering a demographic revolution that would leave Germany predominant in Europe regardless of the outcome of the military conflict. This notion facilitated the assumption of a coherent cynical motivation behind disparate policies, laws, and decrees. Second, Lemkin’s daily work for the U.S. Government reinforced his focus on economic and legal matters and helps to explain why they occupy such a prominent place in his book Axis Rule ...


Doors To Safety: Exit West, Refugee Resettlement, And The Right To Asylum, Betsy L. Fisher 2019 International Refugee Assistance Project

Doors To Safety: Exit West, Refugee Resettlement, And The Right To Asylum, Betsy L. Fisher

Michigan Law Review

Review of Mohsin Hamid's Exit West.


The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller 2019 University of Bern, Switzerland

The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Nuremberg’s prosecutors prominently used Lemkin’s genocide concept. They also dealt in detail with the mass murder of Europe’s Jews. However, for them ‘genocide’ and the Holocaust were not congruent. They used different definitions of Lemkin’s concept and interpreted the relationship between the mass murder of the European Jews and the entire mass violence of the Nazis differently. Lemkin had little influence on the application of his concept in the Nuremberg trials between 1945 and 1949. The implementation of the 1948 United Nations Genocide Convention put an end to the broad use of the original concept from ...


Responsibility In Building Rule Of Law: Kosovo Challenges, Avdullah Robaj, Sabiha Shala 2019 University of Haxhi Zeka

Responsibility In Building Rule Of Law: Kosovo Challenges, Avdullah Robaj, Sabiha Shala

International Journal on Responsibility

The principle of the rule of law is one of the most important and essential principles for any state and for democratic society. Its fullest realization in everyday life is the best guarantee for development of democracy and recognition and enforcement of citizens' fundamental rights and freedoms. To this end, the general principles of the rule of law today occupy a special place and are fixed explicitly in contemporary constitutions and democratic legislation. The well-known countries of Western democracies have long established a rich and valuable legacy in this regard. When exploring the contours and details about establishing the rule ...


International Criminal Responsibility In Kosovo: Establishment Of The International Criminal Court – De Lege Lata, De Lege Ferenda, Mujë Ukaj, Qendresa Jasharaj 2019 University of Haxhi Zeka

International Criminal Responsibility In Kosovo: Establishment Of The International Criminal Court – De Lege Lata, De Lege Ferenda, Mujë Ukaj, Qendresa Jasharaj

International Journal on Responsibility

The Special Court of Kosovo (Kosovo Specialist Chambers and Specialist Prosecutor's Office) with headquarters in The Hague, is one of the biggest problems Kosovo faced since the declaration of independence. This topic has been treated very little in scientific terms, while in the media it is written very much, calling it harmful to Kosovo, and even had opinions that it is a racist court since the same will initially only judge the KLA (Kosovo Liberation Army) members for alleged war crimes in Kosovo. The Special Court of Kosovo is presented as a sui generis case in the practice of ...


Beyond Geneva: Detainee Review Processes In Non-International Armed Conflict—A U.S. Perspective, Ryan J. Vogel 2019 Utah Valley University

Beyond Geneva: Detainee Review Processes In Non-International Armed Conflict—A U.S. Perspective, Ryan J. Vogel

International Law Studies

The need for detainee review in non-international armed conflict has never been more imperative. Yet, the law of armed conflict is almost completely silent on the subject. Although the law may not require States to conduct detainee review processes in non-international armed conflict, the spirit of the law encourages it, and States—particularly the United States—have begun to see utility in the development and implementation of such review processes. The object of this article is to identify an appropriate framework for detainee review, examine relevant U.S. state practice, and provide practical guidelines for implementing processes to review the ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2019 Seattle University School of Law

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin 2019 U.S. Naval War College

Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin

International Law Studies

The potential for urban violence is increasing as the world population continues to migrate towards cities. Recent examples of urban warfare with insurgent groups has occurred in Damascus, Mosul, Raqqa, Marawi, Ramadi, and Fallujah, although non-State actor conflict covers a wide range of violence from ordinary crime, to terrorism and transnational crime, to near conventional conflict. Further, transnational terrorist groups have sought to extend the conflict into countries seen as the “far enemy.” A key issue is determining if an armed conflict is in existence so that the protective focus of international humanitarian law regarding the provision of medical care ...


Fighting Novel Diseases Amidst Humanitarian Crises, Lawrence O. Gostin, Neil R. Sircar, Eric A. Friedman 2019 Georgetown University Law Center

Fighting Novel Diseases Amidst Humanitarian Crises, Lawrence O. Gostin, Neil R. Sircar, Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Humanitarian crises are becoming more prevalent and, frequently, more complex, in zones of mis-governance, lack of government presence, and even active conflict, marked by public mistrust and insecurity. The WHO and other health emergency responders lack the capacities and mandate to adequately respond. The current Ebola outbreak in an area of an active insurgency in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is just such a crisis. The State Department has banned U.S. personnel from the outbreak zone due to safety concerns, leaving the population feeling abandoned, potentially increasing the threat to the few brave health workers who remain.

We ...


International Criminal Court Comes Of Age, Nancy Amoury Combs 2019 William & Mary Law School

International Criminal Court Comes Of Age, Nancy Amoury Combs

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto 2019 University of Maine School of Law

Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

Transshipment, the process of transferring catch from a small fishing vessel onto a larger fishing vessel far off shore, has been used to commit a variety of human rights abuses on the sea. Companies can get away with this because there is little to no oversight over the activities. Yet, there has been little to no incentive to change these practices, because companies are generally not penalized for these actions. The author proposes a variety of tactics be implemented in addressing these concerns. These include imposition of sanctions upon countries who allow for nefarious activities, increased video surveillance on board ...


Humanitarian Logic And The Law Of Siege: A Study Of The Oxford Guidance On Relief Actions, Sean Watts 2019 Creighton University School of Law

Humanitarian Logic And The Law Of Siege: A Study Of The Oxford Guidance On Relief Actions, Sean Watts

International Law Studies

In terms of human suffering, few military operations have rivaled sieges and comparably harsh legal regimes have governed them. At a time when legal vindication of humanitarian interests in armed conflict is ascendant, conventional accounts of the law of war governing humanitarian relief may seem out of step, plagued with glaring gaps in humanitarian logic. In 2016, Oxford University professors published a United Nations-commissioned legal study—the Oxford Guidance on the Law Relating to Humanitarian Relief Operations in Situations of Armed Conflict. The Guidance contends that during armed conflict international law prohibits belligerents from arbitrarily denying offers of humanitarian relief ...


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