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Public Non-Commercial Use' Compulsory Licensing For Pharmaceutical Drugs In Government Health Care Programs, Pier DeRoo 2011 University of Michigan Law School

Public Non-Commercial Use' Compulsory Licensing For Pharmaceutical Drugs In Government Health Care Programs, Pier Deroo

Michigan Journal of International Law

Suppose a relatively prosperous nation with universal public health coverage faces an HIV/AIDS crisis. It refuses to negotiate with the patent-holding manufacturers of the best antiretrovirals (ARVs) available, instead issuing compulsory licenses. Compulsory licenses permit the generic drug manufacturers designated in the compulsory licenses to make, use, import, and sell the patented ARVs without the permission of the patent owners, increasing competition and lowering prices. Realizing that drugs are much cheaper without patents, the nation decides to issue another round of compulsory licenses for an extensive list of patented drugs for its universal health care program. While improving public ...


Antitrust And Patent Law Analysis Of Pharmaceutical Reverse Payment Settlements, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2011 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Antitrust And Patent Law Analysis Of Pharmaceutical Reverse Payment Settlements, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Patent settlements in which the patentee pays the alleged infringer to stay out of the market are largely a consequence of the Hatch-Waxman Act, which was designed to facilitate the entry of generic drugs by providing the first generic producer to challenge a pioneer drug patent with a 180 day period of exclusivity. This period can be extended by a settlement even if the generic is not producing, and in any event all subsequent generic firms are denied the 180 day exclusivity period, significantly reducing their incentive to enter.

The Circuit Courts of Appeal are split three ways over such ...


Conference Highlight-Northstar Award: Spotlight On Angela Davis , Jamin Raskin, Cynthia Jones 2011 Selected Works

Conference Highlight-Northstar Award: Spotlight On Angela Davis , Jamin Raskin, Cynthia Jones

Jamin Raskin

No abstract provided.


Spatial Distribution Of Commercial Banks In Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria, I B. Abdullahi, M A. Ijaiya, A Abdulraheem, R I. Abdulkadir, R O. Ibrahim 2011 University of Ilorin, Nigeria

Spatial Distribution Of Commercial Banks In Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria, I B. Abdullahi, M A. Ijaiya, A Abdulraheem, R I. Abdulkadir, R O. Ibrahim

Confluence Journal of Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

The spatial distribution of banks in any geographic entity determines the level of accessibility to its services by the public. This study examined the pattern of banks distribution in Ilorin metropolis. Field survey was employed in determining the number of available commercial banks and their respective distances between each other. The spatial analysis technique such as the nearest neighbour analysis as used ascertain the degree of clustering, density and the average distance taken to access these services. The study revealed that about 96% of the total number of banks are situated in the Central Business District which exhibited a very ...


Blood Transfusions, Jehovah’S Witnesses, And The American Patients’ Rights Movement, Charles H. Baron 2011 Boston College Law School

Blood Transfusions, Jehovah’S Witnesses, And The American Patients’ Rights Movement, Charles H. Baron

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The litigation to protect Jehovah’s Witnesses from unwanted blood transfusions, which their theology considers a violation of the biblical prohibition against drinking blood, has produced important changes in both the right to refuse treatment and in the preferred treatment methods of all patients. This article traces the evolution of the rights of competent medical patients in the United States to refuse medical treatment. It also discusses the impact this litigation has had on the medical community’s realization that blood transfusions were neither as safe nor as medically necessary as medical culture posited.


Whipping A Game On Fellons: The Atf "Stash House" Cases, Tom McGettrick 2011 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Whipping A Game On Fellons: The Atf "Stash House" Cases, Tom Mcgettrick

Public Interest Law Reporter

No abstract provided.


Drug Tests For Welfare: Saving Taxpayer Money Or Flushing It Down The Drain?, Michelle Yoder 2011 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Drug Tests For Welfare: Saving Taxpayer Money Or Flushing It Down The Drain?, Michelle Yoder

Public Interest Law Reporter

No abstract provided.


Adaptive Responses To Flooding Incidents In Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria, Habiba I. Jimoh, Kayode A. Iroye 2011 University of Ilorin

Adaptive Responses To Flooding Incidents In Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria, Habiba I. Jimoh, Kayode A. Iroye

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Incidents of floods which are mainly caused by changes in landuse is fast becoming a city life experience in Ilorin as in most urban centres in Nigeria causing untold hardships and sometimes loss of lives. This extreme hydro-meteorological event is also being exacerbated by climate change which thus calls for adaptive response by residents towards reducing its risks, hence this study. Data used were generated from direct field measurements and questionnaire administration. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used in analyzing the data. Results obtained indicate that most respondents use a wide range of non-structural adaptive response to flood. The ...


An Assessment Of Socio-Economic Impact Of Waste Scavenging As A Means Of Poverty Alleviation In Gwagwalada, Abuja., John Yakubu Magaji, Samuel Panse Dakyes 2011 University of Abuja

An Assessment Of Socio-Economic Impact Of Waste Scavenging As A Means Of Poverty Alleviation In Gwagwalada, Abuja., John Yakubu Magaji, Samuel Panse Dakyes

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Waste scavengers are usually perceived as being among the poor, and scavenging is considered a marginal activity. They tend to have low incomes, but can obtained decent earning when they are not exploited by middlemen. This study was conducted in Gwagwalada town with the aim of assessing the socio-economic impact of scavenging on the people. A structured questionnaire was constructed to capture the demographic characteristics of the scavengers, their experiences, types of items scavenged, the economic gains and the challenges being faced. The target pollution is waste scavengers and a random sampling technique was adopted in selecting the respondents for ...


Innovation Cooperation: Energy Biosciences And Law, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson 2011 SelectedWorks

Innovation Cooperation: Energy Biosciences And Law, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

This Article analyzes the development and dissemination of environmentally sound technologies that can address climate change. Climate change poses catastrophic health and security risks on a global scale. Universities, individual innovators, private firms, civil society, governments, and the United Nations can unite in the common goal to address climate change. This Article recommends means by which legal, scientific, engineering, and a host of other public and private actors can bring environmentally sound innovation into widespread use to achieve sustainable development. In particular, universities can facilitate this collaboration by fostering global innovation and diffusion networks.


Combating Hunger Home And Away: Tracing America's $600 Million Price Tag For Safeguarding The Right To Food In The Horn Of Africa, Natnael Moges 2011 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Combating Hunger Home And Away: Tracing America's $600 Million Price Tag For Safeguarding The Right To Food In The Horn Of Africa, Natnael Moges

Public Interest Law Reporter

No abstract provided.


Drug Policy In Context: Rhetoric And Practice In The United States And The United Kingdom, Richard C. Boldt 2011 University of Maryland School of Law

Drug Policy In Context: Rhetoric And Practice In The United States And The United Kingdom, Richard C. Boldt

Faculty Scholarship

The history of narcotics use and drug control in the U.S. before passage of the Harrison Act in 1914 is similar in important respects to that in the U.K. during the same period. Although the two countries’ paths diverged significantly over the ensuing decades, there has been a convergence of sorts in recent years. In the United States, the trend lines have moved from an active “war on drugs” in which criminal enforcement and punishment have been the primary rhetorical and practical instruments of policy to an evolving approach, at least at the federal level, characterized by a ...


Warning, This Decision Will Increase The Cost Of Prescription Drugs: How The Supreme Court’S Misapplication Of Preemption Doctrine In Wyeth V. Levine Portends Devastating Consequences For Oklahoma, Tyler R. Barrett 2011 University of Oklahoma College of Law

Warning, This Decision Will Increase The Cost Of Prescription Drugs: How The Supreme Court’S Misapplication Of Preemption Doctrine In Wyeth V. Levine Portends Devastating Consequences For Oklahoma, Tyler R. Barrett

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


Enough Rope: Why United States V. White Plume Was Wrong On Hemp And Treaty Rights, And What It Could Cost The Federal Government, Lori Murphy 2011 University of Oklahoma College of Law

Enough Rope: Why United States V. White Plume Was Wrong On Hemp And Treaty Rights, And What It Could Cost The Federal Government, Lori Murphy

American Indian Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Food Safety Modernization Act: Keeping Dinner Safe And Farmers In The Fields, Sarah K. Baker 2011 University of Kentucky

The Food Safety Modernization Act: Keeping Dinner Safe And Farmers In The Fields, Sarah K. Baker

Kentucky Journal of Equine, Agriculture, & Natural Resources Law

No abstract provided.


Winter 2011 Utton Center Newsletter, Utton Center, UNM School of Law 2011 University of New Mexico

Winter 2011 Utton Center Newsletter, Utton Center, Unm School Of Law

Publications

No abstract provided.


Did The Fda Properly Assess The Safety Of Olestra As A Food Additive?, Leah Lebel 2011 Touro College

Did The Fda Properly Assess The Safety Of Olestra As A Food Additive?, Leah Lebel

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

The following is an excerpt of the introduction to this article: Olestra, a fat-substitute comprised of sucrose that has been esterified with fatty acids (Blume 1995), has been the subject of much controversy ever since its creation. Olestra is not absorbed (Mattson and Nolen 1972) because it cannot be hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipases (Mattson and Volpenhein 1972) or taken up across the enterocyte microvillus membrane (Freston et al. 1997), and thus, cannot be utilized for energy. Olestra has physical and organoleptic properties similar to those of traditional triglycerides (Jandacek and Webb 1978) and is emulsified together with triglyceride (Freston et ...


Three Statutory Regimes At Impasse: Reverse Payments In Pay-For-Delay Settlement Agreements Between Brand-Name And Generic Drug Companies, Rudolph J.R. Peritz 2011 New York Law School

Three Statutory Regimes At Impasse: Reverse Payments In Pay-For-Delay Settlement Agreements Between Brand-Name And Generic Drug Companies, Rudolph J.R. Peritz

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Protecting Scientific Integrity: The Commercial Speech Doctrine Applied To Industry Publications, Joanna K. Sax 2011 California Western School of Law

Protecting Scientific Integrity: The Commercial Speech Doctrine Applied To Industry Publications, Joanna K. Sax

Faculty Scholarship

Pharmaceutical companies face increasing pressure to bring new treatments to market in order to survive. The economic reality of survival and profits may distort a company’s decision-making process regarding full disclosure on a particular new drug.

Part II of this article analyzes the publication tactics employed by some members of the pharmaceutical industry (hereinafter “industry”) and explains how some of the publications promote misleading information. Part III proposes policy recommendations to require accurate dissemination of the results of clinical trials in order to protect scientific integrity and the public welfare. Part IV of this article addresses whether industry publications ...


Patents, Genetically Modified Foods, And Ip Overreaching, Elizabeth A. Rowe 2011 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Patents, Genetically Modified Foods, And Ip Overreaching, Elizabeth A. Rowe

UF Law Faculty Publications

Genetically engineered plants and animals have become and will continue to constitute a large part of the food we consume. The United States is the world's largest producer of genetically modified foods, making American consumers the most exposed population to these products. Agricultural biotechnology patents spur and support innovation. Accordingly, patent law is one of the main contributors to this phenomenon that has changed not only the kinds of food we eat, but the nature of the agri-business industry that produces these foods. This Article takes on an area of concern involving the patenting of food that has remained ...


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